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I CO 
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00 PREFACE 



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This volume is an attempt to produce a book of reference, 
famisliing, in a condensed form, some biographical particulars 
of notable living men. The leading idea has been to give 
only facts, and those in the briefest form, and to exclude 
opinions. While the book went through the press, many changes 
occurred, which must to some extent account for errors and 
imperfections, as well in inserting the names of dead as omitting 
those of living persons. A number of omissions have been 
rectified in the Appendix. 

F. M. 



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GONTEMPORAKY BIOGRAPHY. 



Aas Aeh 

AASEN^ iTar Andreas^ Norwegian philologist, U at Oeraten, Aug. 6, 1818 ; electod 

member of the Norw. Academy of Sciences, 1860. Author of 'Det norske Folkesprog 

Grammatik,' Cbristiania, 1848; 'Ordlx^ over norske Folkesprog,' ib. 1850; * Norske 

Ordsprog/ ib. 1856 ; and other philological works. 

ABADIE, Paul, French architect, b. at Bordeaux, July 22, 1788; appointed diocesan 
architect of the sees of Angoul^mo and Perigueux. 1858. Designed the Palais de Justice 
and mansion of the prefect at AngoulSme, with other edifices in the Gothic style. 



BSOTT. Jacob, American author, b. at HaUowel, Maine, in 1808 ; took the degree of 
doctor of theolo^ at the college of Andover in 1827. Author of * The Young Cliristian,* 
Boston, 1825 ; * Ilie Comer Stone/ ib. 1826 ; and various other volumes of ' !nie Toung 
Cliristian Series.' 



% Jolm, American author, brother of the preceding, b. at HaUowel, Maine, 
in 1806 ; appointed minister of the Independent Congregationalist body, 1827. Author 
of 'Kings and Queens, or Life in a Palace,' New York, 1839; *The Mother at Home,' 
lb. 1845; and *Life of Napoleon,' 2 vols. ib. 1855. 

ABD-EIa-KADER, Sidi-el-Ha^JipOBled-Maliiddln, Arab chieftain, b. near 
Mascara, Algeria, 1807 ; besi^ed Oian, 1832 ; acknowledged Emir of Mascara by the 
French government, 1834 ; ordered a massacre of Europeans, 183P ; driven into the ter- 
ritory of the Sultan of Morocco ; taken captive by the French troops, 1843 ; imprisoned 
in the castle of Pau, 1844-48 ; and in the castle of Amboise, 1848-52 ; released by oider 
of Napoleon III. and retired to Damascus, Dec. 2, 1852. 

ABDUIf-AZIZ, Sultan of Turkey, thirty-second, in male descent, of the house of 
Othman ; b. at Constantinople, Feb. 9, 1880, ttie second son of Sultan Mahmoud II. ; 
succeeded to the throne at the death of his brother. Sultan Abdul-Medjid, June 25, 1861. 

ABOIJT^ Bdmond Fraaqois, French author, b. at Dieuze, Meurthe, Feb. 14, 1828 ; 
educated at the Lyc^e Charlema^e, Paris, and at the £iCole frauQaise, Athens, 1843-58. 
Author of 'La Gr6ce contemporaine,' Paris, 1856; *Les Mariages de Paris,' ib. 1856; 
'Gtermaine,' ib. 1857; 'TrenteetQuarante, ib. 1868; 'La Question Bomaine,' Brussels, 
1860 ; and numerous comedies, dramas, and political pamphlets. 

ABB AH AM S, Nicholas Christiaii. Danish archseologist, b. at Copenhagen, 
Sept. 6, 1798: appointed professor at the University of Copenhagen, 1829. Author of 
* De Roberti Waci carmine quod inscribitur Brutus,' Copenhagen, 1828 ; and * Balthasari 
Castilionei aulici liber tertius secundum veterem versionem gfdlicam,' ib. 1848. 

ACHARD, Ame'de'e; French author, b. at Marseilles, Apr. 9, 1814 ; appointed secre- 
tary of the prefect of Herault, 1835 ; secretary of the Duke de Montpensier, son of Louis 
Philippe, 1846. Author of * Lettres Parisiennes,' Paris, 1846 ; * La Chasse Royale,' 7 vols. 
ib. 1849-50 ; and numerous dramatic pieces and pamphlets. 

ACHENBACH, Andreas^ German painter, b. at Cassel, Sept. 29, 1815 ; studied at 

Diisseldorf under Schadow, 1884-39. Painted 'Coast of Scheveningen, Holland,' 1861 ; 

' Shore of Ostend at high water,' 1864 ; and numerous other landscapes and architectural 

views. 
ACHENBACH* Oswald, German painter, brother of the preceding, b. at Diisseldorf, 

Feb. 2, 1827. Painted 'Pilgrims going to Rome.' 1868; "The Mole at Naples,' 1859; 

'Monument to Cecilia MeteUa,' 1864; and many other, chiefly Italian, views. 



Ach HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. A in 

[ 2 ] 



ACHTERMANN, Wilhelm^ Germau sculptor, b. at Mlinster, Aug. 15, 1799; 
studied at Berlin under Ranch, 1831-33. Sculptor of the ' Descent from the Cross ' in 
the cathedral of Miinster. 

ACIiANO. Henry Wentteorth, English physician and sanitary reformer, b. 1815; 
studied at Christ Church, Oxford, and took the degree of M.D. 1848 ; appointed physi- 
cian to the Radcliffe Intirmary, 1849. Author of several books and pamphlets on 
sanitary matters. 

ADALBERT, Prince Of Prussia, German admiral and author, b. at Berlin, 
Oct. 29, 1811 ; entered the Prussian army in 1827. but quitted it in 1832, setting out on 
a course of travels through Europe, Asia, and America ; appointed high admiral of the 
North German navy, 1867. Author of ' Aus meineui Reisetagebuche,' Berlin, 1842 ; and 
' Denkschrifb iiber die Bildung einer deutschen Flotte,' lb. 1848. 

ADAM, Jean Victor, French painter, b. at Paris, Feb. 29, 1801 ; educated at the Paris 
Bcole des Beaux-arts, 1817-19. Painted * Henry IV. after the battle of Coutras,' 1837 ; 
* Entry of the French into Mayence,' 1838 ; and numerous battle-pieces exhibited at the 
Museum of Versailles. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, American statesman, b. at Boston, Mass., in 1807, the 
son of John Quincy Adams, President of the United States ; studied jurisprudence, and 
became barrister at Boston in 1828 ; elected member of the Senate of Massachusetts, 
1844 : elected member of the Congress of the United States, 1858 ; appointed American 
envoy to Great Britain, March, 1861, resigned Feb. 1868. Author of *Life and Works of 
John Adams,' Boston, 1846 ; and 'Letters of Mrs. Adams,' ib. 1848. 

ADAMS, John Couch, English astronomer, b. at Bodmin, Cornwall, in 1817 ; studied 
at St John's College, Cambridge, and passed Senior Wrangler, 1843 ; discovered, simul- 
taneously with M. Le Verrier, the planet Neptune, 1S45 ; appointed Lowndean professor 
of astronomy at the University of Cambridge, 1858. Author of 'The observed irregularities 
in the motion of Uranus,' Cambri^e, 1847. 

ADDERIiEY, Rt. Hon. Charles Bowyer, English statesman, b. at Norton, Staf- 
fordshire, in 1814 ; studied at Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B. A. 1838 ; elected 
M.P. for the northern division of Staffordshire, 1841; president of the Board of Health, 
and vice-president of the Committee of Council of Education, 1858-59. Author of ' Trans- 
portation,' and several other pamphlets. 

ADEIiSWARD, Renanld Oscar, French author, b. at Longwy, Moselle, Dec. 18, 
1811 ; entered the French army, 1830 ; retired with the rank of captain, 1844 ; elected 
deputy to the National Assembly for the department of Meurthe, 1848. Author of * La 
Liberty de Conscience en SuMe,' Paris, 1861 ; and other works. 

ADHE'MAR, Alphonso Joseph, French mathematician, b. at Paris, Feb. 15, 1797. 
Author o ' Cours de Math^matique k I'usage de I'ing^nieur civil,' 18 vols. Paris, 1832-^6 ; 
and numerous elementary treatises on mathematics and civil engineering. 

ADOLF. Ex-Dnke of Nassau, b. July 24, 1817, the son of Duke William of Nassau ; 
succeeded to the throne at the death of his father, Aug. 20, 1839 ; deprived of his crown 
by the Prussian government, 1866. 

ADOLPHUS, Prince of Schanmburg-Lippe. bom Aug. 1, 1817. the son of Prince 
George and of Princess Ida of Waldeck ; succeeded to the throne at the death of his 
father, Nov. 21, 1860 ; married, Oct 25, 1844, to Hermina, Princess of Scha\imbuig-LippA, 
bom Sept. 29„1827, daughter of the late Prince George of Waldeck. 

ADRIAN. Johann Valentin, German author, b. at Aschaffenbnrg, Sept. 17, 1793 ; 
appointed professor of modem literature at the University of Giessen, 1824. Author of 
•Bilder aus England,' 2 vols. Frankfort, 1827-28; 'Die Priesteriunen der Griechen,' ib. 
1838; and 'Mittheilungen zttr Geschichte,' ib. 1846. Editor of a (German translation of 
the works of Lord Byron, 12 vols. Frankfort, 1837. 

AGASSIZ, lK>nis, American naturalist, b. at Orbe, canton de Vaud, Switzerland, 
May 28, 1807 ; studied medicine at Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich ; professor of natural 
history at Neufchatel, Switzerland, 1836-45 ; professor of zoology at Charleston, South 
Carolina, U.S. 1846-48 ; appointed profe^Jsor of natural history at New Cambridge, 
Boston, U.S. 1848. Author of 'Etudes sur les Glaciers,' Neufchatel, 1840; 'Zoological 
Bibliographv,' 4 vols. London, 1848-50; 'GrundzUge der Zoology,' Stuttgart, 1854 ; and 
numerous other works on natoral history. 

AINMUIiIiER, Maximilian Emmanuel, German artist, b. at Munich, 1807, 
painter on porcelain. Exhibited at Munich, 1848, 'Notre Dame' of Munich; 'The 
Church of St Mark at Venice ; ' ' The Chamber of Prelates at Strasbourg ;' and ditiwings 
of the interior of the chapel at Windsor ; and Westminster Abbey, 1849. 



HANDBOOK OP CONTEMFORART BIOGBArHT. 

-— [ s 1 



AINSWORTH, WlUlam Frandfl, Engliah trmvelTer wid r^^f'^JtSi 

November 8. 180T ; studied TiiQdIoine, and fcoW the degree ot H.D 11>!5- — - 
■ ReBearches in Assyria, Bil.jlonis, uiS CMld- ' >«.1» = ■Travels imd BrtMiebes i 






Greeks,' 1844; gnd other IkioIh of ttaveL 
AIN8WORTH, WlUiuu Harrlvcm, ErgllBh novelist trad ]o""i«""^ *_"' ""S"^ 

ohfstCT, Feb. 4, 1806. AHthor of -Sir John Chiverton,' LonJon. 18S5; K™"*'™., 

fb. 18S4; ••neXIsei'sDflugliter,' 1S43; -OWBt P(iiiVa/l943; • Windsor C^Ue IMS. 

'The Flltfili of Bacon,' 1854 ; ' Cardinal Pole,' 1B63; ami numeruosotberworltaotattloii, 

cbieBy hlslorieal roiuaneea, ^^^^^ 

ftlWn Thl^ir-^*— **— ^^^^**^ Roibni^hshlre. August Sn. l«nz : studied 

'" he 'EainbniKii WeekWoomirta-ons 

WortB.MMS. Edited 'Dr. Moil's 



^- 



Wlltihlre, 1806. Antbor of ' A De- 

apher, b Jan. 13, 1719; tii8truct«r 

Irt 'oV SwS™'^' e' "' *''" L"'"^' 
er topf^THphlcal works, 
n of the late Mr. Jonathan Aliroyd ■ 
i; M.P. for Hudderalleld, 1S6T-SB; 



Alb HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Ale 

'. [ 4 ] 



AIiBEMARLE, Geoifre Keppel. Earl oft English author; b. in London, 1799; 
entered the army, 1815; lient -colonel, 1841; colonel, 1854; major-general, 1858; M.P. 
for the county of Norfolk, 1832-35 ; for the borough of Ljrmington, 1847-60 ; succeeded 
to the title, 1851. Author of ' A Journey across the Balcan ; ' * A Journey from India 
to England ;' ' Memoirs of the Marquis of Rockingham.' 

AIAERDINGK THIJM, Joseph Anthony, Dutch writer, b. at Amsterdam, 
Aug. 13, 1820. Edited the ' Spectator,' 1842-4» ; ♦ Catholic Annual,* 1855-60. Author 
of 'Drie €ledichten,' 1844; 'De Klok van Delft, 1846; 'Het Toorgeborchte en andere 
Gedichten,' 1853 ; and other works. 

AIiBERS, John Frederick Hermann* German physician, b. at Dorsten, Prussia, 
Nov. 14, 1805 ; studied at the University of Bonn; took the degree of M.D. 1827 ; dean 
of the faculty, 1831 ; director of the Hospital for Foreigners at Bonn. Author of * Die 
Pathologic und Therapie der Eehlkopfskrankhelten,' Leipsic, 1829; 'Handbuch der 
Allgem. Arzneimittellehre,' Bonn, 1853 ; and other pathological and anatomical works. 

AIiBERT Ed'wrardy Prince of Wales, b. at Buckingham Talaee, TSov. 9, 1841 ; studied 
at Ekiinbnrgh, Oxford, and Cambridge^ colonel in 'the army, 1858; married, March 10, 
1863, to Princess Alexandra of Denmark. 

AIiBONIy Maria, Italian singer, b. at Torli, in the Papal' States, 1824 ; studied under 
Rossini ; made her d^but at the Theatre of Bolc^ma, 1839 : first appearance in London, 
1846 ; in Paris, 1847 ; married to Count Pepolo, of the 'Roman States ; retired from the 
stage, 1863. 

AIARECHT, WilUam Edward, German lawyer, b. at Elbing, Prussia, 180O ; 
studied law at the Universities of Konigsberg and Gottii^en; degree of LL.D. 1822 ; 
professor at Konigsberg,' 1829 ; at Gottingen, 1830 ; at Leipsic, 1840. Author of ' Com- 
mentatio Juris Germanici antiqui Doctrinaire de probationibus adumbrans,' Eonigsbei^g, 
1825-27. 

AIiBUFERA, Iionis Napoleon Sachet, Dixke of, French administrator; 
b. at Paris, May 28, 1813 ; entered the Polytechnic School. 1831 ; member of the 
Corps L6gislatif for "Evreux, 1853-56 ; mayor of Vernon, 1857-63 ; councillor-general of 
the Eure. 

AIiBUQUERQUE, Lnis'de Ahneida d', Tortuguese journalist, b. at Serpa, pro> 
vinee of Alemtejo, June 21, 1819; degree of LL.D. at Coimbra, 1843; professor of 
Political Economy at theHoyal Polytechnic School, 1844 ; secretary to the Prefecture of 
Lisbon, 1851-52. Founded, at Lisbon, the * Journal do Commercio,* 1853. 

AIiBY, Ernest, French writer, b. at Marseilles, July 1, 1809 ; educated at the College of 
Louis le Grand, and at the School of S6r6ze; studied law in Paris, 1838. Author of 

* Les Prisonniers d'Abd-el-Kader,* 1837 ; ' La Captivity du Trompette RscoflBer,' 1848 ; 
♦Catherine of Navarre,' 1838; *Les Brodeuses de la Reine,' 1843; *L'Olympe k Paris,* 
1846; and other works. 

AIiCAN, Michel. French engineer, b. at Downelay^ Meurthe, May 21, 1811, of Jewish 
parents ; admitted to the Central School of Arts and Manufactures ; diploma of civil 
engineer, 1839. 'Author of 'Bssai sur Mndastrie des Mati&res Textiles,' Paris, 1847; 

* Traits complet de la Filature" du Coton : Orlgine, Progr^s, Caract^res, &c.' 1864. 

AIiCOCK, Sir Rntherford,"EnglI^ diplomatist, b. 1808: studied medicine; served 
as surgeon in Portugal; 1833-34 ; deputy-inspector of hospitals in the Spanish Legion, 
1835-36 ; British consul at Foo^how-foo, Shan^ai, and Canton, 1844 ; consul-general in 
Japan, 1858 ; minister plenipotentiary and consul-general in Japan, 1859 ; appointed 
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary in China, April, 1865. Author of * The 
Capital of the Tycoon, a Narrative of a Three Years' Residence in Japan,' 1863. 

AIiCOTT, William Alexander, American writer, b. at Wolcot, Connecticut, 1789. 
Author of 'The House I Live In;' 'Lectures on the Ten Commandments;' 'Lectures 
on Life and Health ;' ' The Young Husband ;' 'The Young Wife ;' and other works. 

AIiEM-ROUSSEAU, Francois, French lawyer, b. at Aubiet, Gers, Dec. 21, 1798 ; 
studied law at Paris ; advocate at Auch, 1823 ; mayor of Auch, 1848 ; represented the 
same town in the Constituent Assembly, 1848. Author of * Demande k M. le B&tonnier,' 
Auch, 1829. 

ALEXANDER II. Emperor of Russia, b. April 17 (April 29 new style), 1818, eldest son 
of the Emperor Nicholas L and of Princess Charlotte of Prussia ; educated, under the 
supervision of his father, by General Moerder, a learned German, and the Russian poet 
Joukowski; entered the army, 1831 ; nominated colonel in the regiment of grenadiers, 
1835 ; chancellor of the University of Helsingfors, Finland, 1837 ; travelled in Germany, 
1840-41 ; superintendent of the military schools of the empire, 1849 ; appointed to a 
command in the Caucasian army, 1850. Succeeded to the throne, at the death of his 



▲!• HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOORAPHT All 

[ 5 ] 



fiither, Feb. 18 (March 2X 1856; crowned at Moscow, Aug. 26 (Sept. 7X 18M; married, 

Aprfl 16 (April 28), 1841, to Ma] 

Ludwig II. of Heise-Darmstadt 



Aprfl 16 (April 28), 1841, to Maria, b. Aug. 8, 1824, the daughter ul the late Grand duke 
~ II. of- 



A IiBXANDERy Sir James Edtrard^ English officer, b. 1803 ; served in India and 
North America, and in the Burmese, Persian, Turkish, Portuguese, and Kaffir wars ; 
employed on an expedition of discovery in Africa, 1835-36, and kni^^ted : commanded 
14th Foot at the siege of SebastopoL Author of ' Excursions in Western Africa ;' * Explo- 
rations in British America;' 'Travels through Russia and the Crimea:' 'Translations 
trom the Persian ;' and other works. 

AUSXANDBR, Joseph Addison, American writer, b. at Phihidelphia, 1809; 
graduated at the College of New Jersey, Princeton, 1826 ; professor in the same CoUe>:e 
since 1830. Author bt 'Earlier Prophecies of Isaiah,' New York, 1846; 'The Psalms, 
translated and explained,' 1850 ; and other theological works. 

AIiTSXANDRE, Charles^ French philologist, b. at Paris. Feb. 17, 1797; entered the 
Normal School, 1814 ; professor at Nancy, and at the College of St Louis ; member of 
the Institute and the Academy of Fine Arts, 1857. Published 'Greek and French 
Dictionary,' 1830-47 ; and other philological works. Edited the ' Oracula SibylUna,' 
1841-56. 

AlaEXANDRE-KARAGEORGEWITZ. Oeorare, Servian statesman, b. 1806; 
chosen prince and governor of Servia, Sept. 14, 1842 ; f<)unded several civil and military 
schools, 1843 to 1855 ; abdicated tJie government, Dec 22, 1857. 

AIiEXANDRESCO, Gregory, Wallachian poet, b. at Tirgoviste, 1812. Author of 
' Souvenirs and Impressions, Letters and Fables,' Bucharest, 1847. 

AIiEXANDRI. or AUSCSANDRI, Basile, Roumanian poet, b. July, 1821 ; 
studied at Pans, 1834; graduated B.A. 1839; gave freedom to all his serfs, 1850. 
Author of ' Ballades Popmaires de la Roumanie,' 1852-53 ; ' Les Doinas,' Paris, 1853-05 ; 
and other poems. 

AIiFORD. Rew. Henry, English author, b. in London, 1810; educated at Ilminster, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was elected a fellow, 18;{4 ; vicar of Wyines- 
wold, Leicestershire, from 1835 to 1853 ; examiner of Logic and Moral Philosophy at the 
Universi^ of Ix)ndon, 1841 to 1857 ; dean of Canterbury, 1857. Author of ' Poems and 
Poetical Fragments,' 1831 ; * Chapters on the Poets of Greece,' 1841 ; * Greek Testament/ 
first volume published, London, 1841, finished 1861 ; and other works. 

AIiFRED Ernest Albert, English prince, sei^ond son of Queen Victoria and the late 
Prince Consort, b. at Windsor cSistle, Aug. 6, 1844 ; entered the navy, Aug. 31, 1858 ; 
declined the throne of Greece, 1862. 

AlalONY. Clande Felix Theodore Camelle, French artist, b at Chaumes, 
Nifevre, Jan. 24, 1798 ; studied in Paris, under Renault, and M. Watelet ; exhibited 

* Daphnis et Chlo^,' 1822 ; ' Le Massacre des Druides,' 1831 ; ' La Campagne de Rome,' 
1839; ' L'Acrox)olis d'Ath^nes,* 1855; 'Ermitage sur les bords du Uh6ne,' 1863; and 
other paintings. 

AIiISON, Alexander. English writer, b. 1812. Published ' Philosophy and History 
of Civilization,' 1860 ; 'The Improvement of Society,' 1861 ; ' The Church and the World 
Reconciled,' 1864 ; and other worics. 

AlalX, I'Abbe' Celeste, French priest and writer, b. 1820 ; studied in the seminary of 
St.-Sulpice; ordained and became chaplain to the church of Ste. -Genevieve, 1854. 
Translated 'LeMiroirde I'l^glise de St-Edmond,' 1854; *Le Triomphe de la Croix,' 
1855 ; 'Le Parfait Ugendaire,' 1855-56. 

AlaKAN, Charles Valentin Morhange, French musician, b. In Paris, Nov. 30, 
1813, of*^ Jewish parents; entered the Conservatoire. 1821; honorary professor of the 
Conservatoire, 1828. Published ' Les Omnibus Dames Blanches,' 1832 ; ' Bourr^e d'Au- 
▼ergne,' 1852; 'Quatre Impromptus origiuaux,' 1854. 

AlalaAN-KARDBC, Himpolyte Denisard RiTail, French writer, b. at Lyons, 
Oct 3, 1803. Author of ' Le Livre des Esprits,' 1857-60 ; ' L'IniitaUon de I'Evangile 
selon le Spiritualisme,' 1864. Founded the ' Revue Spirite,' 1858. 

AltXiARD, Nelsir, French general, b. at Parthenay, Oct 27, 1798 ; studied at the Paris 
Pol3rtechnic School, and entered the army, 1818; captain, 1825; lieut. -colonel, 1844; 
colonel, 1847 ; general of brigade, 1852 ; general of division, June 10, 1855. 

AltUkRT DE MERITET7S, Hortense, French authoress, b. at Paris, Sept. 1801 ; 
married to M. Louis de Meriteus, 1843. PubUshed 'La Conjuration d'Amboise,' 1821 ; 

• Lettres sur Mnie. de Stael,' 1824 ; 'Sextus, ou le Remain des Marennes,' 1832; 'Novum 
Oigannm, ou Saintet^ Philosophique,' 1857; and other works. 



All HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Alq 

[ « ] 



AlaliEGRE. Jean Marie. French lawyer, b. at Ou^ret, Greuse, April 12, 1793 ; studied 
law, and called to the bar of the Royal Court of Limoges, 1820 ; procureur-g^neral of the 
Republic, and representative to the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; exiled, 1852. 

AIiIaEN, The Ven« John, English clergyman, b. 1810 ; studied at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; graduated in honours, 1832 ; one of her Majesty's inspectors of schools, 
1839; archdeacon of Salop, 1847. Author of * History of St. Christopher, an Allegory ;* 
and several sermons. 

AliliBN, Willian&, American author, b. Jan. 2, 1784, at Pittsfield, Massachusetts; 
graduated at Harvard College, 1802 ; professor at Baudoin College, 1820-39. Author of 
'American Biographical and Historical Dictionary;' 'History of Dissenters;' and other 
works. 

ALIiEN, 'Williami Shepherd, English politician, b. 1831; educated at Wadham 
College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1854, MA. 1857; a magistrate for Staffordshire ; 
returned M.P. for Newcastle-under-Lyne, 1865. 

AIiIiIBRy Antoine, French sculptor, b. at Embrun, Hautes-Alpes, Dec. 6, 1793; 
entered the array, and was captain in the Imperial Guard ; retired, 1815. Exhibited 
* Jeune Marin expirant ;' 'Camille renversant les Balances des Gaulois,' 1822; * Aiiane,* 
1834. 

AlaLIES, Thomas Wiliiam, English theologian, b. 1811 ; educated at Eton ; scholaf 
and fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, graduated B.A. 1832; rector of Launton, 1842 ; 
became a Roman Catholic, 1850. Author of * The Church of England cleared from the 
Sin of Schism ;' and other theological works. 

AXiIiINGHAM, ^^illianiy Irish poet, b. at Ballyshannon, Ireland, 1828 ; holds an 
appointment in the Customs in England. Author of • Poems,' 1850 ; * Day and Night 
Songs,' 1854-^; 'Lawrence Bloomtield in Ireland, 1864.' Obtained a literary pension, 
1864. 

AlililOIiIy Joseph FranciSy German theologian, b. at Sulzbach, Bavaria, Aug. 10, 
1793 ; entered the episcopal seminary of Ratisbon, 1815 ; entered holy orders, 1816 : D.D. 
1816 ; professor at the University of Landshut, 1818 to 1823 ; rector of the University of 
Munich, 1830; canon of Ratisbon, 1835. Translated into German the 'Vulgate,' Nurem- 
berg, 1834-45. Author of 'Biblical Antiquities,' Landshut, 1825; 'Life of Jesus,' lb. 
1840. 

AIiLOUVIIaliB, Armand Octare Marie d'. French general, b. Jan. 25, 1809; 
served in Algeria, and became colonel, 1847 ; general of brigade, 1851 ; employed in the 
Crimea, in command of the cavalry, and made general of division, March 17, 1855; grand 
officer of the Legion d'honneur, Dec. 28, 1855. 

AlilaOURY. Jean lK>nis Antoinei French journalist, b. at Anisy, Ni^vre, Sept. 24, 
1805 ; studied at the College of Ste.-Barbe, Paris. Contributor to the Journal des 
Dibats and other Journals. 

AlaMASY, Maurice, Connt of, Austrian politician, b. in Hungary, 1808; vice- 
president of the Royal Chamber of Hungary, 1848; chief of the Administration of 
Finances and direct Imposts in Hungary, 1853-56. 

AIiMQUIST, Karl Jonas IiudTig, Swedish writer, b. 1793; studied theology at 
Stockholm. Author of ' Herrame pa Ekolaund,' Stockholm, 1857 ; ' Tomrosens Bok ;* 
and several elementary works on mathematics, geography, and history. 

AIiMODOVAR, Don Ildefonso Dias de Ribera. Count of, SpaniHh general 
and politician, b. at Valencia, 1795 ; studied at the School of Artillery, at Segovia ; pre- 
sident of the Cortes, and field-marshal, 1834 ; captain-general at Valencia ; minister of 
war, 1835 ; held the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, 1836; retired from state service, 1843. 

AIiMOEFF, Nils Wilhelni, Swedish actor, b. at Stockholm, March 24, 1799 ; studied 
medicine and surgery ; made his d^but at the Royal Theatre of Stockholm, 1818 : played 
the principal rdles in Leopold's * Virginia,' Schiller's * Wallenstein,' and * Marie Stuart ;* 
also in * Othello,' and other tragedies. 

ALPHANDy Charles Adolphe^ French engineer, b. at Grenoble, H^re, Oct. 26, 
1817 ; studied at the Polytechnic School from 1835 to 1837 ; Government engineer of 
drainage works in the Landes, 1843 ; chief surveyor of the embellishments of Paris, 
1854. 

AIiQUIE'y Jean Dominique^ French military surgeon, b. at Montrejean, Haute- 
Garonne, May 18, 1792; M.D. at Strasbourg, 1816; entered the army, 1814; inspector of 
the Board of Health, 1847 ; appointed medical inspector of the waters of Vichy, 1850. 
Author of * Essai sur I'H^patite,' Strasbourg, 1816. 



Alq HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Amb 

, f7 1 _ 

AIiQUIE', AlexiS;, French physician, b. 1812 ; professor of snr^ry to the Faculty of 
Medicine, Montpellier, and surgeon in chief to I'Hdtel-Dieu of that town, 1838. Author 
of * Cours el^mentaire de Pat]^ol(^c chirurgicale, d'apr^s la Doctrine de I'EcoIe de 
Montpellier,' Montpellier, 1845. 

ALTAROCHE, Marie Miehelf French writer, b. at Issoire, Puy-de-Ddme, April 18, 
1811. Published • La Chambre et les Eeoles,' 1831 ; * Chansons,' 1835-6 ; * Contes dimo- 
cratiqnes,' 1837 ; ' La R^forme et la Revolution,' 1841 ; * Lestocq,' 1836. Commissioner 
of the government in dep. Puy-de-Ddme, 1848 ; member of the Constituent Assembly, 
1849. 

AlaTENHEIM, Gabrielle Sovmet d'^ French authoress, b. at Paris, March 17, 
1814; married to M. Beuvain d'Altenheim, 1834. Author of ' Oladiateur,' a tragedy, 
1841 ; 'Jane Qrey,' 1844 ; 'Les Anges d'Israel,' 1856 ; ' La Croix et U Lyre,' 1858 ; 'Les 
quatre Sidles litt^raires,' 1859 ; and other works of Action. 

AliTIERI^ Iioois d'^ Italian statesman, b. at Rome, July 17, 1305 ; created cardinal, 
1840 ; member of the government during the stay of Pope Pie IX. at Oaeto, 1849-50 ; 
arch-chancellor of the Roman University ; president of the Roman Council of State on 
Finance, and prefect oi the Congr^atiou of the Index. 

AIiTMEYER. Jean Jacoaes^ Belgian writer, b. at Luxembourg, Jan 20, 1804 ; 
graduated M.D. 1831 and LLJ). 1832 ; appointed professor at the University of Brussels, 
1836. Author of * Introduction k I'^tude phi1o8ophi<iue de I'Histoire de rHuraanit^,' 
Brussels, 1837; 'Marguerite d'Autricfae: sa vie, sa i>olitique, et sa cour,' Li^ge, 1841 ; 
and other historical works. 

AIiTON-SHE'E. De lAtpaL&rem, Edmond, Count ofy French i>oIitician, b. 
June 1, 1810 ; entered the Chamber of Peers, 1836. Published ' De la Cliambre des Pairs 
dans le Gk>uvemement repr(&sentatif,* 1839. Retired fh)m political life, 1849. 

AlaTSCHUIa. Ellas. German physician, b. at Prague, Apr. 8, 1812; studied at 
Vienna ; professor of homoeopathy at the School of Medicine in Prague, 1848 ; helped 
to introduce the practice of homoeopathy into Austria. Author of ' Lelirbuch der Phy- 
aiologisehen phannacodynamik,* Prague, 1850-52 ; 'Das Therapeutische Polaritatsgesetz," 
ib. 1852. 

AltVENSLEBEN, Albert TOn, Prussian statesman, b. at Halberstadt, March 23, 
1794 ; studied at Berlin; took part in the campaign against France, 1815 ; councillor of 
state, 1823 ; Prussian representative at the Conference of Vienna, 1834 ; minister of 
finance, 1836 ; Prussian representative at the Conference of Dresden, 1850. 

AIiVIN. Iionls Joseph, Belgian writer, b. at Cambray, March 18, 1806 ; professor at 
the College of Li6ge, 1826 ; secretary t4> the Council of Education of Belgium, 1830 to 
1860 ; member of the Academy of Belgium, 1846 ; conservateur-en-chef of the Biblio- 
th^ue of Brussels, 1850. Author of ' Sardanapale,' Brussels, 1834 ; * Souvenir de ma 
Vie litt^raire,' 1843. 

AMADOR DE IiOS RIOS. Don Jose, Spanish writer, b. at Baena, province of 
Cordova, 1818. Author of 'History of Central Europe,' 1844 ; 'Studies on the Politics 
and Writings of the Spanish Jews,' 1848. Edited ' Works of the Marqids of Santellane,' 
1852-55 ; * History of Madrid ;' and other works. 

AMARI, Michel, Italian politician, b. at Palermo, July 7, 1806 ; employed under the 
Sicilian government, 1822 ; banished to Naples, 1837 ; made senator by King Victor 
Emmanuel, 1861 ; president-lieutenant of Sicily, minister of finance, and governor of 
Modena, 1862 ; minister of public instruction, 1862-^3. Author of * La Guerra del Vespro 
Siclliano.' Translator of Sir Walter Scott's ' Marmion. ' 

AMARI, En&erlc^ Italian writer and politician, b. at Palermo, 1810 ; studied law, phi- 
losophy, and political economy. Professor of penal law at the University of Palermo, 
1841 ; appointed to the direction of the New Penitentiary of Palermo, 1842 ; member of 
the Italian Parliament, 1861 ; member of the Italian Academy of Philosophy. Founded 
the ' Statistical Journal,' 1838. Published ' The Nature and Progress of Industry.' 

AMAURY-DUVAIiy Euffe'ne Emmannel. French painter, b. at Montrouge, 1808 ; 
studied under M. Ingres, 1826. Exhibited 'Enfants de Nourrit,' 1833; 'P&tre grec d6- 
couvrant un Bas-relief antique,' 1834 ; ' Un Ange,' 1840 ; ' La Trag6die,' 1855 ; * Le 
Sommeil de I'Enfant Jesus,' 1861 ; ' Naissance de V6nus,' 1864. 

AMBERTy Joachim Alexandre Jnles. French general and military writer, b. at 
Chillas, near Cahors, Feb. 8, 1804 ; entered the Paris Military School, 1824 ; took part 
In the campaigns in Spain, Belgium, and Algeria; representative to the Constituent 
Assembly, 1848 ; to the Legislative Assembly, 1859 ; colonel, April 16, 1850 ; general of 



Am« HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAFHr. And 

[ 8 ] 



brigade, Aug. 12, 1857 ; commander of the L^on d*hoimear, March 14, 1860. Author of 
*£loge du Mar^chal Moncey,' 1842: *La Colonne Napoleon et le Camp de Boulogne,' 
1839 ; ' Soldat,' 1854 ; and other works. 

AMB'IilB. Marie Fredericka Auimsta^ Duchess of Saxe, dramatic authoress, 
b. Aug. 10, 1794; pseudonym 'Amalie Heiter.' Author of * Der Kronung's Tag,' 1829; 
* Originalbeitrage zur deutschen Schaubiihne,' 1837-42 ; and other works. 

AMET, Josepbine Junot d'Abrantes, French authoress, b. Jan. 6, 1802 ; married 
to M. James Amet, 1841. Author of * Histoires morales et Miflantes,' 1837 ; *Une Vie de 
jeune Fille,' 1837 ; ' La Duchess de Valombray,* 1838 ; * Les Deux Soeurs,' 1840 ; * Btienne 
Saulnier,' 1850. 

AMMON, Frederick IVlIhelm Philip Ton, German Protestai^t theologian, b. at 
Erlangen, Feb. 7, 1791 ; studied at GKittingen, Jena, and the university of his native 
town ; minister at Buttenheim and at Merzbach ; archdeacon at Erlangen, 1820 ; pro- 
fessor of theology at Erlangen. Author of ' Letters of Rodolph Ida, on the Dogmas 
which distinguish the Protestant and Catholic Churches,' Dresden, 1837; and other 
works. 

AMMON^ Frederick Anstwtns TOn, German physician, brother of the preceding, 
b. at Gottingen, Sept. 10, 1799 ; ^duated M.D. 1822 ; professor and director of the 
Academy of Surgery and Medicine, Dresden, 1829 ; physician to the King of Saxony, 1837 ; 
councillor of medicine, 1844. Author of ' Ueber den Krankhaften Schlaf,' (Jottingen, 
1830 ; ' Die ersten Mutterpflichten und die erste Kindespflege,' Leipsic, 1857 ; and other 
medical works. 

AMSBERO, Anstwttis Christian Theodore von, German statesman, b. at 
Rostock, July 17, 1789 ; secretary to the Grand Duke of Brunswick ; director of the 
Brunswick College of Finances, 1832 ; director of the Administration of Railways and 
Posts of Brunswick, 1850. 

ANASTASI. AuKiuitns^ French lithographic artist, b. at Paris, 1819; studied 
painting under MM. Delaroche and Corot, and exhibited in 1843. Executed ' Les Bords 
de la Touque,' 1850 ; ' La Saison des Foins,' 1852 ; ' Les Bords de la Spr6e,' 1855; ' Retour 
du Troupeau,' 1861 ; ' Aqueducs de Claude,' 1864. 

ANCEIi, Daniel Edouard Jnles, French politician, b. at Havre, Oct 16, 1812 ; 
Tiresident of the Chamber of Commerce of Havre ; mayor of the town, and member of 
the General Council ; member of the Legislative Assembly for Havre and of the Corps 
L^islatif since 1852. 

ANCEIaET, Gabriel Anraste, French architect, b. at Paris, Nov. 21, 1829 ; studied 
under MM. Lequeux and Baltard, 1845, and in the School of Fine Arts. Exhibited * Un 
Hospice dans les Alpes,' 1851 ; 'Restauration de la Yoie Appienne,' Oct 1856. Ap^tointed 
architect of the ch&teau of Pau, 1858. 

ANCELOT, Marenerite lK>uise Viririnie Chardon. French authoress, b. at 
Dgon, Cdte-d'Or, Mar. 17, 1792; married M. Ancelot, 1818, who died 1854. Author .of 
' Cardinal et Page,' 1832 ; * Emprunts aux Salons de Paris,' 1835 ; ' Manage raisounable,' 
1835; *Le Ch&teau de ma Ni6ce,'1837; 'Le Baron de Presmoutiers,' 1861; *Antoine 
Vernon, ou les jeunes Filles pauvres,' 1863 ; and many other novels. 

ANCKARSWOBRD, Charles Henry, Count of, Swedish politician, b. at 
Sveaborg, 1782 ; entered the army, 1799 ; aide-de-camp to Count Armfelt in the war with 
Norway, 1808 ; colonel, and statf-mojor to Bemadotte, royal prince of Sweden, 1813 ; 
entered the Diet, 1817, and became leader of the opposition. Author of ' Political Prin- 
ciples,' 1833. 

ANDBI&ARRE, Jnles de Jaqnot, Maronis of, French magistrate and politician, 
b. at D\jon, CAte d'Or, Oct 25, 1803 ; mayor of Andelarre, 1831 ; member of the General 
Council of the Hautc-Sadne, 1887 ; deputy to the Corps L^slatif from 1852 to 1863. 
Author of ' Forme et R^forme du Budget de ll^tat,' 1859 ; and other works. 

ANDERS, Oottftried Engelbert, French writer, b. near Coblentz, 1795 ; employed 
in the Royal Biblioth^ue, Paris, in the department of music, since 1833. Author of 
' Nicolo Paganini, sa Vie, sa Personne, et quelques Mots sur son Secret,' 1831 ; ' Details 
biographiques sur Beethoven/ 1839 ; contributor to several musical magazines. 

ANDERSEN, Hans Christian, Danish poet and novelist, b. at Odense, April 2. 
1806. Author of • The Improvisatore,' 1834 ; * O. T. ' 1835 ; * Only a Fiddler,' 1837 ; ' Tales 
from Jutknd,' 1869 ; •The SandhiUs of JutUnd,' 1860 : 'Tales for Children,' 1861 ; 'The 
Wild Swans, a Fairy Tale,' 1863 ; * The Ice Maiden,^ 1863 ; ' From Spain,' 1866 ; and 
other works. 



And HANDBOOK OF OONTEMPORAKT BIOORAPHT. And 
[ 9 ] 



ANDERSON, Henrj, American mathematician, b. 1798; professor of mathematics 
and astronomy at Colnmbia College, New Toric, 1825 ; resigned, 1843 ; traveUod through 
Asia Minor, and, with Lieut Lynch, explored the Dead Sea and the Jordan. Author 
of * (Geological Survey of part of the Holy Land,' 1848 ; and other worics. 

ANDERSON. ReT. James Stnmrt Murray. English divine, b. 1798: educated 
at Balliol College, Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1820 ; chaplain in ordinary to her Majesty, 
1836 ; preacher of Lincoln's Inn from 1844 to 1868 ; rector of Tormarton, near Chippeu- 
htun, 1851 ; Bristlsh chaplain at Bonn. Author of * History of the Church of England in 
the Colonies and Foreign Dependencies of the British Empire,' 1851. 

ANDERSON, Robert. American general, b. in Kentucky, 1806; graduated at West 
Point, 1825 ; inspector ofihe Illinois volunteers during the * Black Bfawk war ;' assistant 
instructor and inspector of West Point Military Academy fh)m 1835 to 1837 ; aide -de- 
camp to General Scott in the Indian war and Morida ; commander of Fort Sumter and 
Charleston at the breaking out of the civil war, 1860 ; brigadier-general, 1861. 

ANDERSON, IVilliam, Scottish theologian, b. at Kilsyth, Stirling. 1800 ; studied at 
tiie University of Gla^ow ; minister of John Street Relief Church in that city since 
1822. Published ' The Mass, Penance, Regeneration ;' and other theological works. 

ARDI6NE' DE ImA CHASSE, Charles, Marqnis of, French politician, b. at 
Paris, Jan. 6, 1791 ; member of the (4eneral Council of lUe-et-Vilaine ; representative 
for the department d'lUe-et-Vilaine after the revolution of February, 1848. 

ANDI&AW.Heinrich Bernard won, German politician, b. 1802 ; entered the army of 
the Grand Duchy of Baden, 1821 ; resigned his commission, 1826 ; councillor of Friburg ; 
deputy in the Baden Chamber, 1833. Published 'Der Aufruhr und Umsturz in Badeu/ 
Friburg, 1860. 

ANDOUIIiIiE', Edn&ond, {French administrator, b. at H^zi^res, 1804 ; studied law 
at Paris, and entered the Ministry of Finance ; appointed chief deputy-governor of the 
Bank of France, 185& 

ANDRJE, Cluurlea Christopher Oeorce, Danish politician, b. Oct. 14, 1812, at 
Hjertel)jexg ; entered the army as second lieutenant, 1828 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1851 ; 
member of the Academy of Sciences, Copenhagen, 1863 ; member of the First Chamber 
of Parliament, 1850-61 ; member of the Second Chamber, 1863 ; minister of finance, 
Dec. 12, 1854 ; president of the Council of Ministers, 1866-58. 

ANDRAIi. Gabrlely French physician and author, b. at Paris, Nov. 6, 1797 ; studied 
at the Colle^ of Louis le Grand, and obtained the degree of M.D. 1821 ; professor of 
hygiene at the Academy of Medicine, Paris, 1827 ; professor of internal pathology, 1830, 
and of general i>athology, 1830 ; member of the Academy of Sciences, 1842. Author of 
* Clinique M^cale/ 1824 ; * Essai d'H^matologie pathologique,' 1843 ; and many other 
WDrks. 

ANDRASYy JnllnSy Connt of, Hungarian statesman, b. in 1826 ; took an active part 
in the Hungarian Revolution, 1848-49 ; ambassador of the ' Republic of Hungry ' to the 
Sultan of Turkey, 1849 ; exiled 1849-60. Appointed minister of war and president of the 
Hungarian council of ministers by royal rescript, Feb. 24, 1867. 

ANDRE'. Jean Francois Gustawey French politician, b. Oct 17, 1805 ; notary at 
Aigre, Charente, 1830 ; member of the General Council for the canton, 1841 ; member of 
the Corps L^gislatif, 1852-67. 

ANDRE'. Jnles, French painter, b. at Paris, 1804 ; studied under M. Watelet, 1827 ; 

. first exhibited, 1831. Executed and exhibited ' Entr^ de ForSt, les Bords de I'Ource 

dans la Cdte-d'Or,' 1885 ; 'Les Bords de la Vienne,' 1855; * Un Chemin pr^ de Cambes, 

Gironde,' 1861 ; 'Vue prise dans la Valine de Streture, Vosges,' 1863; 'Marais pr^s de 

Saint- Yrieux, Haute- Vienne,' 1864 ; and many others. 

ANDRE'. I'Abbe' Jean Trwokgoim, French priest and writer, b. at Menerbes, 1810 ; 
cur6 of Vaucluse. Author of ' Le Ooeur du Christ et le Coeur de I'Homme,' 1839 ; * Vie 
des Saints de I'i^ise d' Avignon,' 1836 ; * Histoire de Saint Roch,' 1854 ; ' Precis de 
I'Histoire de la Maison de Rusti chelli-Valori,' 1856 ; and other works. 

ANDRE', I'Abbe' Michel, French priest and writer, b. at Avallon, Tonne, Apr. 29, 
1808 ; studied in his native town, and was ordained vicar-general of Quimper, 1829. 
Author of * Cours alphab^tiquc et m^thndique de Droit Canon, mis en rapport avec le 
Droit Civil eccl^siastique, ancien et modeme,' 2 vols. 1844-46 ; IMrd edit 1869 ; and 
other theological works. 

ANDRE', Iionls Jnles, French architect, b. at Paris, 1819 ; studied under Huyot and 
M. H. Lebas ; appointed inspector of the Louvre and inspector to the Imperial Biblio- 
th^ue, 1862 ; diocewm architect of the department of Corse, 1866. 



And HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Ans 
[ 10 ] 



ANDRBA, Je'rome, Italian statesman, b. at Naples, April 12, 1802 ; archbishop in 
partibus, abb^ of Snbiaco, and prefect of the Congregation of the Index ; commissioner 
extraordinary of the Pontifical government in the revolution of 1849 ; promoted cardinal, 
March 15, 1852. 

AN DRIES, I'Abbe' Joseph 01iT«r, Belgian ecclesiastic, b. at Ruddervoorde. 
Flanders, 1796 ; cur6 of Middelburg till the Revolution of 1830 ; envoy to the National 
Congress for the district of Eccloo ; returned, 1835, for the district of Gand ; canon of 
the cathedral of Bruges, 1841. Published *ltecherches sur les Yoies d'^coulement des 
Eaux des Flandres.' 

ANDRIEU, Mathleu Maurice, French politician, b. June 22, 1813; mayor of 
Maringues. and member of the General Council for the same canton ; member of the 
Corps Legislatif since 1863. 

ANDRIEUX, E'mile, French physician, b. at Paris, March 10, i797 ; studied medicine, 
and obtained the degree of M.D. 1820; physician to the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts, 
1840. Author of ' M^moire sur TApplication m^thodique du Gkdvanisme au Traitemeut 
des Maladies,' 1824 ; ' M^moire sur rOphthalmo-plantdme,' 1840. 

ANETHAN, Jules Joseph, Baron, Belgiau magistrate and politician, b. 180.H ; 
procureur to the king, 1831 ; advocate-general at the Court of Appeal of Brussels, 1836 ; 
entered the cabinet as minister of Justice, 1843, and retained his portfolio until 1847 ; 
representative of Louvain since 1844. / 

ANGEIiIS, Pietro de, Italian writer, b. at Naples, 1798 : secretary to King Murat ; 
travelled over America, and fixed his residence at Buenos Ayres. Published * Coleccion 
de Obras y Documentos relativos a la Historia antiqua de las Provincias del Rio de la 
Plata,' Buenos Ayres, 1836. 

AN6LADE, Hippolyte Cle'mentt French politician, b. at Nes, Ari^ge, Dec. 20, 
1800 ; member of tne Chamber of Deputies, 1833-34 ; deputy to the Constituent Assem- 
bly, 1848 ; member of the Legislative Assembly; after the coup d'etat of Dec. 1851, 
retired from political life. 

ANOLEMONT, Edonard Hubert Sciplon d*. French writer, b. atPont-Au- 
demer, Eute, Dec. 28, 1798. Author of 'Berthe et Robert,' 1825; •Tancr6de,' 1827; 
'L^gendes fhmQaises,' 1829 ; 'Le Due d'Enghien,' 1832 ; ' P^lerinages,' 1835 ; 'Amours de 
France,' 1841 ; and other novels. 

ANOIiESEY, Henrj Pacet, Marcmis of, English politician, b. 1797 ; colonel of 
a cavalry regiment, 1838; M.P. for Anglesey, 1830-^2. when he enteretl the House of 
Lords ; lord chamberlain to the Queen, 1839-41 ; privy councillor, and lord-lieutenant of 
the county of Anglesey, 1854. 

ANICET BOURGEOIS, Ansuste, French dramatic author, b. at Paris, Dec. 25, 
1806. Author of 'Gustave, ou le Napolitain,' 1825; ' La Vtoitienne,' 1834; •Djeugis- 
Khan, ou la ConquSte de la Chine,' 1837 ; * Stella,' 1843 ; ' Les Martohaux de I'Empire,' 
1856 ; with M. J. Barbier, ' La Sorci^re, ou les Etats de Blois,' 1863. 

ANNE, The'Odore, French writer, b. April 7, 1797 ; entered the army, 1814 ; retired 
after the Revolution of July, 1830. Author of * Eloge historiqne du Due de Berri,' 1820 ; 
•Le Guerillero,' 1842; ♦Marie Stuart,' 1844; 'L^Enfant du Regiment,' 1854; *La 
Chambre Rouge,' 1854; 'Le Comte de Chambord k Wiesbaden,' 1850; 'L'Homme au 
Masque d'acier,' 1850 ; * La Folle de Savenay,' 1856 ; ' La Reine de Paris,' 1857-58. 

ANNESLEY, Hon. Huirh, English )>oIitician, b. 1830; educated at Eton; lieut.- 
colonel in the Scots Fusilier Guards ; served in the Kaffir war, 1852 ; and the Crimea, 
1854-55 ; M.P. for the county of Cavan since 1857. 

ANOT DE MAIZIE'RES, Cjprien, French writer, b. at St -Germain, Mont Ar- 
dennes, Apr. 27, 1794 ; studied at Rheiros ; entered the University, and became professor 
of grammar and history ; inspector of the Academy of the Seine-et-Oise, 1851. Author 
of '^Discours sur la N^cessit^ du raaintien de la Charte constitutionelle," 1819 ; * Cours 
gradu^ de Narrations frauQaises,' 1848 ; * Cromwell,' 1861. 

ANSDEIili. Richard, English painter of animals, b. at Liverpool, Lancashire, 1818; 
exhibited at the Royal Academy since 1848 ; chosen A.R.A. 1860. Painted *The Hunted 
Slave,' 1863 ; and many other works of art. ^ 

ANSON, Hon. Auvustus Henry Archibald, English politician, b. 1833; served 
in the army during the Crimean war, 1854-55 ; in India, 1857-59 ; in China, 1859-60 ; 
M.P. for Lichfield since 1859. 

ANSPACH, Philippe Iie'on, French magistrate, b. 1805, of Jewish parents at 
Metz ; advocate in Paris, 1830 ; procureur-g^n^ral, 1851 ; president of the Cour Imp^riale, 
and the fii-st Israelite admitted to the bench in France, 1853. Author of ' De la ProcMure 
devant les Cours d' Assises : Doctrine et Jurisprudence en cette mati^re,' 1856. 



Ans HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHT. Ara 

[11] : 



ANSTED, David Thomas^ En^iiih geologist, b. in London. 1814 ; educated at a 
private school, London, and Jesus College, Cambridge, where be graduated M.A. ; pro- 
fessor of geoI(^ at King's College. London, 1840 ; lecturer on geolo^ at the East India 
Military Seminary, Addiscombe, 1844, and professor of geology at the CoU^e of Civil 
Engineers, Putney, 1845 ; vice-secretary of the Geological Society, 1844. Author of 
'Geology: introductory, descriptive, and practical,' 1844 ; ' Scenery, Science, and Art,' 
1834 ; * Great Stone Book of Nature, 1863 ; and many other scientific works. 

AKS^TEYf Thomas Clilsholin^ English barrister and writer, b. in London, 1816; 
educated at University College, London ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, ISHu ; 
professor of law and jurisprudence at Bath; M.P. for the Irish borough of Tnuglial, 
1847-52; attorney-general at Hong-Kong, 1854-.'>8. Author of 'British Catholics and 
the New Parliament,' 1841 ; * Guide to the History of the Laws and Constitution of 
Englfuid;* and other legal works. 

ANSTRUTHBR, Sir Robert. English politician, b. 1834; educated at Harrow; 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Fife and Caithness ; formerly captain 
and lieut. -colonel in the Grenadier Guards ; M.P. for Fifesliire since 1864. 

AMTHOINE DB SAINT JOSEPH, Francois. Baron, French general, b. at 
Marseilles, 1787; entered as a volunteer a regiment of dragoons; passed the Military 
School at Fontainebleau, 1804 ; served in Polimd as aide-de-camp to Marshal Soult, and 
under Marshal Suohet in the campaigns of 1811 to 1813 : colonel, 1814 ; mi^or-general, 
Oct. 11, 1882; lieut -general, April 14, 1844 ; nominated grand officer of the L^on 
d'honneur, Aug. 15, 1851. 

ANTHON, Charles, American author, b. in New Yoric, 1707 : entered the College oi 
Columbia, 1811, and graduated, 1815 ; called to the har of the Supreme Court of New 
York, 1810 ; professor of languages at Columbia College, 1820-35 ; rector of the College 
Grammar School, 1880; LL.D., 1831. Editor of a new edition of 'Lempri^re's Classical 
Dictionary,' 1822 ; 'Horace,' 1830 ; and many other works. 

ANTIBR, Bex^amin, French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, March 24, 1787 ; studied at 
Paris, and served in the army. Author of ' L'Habit de Cour,' 1818 ; * Les Femmes, et le 
M^rite des Femmes,' 1824; 'La Muette de U For6t,' 1828; ' L'Irlandais, ou I'Esurit 
national,' 1831 ; *Les Chiens du Mont Saint-Bernard,' 1838; ' Mon Gigot et mon Gendre,' 
1861 ; and other dramas. 

ANTIGNA, Jean Pierre Alexandre, French painter, b. at Orleans, 1818 ; studied 
under M. Salmon and M. Norblin, 1836, also under M Delaroche ; exhibited paintings on 
reUgious sutiilects, 1841-45. Painted ' Le Coin du Feu,' * Le Premier Jot^oV ' L'Orage,' 
'Les Baigneuses,* 1846 ; 'Le Matin,' 'Le Soir,' ' L'Ate^er,' 'Le SommeU de Midi,' 1859; 
' Berg^,' 1863 ; ' Fontaine k Auso,' 1864. 

ANTONEIiIal, Oiacon&O, Italian statesman, b.atSonnio, nearTerracina, April 2, 1806, 
the son of a woodcutter ; CKlucated at Rome ; bishop in partibu% 1840 ; nnder-secretary 
of state for the Roman ministry of the interior, 1841 ; minister of finance, 1845 ; cardinal- 
deacon, 1847 ; minister of state and of foreign affairs, appointed Apr. 12, 1850. 

ANTROBUS, Edmnnd, English politician, b. 1818 : educated at Eton and St. John's 

College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1840; M.P. for East Surrey, 1841-47, and for 

Wilton since 1855. 
APJOHNy James, Irish chemist and physician, b. at Sunville, co. Limerick, Sept. 1, 

1796; studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and passed B.A. 1818, and M.B. 1821; 

appointed professor of chemistry at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 1828. 

Author of 'A New Method of investigating the Specific Heats of the Gaseous Bodies,* 

1837, and articles on ' Spontaneous Combustion,' on ' Electricity,' on ' Galvanism,' &c 

in the Encydopcedia of FractUxU Medicine. 
APPERT, EngfOne, French painter, b. at Angers, 1820 ; studied under M. Ingres. 

Painted ' Sarah et les Braconniers,' 1841 ; ' La Vision de Saint-Ovens,' 1844 ;' Le Christ 

descendu de la Croix,' 1846; 'Une Armure,' 1850; 'L' Adoration des Mages,' 1853; 

'Venise,' 1863 ; * Le Pape Alexandre III,' 'Pivoines,' 1864. 
APPIANI. Andremr, Italian painter, b. at Milan, 1818 ; studied under M. Frangois 

Hayez. Fainted 'Petrarch at Avignon' and 'A young Italian Emigrant pressing his 

national colours to his heart.' 

ARA60, Emmanuel, French advocate and politician, b. at Paris, Jime 6, 1812 ; called 
to the bar, 1837 ; took part in the Revolution of 1848 ; renounced politics after the enup 
d'etat of Dec. 2, 1852, but continued to practise at the French bar. Author of ' La 
Demande en Mariage, ou le J^suite retoiuii6,' 1830; 'Un grand Orateur," 1837; and 
other works. 

ARAOO, Etienne, French journalist, b. at Perpignan, Feb. 9, 1802 ; studied at the 
Colleges of Perpignan and Sorreze ; founded the journals La Ri/orme and, with M. Maurice 



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Alhoy, Lt Figaro: director of the Th^tre du Vaudeville, 1829 ; took part in the Insure 
rection of 1834 and in the Revolution of 1848 ; condemned to tranHportation by the 
High Court of Versailles, 1849 ; fled from fVance, but returned 1869. Author of * La 
Vie de Moliere,' 1882; 'Los Aristocraties,' 1847; 'Les Bleus et les Blanes,' 1862; and 
other works. 

ARAN Yy Janos, Hungarian poet, b. at Nagy-Szalonta, 1819 ; studied at the College 
of Debreczin ; professor of Latin at the Normal School of Szalonta. Author of * A2 
Elvezett Alkotmany,' a prize poem ; * ToldL' 1847 ; * Murany ostroma,' Pesth, 1848 ; 
•Katalin,'ib. 1860. 

ARBOI8 DB JUBAINVIIiUB, Marie HenH d', French archaeologist, b. at 
Nancy, Dec 6, 1827 ; studied at the college of his native town, 1848-61. Author of 'Re- 
pertoire arch^ologique de I'Aube,' 1861 ; ' Les Armoiries des Comtes de Champagne,' 
1852 ; 'Voyage paleographique dans le Department de I'Aube,' Troyes and Paris, 1855; 
' Etudes Rur T'Etat des Abbayes,* 1868 ; ' Uistoire des Dues et des Comtes de Chami>agne,' 
1869-63. 

ARCHAIE, E'tlenne Desmier de Salat-Slmon, Vlcomte d*. French 
geologist, b. at Rheims, Sept. 24, 1802; entered the Militaiy School of St. Cyr, 1819; 
became an officer of cavalry, but retired 1830 ; professor of palaeontology at the Paris 
Museum, 1861. Author of ' Zizim, ou les Chevaliers de Rhodes,' 1828 ; ' Histoire des 
Progr^s de la G^ologie de 1834 k 1862,' 1847-62 ; ' Precis de I'Histoire de la Pal^ontologie,' 
1863. 

ARENAIiES| Jose^ American geographer, b. at Buenos-Ayres, 1790; entered the 
army; lieut -colonel of artillery, 1826; charged with the To^graphieal Department of 
Buenos-Ayres, 1835. Published 'Noticias hist^ricas y descnptivas sobre el gran pais 
del Chaco y Rio Bermejjo,' Buenos-Ayres, 1833. 

ARETIN. Karl Maria, Viscount Ton. Bavarian diplomatist, b. at Munich, 
July 4, 1796 ; took part in the campaign of 1813-15 ; councillor of legation to the 
minister of foreign affairs, 1834 ; chamberlain and councillor to the king of Bavaria: 
Author of 'Darstellung der auswartigen Vertialtnisse Baiem's,' Passau, 1839; and other 
works. 

ANGEI&ANDERy Frederick William Augustas, Qerman astronomer, b. at 
Memel, Prussia, March 21, 1799; educated at the University of Kdnigsberg; studied 
astronomy under Bessel, and employed by him as assistant in the observatory under his 
charge, 1820 ; undertook the supervision of the Observatory of Abo, Finland, 1823-28 ; 
professor of astronomy in the University of Bonn, 1837. Published *A Catalogue of 
660 Stars, with Observations on their Motions,' 1830 ; and other astronomical works. 

AROYIala. George Dongrlas Campbell, Duke of^ English statesman, b. 1823 ; 
succeeded his father, 1847 ; lord privy seal, 1862-66, and asain 1869-66 ; postmaster- 
general, 1866-1858 ; lord rector of Glasgow University, 1864 ; chancellor of the University 
of St. Andrew's, 1851. Author of * Presbytery examined,' 1848 ; ' The Reign of Law,' 1867. 

ARISTARCHI, Nicholas, Greek ecclesiastic and head of the patriarchate of Con- 
stantinople, b. at Constantinople, 1800 ; keeper of the seals to Prince Alexander Soutza 
of Wallachia, 1818 ; exiled in 1821 ; returned to Constantinople as grand logothete ; 
appointed kapon kictja or plenipotentiary of Wallachia, 1864. 

AR JUZON, Felix Francois Thomas, Count d', French politician, b. 1810 ; 
gentleman in waiting to Charles X. ; member of the Corps L^gislatif, 1862 ; resigned, 
1863 ; elected deputy for the dep. of Eure, 1864. Chamberlain to the Emperor. 

ARKWRI6HT. Richard, English politician, b. 1836 ; educated at Harrow and 
Trinity College, Cambridge; graduated B.A. 1856, and M.A. 1868; a deputy-lieutenant 
for the county of Hereford; returned M.P. for Leominster, 1866. 

ARMAGH, Marcus Beresford, Archbishop of, English divine, b. 1801 ; 
educated at Richmond School and Trinity College, Cambridge ; admitted to holy orders, 
1824 ; rector of Kildallen, 1826 ; vicar of Di^ng and Lara ; vicar-general of Eilmore and 
archdeacon of Ardagh ; consecrated to the sees of Kilmore, Elphin, and Arda^ 1854 ; 
translated to Armagh, 1863 ; primate of all Ireland, and lonl almoner of Ireland. 

ARM AND, Alfred, French architect, b. at Paris, Oct. 3, 1805 ; entered the School of 
Fine Arta under the direction of M. Achille Leclerc ; designed the railway stations of 
Versailles, 1839 ; St. Clond, 1840 ; Calais, 1848 ; St. Quentin, 1850 ; Douai, 1861 ; and 
other buildings. 




Arm HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORABT BIOORAPHT. Aro 

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ARMITAOEy "R&WMrdf Eng^h painter, b. in London, May SO, 1817. 'Rxnofuted tume 
of the frescoes for the new Hoosea of Parliament : ' Diaemharlcnient of Jnltns detuu* in 
England,' 184r; painted also 'The Battle of BalactaVa,' 'The Battle of Inkennan/ I860, 
and other works of art; elected A.R.A. 1867. 

AKMSTRONO9 Richard, English politician, b. 1816 ; edncated at Trinity College. 
Dublin; graduated B.A. 1839; M.A. 1865; called to the Irish bar, 1839; appointed 
Queen's seijeant-at-law, 1861 ; returned M.P. for Sligo, 1866. 

ARMSTRONG! Sir Williaan. English mechanician, b. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. 1810 ; 
invented the * Hydro-electric macnine,^ for which he was elected F.R8.; the 'Hydraulic 
crane,' the 'Accumulator,' 1846-60 ; constructed the gun which bears his name, 1854 ; 
was knighted and made a C.B. ; LL.D. from the University of Cambridge, 1862 ; presi* 
dent of the British Association, 186S. 

ARNAIi, Etienne, French actor, b. at Menlan, Seine-et-Olse. Feb. 1, 1794 : took part 
in the defence of Paris, 1814 ; played at the ThMtre du Vaudeville, and the Palais-Royal, 
fix>m 1817 to 1864. Author of ' Epltre h, BoufE^' 1840 ; Boutades en Vers/ 1861 ; ' Les 
Gendarmes,' 1826 ; new edition, 1869. 

ARNAUD, Fanny, French authoress, b. at Arlea, TYance, 1803 : married to M. Charles 
Reybaud. Author of ' La demiere Boh^mienne ;* ' Le Cabaret de Gaubert ; * Ties deux 
Marguerites f ' Le Denier Oblat ;' ' Les Aventures d'nn Ren^t ;' * Mdlle. de Chazeuil :' 
* Les Anciens Convents de Paris.' 

ARNDTS, lK>nis, German lawyer, b. at Amsbnig, Prussia, Aug. 19, 1806 ; studied at 
the Universities of Bonn, Heidelberg, and Berlin ; and graduated LL.D. 1826 ; Joined the 
Faculty of Law at Bonn, 1826 ; professor extraoMinary, 1837 ; professor ordinary, 1839 ; 
professor of law at the Universiiy of Munich since 1839. Published 'Lehrbuch der 
Pandecten ; ' * Bechtslexicon ; ' and other legal woilcs. 

ARNOU>, "Bdwia, English author, b. June 10, 1831 ; educated at King's Bchool, 
Rochester, King's ColI^;e, London, and University Collie, Oxford; graduated in 
honours, 1864 ; second master of the Englifih division of King Edward the Sixth's School, 
Birmingham ; principal of the Government Sanskrit College, Poena, Bombay Presidency, 
till 1S60. Author of 'Poems, narrative and lyrical ;' 'History of the Administration of 
India under the late Marquis of Dalhonsie,' 1862-^ ; translated the classical Sanskrit 
work * Hitopadesa,' under the title of ' The Book of good Counsels.' 

ARNOU>» MattheiRr, English poet, b. at Laldham, near Staines, Dec. 84, 1822; edu- 
cated at Winchester, Rugby, and Oxford ; fellow of Oriel College, u845 ; private secretary 
to Lord Lansdowne, 1847-61 ; lay-inspector of schools, 1861 ; professor of poetiy at the 
University of Oxford, 1868. Author of 'The Strayed Reveller, and other poems;* 
'Empedocles on Etna;' 'Essays in Criticism;* 'Schools and Universities on the 
Continent;* 'Popular Education of France ;* 'Three Lectures on Translating Homer;* 
' Last Words on Translating Homer;' 'Poems, ^rrt and Second Series;' and 'New 
Poems.' 

ARNOTT, James Moncrieff, English surgeon, b. 1794; educated at the High School 
and University of Edinburgh ; surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital ; and professor of 
surgery in King's College, London ; one of the council Of Royal College of Surgeons, 1840. 

ARNOTT* Neil| English physidan, b. 1789 ; educated at the Grammar School, Aber- 
deen, and at the University of that town ; graduated M.A. 1812 ; appointed surgeon In 
the East India ComiMuy's naval service, 1886, pfhyGflcian extraordinary to the Queen, and 
member of the senate of the London University. Author of ' Elements of Physics,' 
1827-64 ; ' A Survey of Human Progress,' 1861. 

ARNOUIiD, Sir Joseph, English barrister, b. 1816 ; educated at the Charterhouse, 
and Wadham College, Oxford ; graduated flrat-class in Classics, 1886 ; fellow of Wadham 
College, 1838; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1841 ; .judge at Bombay, and 
knighted, 1869. Author of * Treatise on Marine Insurance ;' and contributor to several 
periodicals and newspapers. 

ARNOULD-PIiESSY, Jeanne Plesay. French actress, b. at Metz, Sept 7, 1819 ; 
made her d6but, March 10, 1834, at the Comldie FranQaise ; married J. F. AmouJd, a 
dramatic writer, July, 1846, who died 1864 ; engaged for the French theatre of St. Petera- 
burg, 1866. 

AROUX, Enffe*ne« French magistrate and author, b. at Rouen, Oct 21, 1798 ; called 
to the bar of his native town, 1816 ; represented the town of Dieppe in the Chamber of 
Deputies, 1831-37. Published translations of Milton's 'Paradise Lost,' 1842; Dante's 
* Divina Commedia/ 1842 ; * Dante h6r6tique, socialiste et revolutionaire,' 1868 ; and 
other works. 



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ARRIVABENEy GiOTaani, Belgian political eox)noinist, b. at Mantua, Italy, 1801 ; 
imprisoned at Venice, 1821 ; condemned to death for political offences, 1824 ; naturalized 
in Belgium, 1840. Author of 'Des Moyens les plus propres k ameliorer le Sort des 
Ouvriers,' Lugano, 1832 ; * Situation ^conomique de la Belgique,' Brussels, 1843 ; trans- 
lated into Italian 'Mill's Principles of Economy,' 1833 ; and other works. 

ARSAKISy ApostolOSy Roumanian statesman, b. at Epirus, Greece. 1789; studied at the 
college founded by the Greek princes at Bucharest, and at Jena, in Germany; councillor 
of Prince Gregory Ghika, 1854 ; minister in the first cabinet of the Principalities, Feb. 
1862. Author of ' De Piscium Oerebro et Medulla spinal!,' Halle, 1813. 

ARROWSMITHy Johny English geographer, b. early in the present century. 
Author of 'An Overland Exiwdition to Australia ;' * Narrative of Missionary Travels in 
Africa,' London ; * Atlas of Universal Geography ;' and other works. 

ARTRURy ThomaSy American novelist, b. at Newbuigh, New York, 1809. Author 
of * Lights and Shadows of Real Life ;' * Tired of Housekeeping ;' * History of Kentucky,' 
Philadelphia, 1852 ; ' Tales of Married Life ;' * Ten Nights in a Bar-room ;' and other 
works. 

ARUAGTON, Jon, Icelandic author, b. at Hof, in Iceland, Aug. 17, 1819 ; educated at 
the College of Bessestad ; appointed keeper of the library at Reykjavik, 1849 ; secretary 
to the Bishop of Iceland. 1850. Author of 'Icelandic popular Tales and Adventures,' 
Leipsic, 1862-64 ; and other works. 

ASCHBACHy Joseph, German historian, b. at Hochst, Nassau, April 29, 1801 ; 
studied at Heidelberg; professor of history at Frankfort, 1823; professor at the Uni- 
versity of Bonn, 1842. Author of • History of Spain and Portugal duriog the dominion 
of the Almoravides and Almohades, "Frankfort, 1838-37 ; * Historj' of the West Goths,' ib. 
1827 ; ' History of the Emperor Sigismund,' Hamburg, 1888-44 ; and other works. 

ASHBURNHAM, Thomas, English general, b. 1808 ; entered the army, 1823 ; took 
part in the campaign in India, 1840-45 ; aide-de-camp, 1846 ; lieutenant-colonel ; ma^or- 
general, 1854 ; chasged with the command of the English forces in China and India, 1857 ; 
colonel of the 82d^l859. 



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ASSAKI, Georire, Roumanian poet and statesman, b. at Jassy, 1788; studied at several 
German universities, and in Italy ; elected member of the Academy of Rome under the 
name of AJviro,. ISll; represented the new Moldavian govenmient at Vienna, 1822; chief of 
the Ministry of Public Instruction, 1856. Author of ' History of Russia,' 1817 ; * Poems,' 
Jassy, 1854. 

ASSOIiIiANT, Jean Bapttste Alfred, French writer, b. at Aubusson, Creuse, 
1827. Author of 'Sctoes de la Vie des Btats-Unis,' 1858 ; 'Brancap,' 1859; 'Les Aven- 
tures de Karl Brunner,.docteur en Theologie,' 1861 ; 'D'Heure-en Heure,' 1862 ; ' Pens6es 
di verses. Impressions intimes. Opinions et Paradoxes de- Cadet Bordiphe,' 1864; and 
other works of fiction. 

ASTON, Sir Arthur Ingrram, English diplomatist, b^ in London, 1798; studied at 
Oxford; entered the diplomatic service, and became attach6to the embassy at Vienna, 
1819; envoy to Rio Janeiro, 1826; secretary, of legation, at Paris, 1833; minister pleni- 
potentiary to Spain, 1840 to 1843 ; on his return created K.C.B. 

ATHERSTONE, Edvein, English author b. towards the end of the last century. 
Authior of **The Sea-Kings of England;' 'The Fall of Nineveh,' published 1828 ; 'The 
Handwriting on the Wall j^ * The Last Days of Herculaneum ;' and other poetical works ; 
has a literary pension of 1001. per annum. 

ATHLUMNEY, Rt. Hon. William Meredyth, Baron. English Statesman, b. 
1802 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Meatn, and visitor of May- 
nooth : M.P. for Drogheda from 1837 to 1852 ; under-secretary for the Home Department, 
1846-47 ; chief secretary for Ireland, 1847-52 ; privy cpuncillor, 1847 ; elevated to the 
Irish peerage, 1863. 

AUBER, Daniel Francois Esprit, French musical composer, b. at Caen. Nor- 
mandy, Jan. 29, 1782. Produced *Le S^our Militaire,' 1818; 'La Muette de Portici,' 
1828; • Masaniello ;' *Le Cheval de Bronze,' 1835; • Fra Diavolo,' 1886; 'LesDiamants 
de la Couronne ;' * Le Domino Noir,' 1837; 'Janetta,' 1840; * La Circassienne,' 1861 ; 
* La Fianc6e du Roi de Garbe, 1864. Author of about twenty-five great operas, and 
numerous smaller musical works. Appointed director of the Paris Conservatoire de 
Musique, 1842. 

AUBER, Theophile Charles, French physician, b. 1805; studied at the University 
of Paris, and obtained his diploma of doctor of medicine, 1831. Author of numerous 



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medical works : amongthem * Traits de phnosophie m^icale/ Paris, 1839 ; ' Hygiene des 
femmes nerveoses,' ib. 1841 ; and * Esprit dn Vitalisme et de rOiganisme,' 1855. 

AUBERTy Constance. French authoress, h. at Paris, May 12, 1808, eldest danj^ter 
of the Duchess of Abrantes. Published * Les Abeilles Parisiennes,' 1843; 'Lea ^tren- 
nes,' 1849 ; and * Manuel d'^conomie Elegante,' 1859. Married to M. Louis Aubert, retired 
captain of infantry. 

AUBERT, Panline, French actress, b. at Toury. Eure et Loire, 1802 ; appeared on 
the stage of the Theatre franqais, Paris, 1816; engaged at the Odton, Paris, 1821; 
admitted as soci^taire, or partner, at the Thtetre franQalB, 1834. 

AUBRY BAIIaliEUIii TraaqaHle, French naval officer, b. Jan. 8, 1798 ; entered 
the French navy, 1812 ; first lieutenant, 1828 ; captain of a corvette, 1838 ; captain of a 
frigate, 1845 ; rear-admiral, June 7, 1855 ; governor of Ouadelonpe ; titular member of 
the Council of the Aumiralty ; grand officer of the L^on d'honneur, 1859. 

AUCKI«AND| Rev. John Bden, Baron. English di\ine, b. 1799 ; studied at EtoB 
and Cambridge ; admitted to holy orders, 1822 ; successively rector of Eyam, Derby- 
shire, of Hertingfordbury, Herts, and of Battersea, Surrey ; one of the chaplains to her 
Majesty, 1838 ; bishop of Sodor and Man, 1847 ; succeeded his brother to the title and 
seat in the House of Lords^ 1849 ; translated to the see of Bath and Wells, 1854. Author 
of ' Life and Corresi)ondence of the first Lord Auckland,' 1860. 

AUDIFFRET, Cliarles Lonia Gaston. Margnia d', French politirian, b. at 
Paris, Oct. 10, 1787 ; entered the Administration of Finance, 1805 ; chief of the bureau, 
1812 ; councillor of state, 1828 ; appointed president of the Council of Administration 
of Credit, Commerce, and Industry, 1859. Published ' Examen des Revenus Publics/ 
1839 ; ' Systeme financier de la France,' 1840 ; third edition, 1863-64 ; and other works. 

AXn>IGANNZ!| Armand, French author, b. at Ancenis, 1814 ; studied law at Paris ; 
entered the Ministry of Commerce, 1840 ; placed at the head of the Service of Industry, 
1848; appointed secretary to the Commission of the Universal Exhibition of 1855. 
Author of ' Monsieur Ouizot,' 1838 ; * Les Chemins de fer ai^ouvd'hui et dans cent ans 
chez tons les peuples,' 1858 ; and other works. 

AXnSR. Alois, German writer, b. at Wels, Upper Austria, May II, 1813; received 
his education at the University of Vienna, and became director of the Imperial Printing 
Office at Vienna, 1840. Published ' Paternoster in 608 languages,' Vienna, 1844 ; ' Die 
Entdeclcung des Naturselbstdruckes,' ib. 1864 ; and other works. 

AUBRBACH, Berthold, German author and poet, b. of Jewish parents, at Nord- 
stetten. Black Forest of Wurtembeig. Feb. 28, 1812 ; studied at Tttbingen, Munich, and 
Heidelberg, 1832-35. Author of • Tlie Jewish Nation and its Literature,' Stuttgart,. 
1836; 'Village Tales from the Bhick Forest, 1843; 'Andreas Hofer,' Leipsic, 1850; and 
many other works of fiction. 

AUERSPBRG, Cliarles Williaui Philip, Prince of, Austrian statesman, 
b. May 1, 1814; succeeded his father, Jan. 25, 1827; privy councillor and hereditary 
grand chamberlain to the Emperor of Austria ; nominated president of the Uppes 
Chamber of the Austrian Empire, 1861. 

AUER8PERG| Vincent Charles Joseph, Prince of, Austrian statesman, 
cousin-german of the preceding, b. July 16, 1812 ; privy councillor, lord chamberlain, and 
hereditary grand marshal of the TyroL 




Le iloi des Petits-Maitres,' 1852. 

AUGIERi GkiiUanme Victor Emilei French poet and dramatist, b. at Valence, 
Sept 17, 1820. Author of *La Cigue,' 1844 ; 'Gabrielle,' 1849; 'Les EfTh)nt^,' 1861 : 
* Le Fils du Giboyer,' 1862 ; 'Maltre Guerin,' 1864. 

AUGU8TENBURG, Christian An^nst, dnke of Schleswiy-Holstein. 
Sonderbnrpr-Anenstenbnrg'. b. at Copenhagen, July 19, 1798 ; succeeded duke 
Frederick Chnstian, 1814 ; married Louisa Sophia, countess of Dannis)<jold Samsoe, 1820 ; 
had his estates confiscated by the king of Denmark, 1850 ; ceded his claims to the Danish 
crown, 1851. Author of several works on the breeding and training of horses. 

AUGUSTENBURG. Frederick Christian Anaust, duke of Schleswic- 
Holatein-SonderDurs-Aafmstenburc, son of the preceding, b. July 6, 1829 ; 
major of 1st infantry regiment of the Prussian Guards ; married Adelaide Victoria, 
daughter of Prince Ernest of Hohenlohe-Langenbui^, 1866 ; asserted his right to the 
dukedom of Schleswig-Holstein, 1868. 



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AUMAIfC, Henri Euffe'ne PhlUiiype lK>als d'Orle'an^. Duke d'. Prince 
of the family of Orleans, b. at Paris, Jan. 16, 1822, fourth son of Kinj? Louis Philippe 
And Qiwen Marie Amelie; entered the army and became captain 18.S9, and colonel, 
Oct 1842 ; married Marie Caroline Auguste de Bourbon, daughter of Prince Leopold of 
Salerno, Nov. 25, 1844 ; commander-in-chief of the camp of Gironde, 1845 ; governor- 
general of the French irassessions in Africa, 1847-48. 

AU8TEN, 81r Francis Williaui, English admiral, b. at Steventon, Hants, 1774; 
entered the navy, and became lieutenant, 1792 ; served In the war of 1814 ; commander 
of the frigate Canofms in the naval expedition to St Domingo ; knighted, 1837 ; vice- 
admiral, 1862 ; admiral, 1863. 

AUTRAN. Joseph t French poet and dramatic writer, b. at Marseille, June, 1813. 
Author of 'Ode to M. de Lamartine,' 1832; 'Ludibria Ventis,' Paris, 1888; 'Italie et 
la Semaine Sainte ik Rome,' Marseille, 1841 ; ' Les PoSmes de la Mer,' Paris, 1852-^'>9 ; <Le 
Poeme des beaux Jours,' 1862 ; * Le Cyclope d'aprfes Euripide,' 1863 ; and other work& 

AUZOX7X, Theodore IiOOis, Frencb anatomist, b. at St-Aubin d'Ecroville, 1797; 
graduated M.D. at Paris, 1822. Author of * Un M^moire sur la Vipire ;' * Consid^raticns 
gdn^rales sur I'Anatomie ;' ' Un Memolre sur le Cholera-Morbus, son si^, sa nature, 
son traitement, 1850. 

AVEIfliANEDA, Gertmde. Spanish authoress, b. at Cuba, 1816, the daughter of 
a naval commander ; married Don Pedro Sabator, member of Congress, 1846, and after 
his death, at the end of a fevr months, retired to a convent at Ma(^d. Author of 
'Poesias Lyricas,' Madrid, 1841; *La Cruz,* ib. 1846; 'Las Glorias de Espafia,' ib. 
1850^51 ; and numerous other poems, dramas, and works of fiction. 

AVENEIiy Denis Iionis Martial, French journalist, b. at Orbee, Calvados, 
May 28, 1789 ; auditor to the Council of State of Westphalia, and secretary to King 
Jerome, 1806. Contributor to the Temp*, the Moniteur Universel, and other journals ; 
published * State Letters and Diplomatic Instructions of Cardinal Richelieu,' 1863. 

AVENELi, Panl, French novelist, b. at Chaumont, Oise, 1823 ; educated for a com- 
mercial career, but left it in 1850. Author of * Antith^es Morales,' Paris, 1854 ; * Le Roi 
de Paris,' ib. 1860 ; 'Le Due des Moines,' ib. 1864 ; and other novels. 

AVEZ AC-MAC A YA, Armand Pascal D', French geographer, b. at Bagn^res de 
Bigorre, 1799 ; educated for the law, and admitted to the Paris bar, 1823 ; head of 
department in the Ministry of Marine, 1831 ; secretary-general of the Paris Geographical 
Society, 1834. Author of 'Esquisse gen^rale de I'Afrique,* Paris, 1837 ; 'Des D^couvertes 
faites au Moyen-&ge dans I'oc^an Atlantique,' ib. 1845. Contributor to the Revue des 
Devx-Mondes, and various scientific publications. 

AWDRY. Sir John Wither, English administrator, b. 1795 ; educated at Winchester, 
and Chnst Church, Oxford, and graduated first class in classics, 1816 ; called to the 
bar, 1822 ; puisne judge and commissioner of the Insolvent Debtors' Court at Bombay, 
1839 ; chief justice of the Supreme Court of that Presidency, 1839 ; resig^ed,1842 ; one 
of the commissioners for the Reform of the University of Oarfbrd, 1844. 

AYMEy Jnles Gabriel, French magistrate and politician, b. at Medouville, Yosges, 
June 14, 1806 ; studied law, and called to the bar, 1830 ; judge of instruction to the 
tribunal of Neufch&teau, 1835 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif fbr the departoient of 
Yosges, 1852^7, and since 1863. 

AYRTON, Acton Smee. English politician, b. 1816; called to the bar of the Middle 
Temple, 1853 ; returned M.I». for the Tower Hamlets, 1857. 

AYTOX7N, Rosrer Sinclair, English politician, b. 1823; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; graduated B.A. 1846; M.A. 1848; a magistrate, and deputy-lieut for Fife- 
shire ; M.P. for Kirkcaldy since 1862. 

AZEGIiIO, Massimo Taparelli, Marqnis D', Italian statesman, b. at Turin, 
1801 ; studied painting and sculpture at Rome, 1816-29 ; elected deputy to the National 
Assembly of Sardinia, 1848 ; president of the Sardinian Council of Ministers, May 11, 
1849, to Oct. 30, 1852 ; Italian ambassador extraordinary to Great Britain, 1861. Author 
of 'Ettore Fieramosca,' Turin, 1833 ; and other wor^ of fiction of a political tendency. 

AZEGIflO, Victor Emmanuel Taparelli* Marquis !>', Italian diplomatist, 
b. 1815, nephew of the preceding ; entered the diplomatic career, 1841 ; minister-pleni- 
potentiary and ambassador to Great Britain since Nov. 13, 1850. 



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B. 

BABBAOE, diaries, English mathematician, b. Dec Stf, 1703 ; edacated at Trinity 
Colle^ Cambridge, and gnuduated 1812 ; undertook the constmciion of a oalcnlatins 
machine, or ' difference engine ' fur the government, 1821 ; professor of mathematics m 
Cambridge, 182S ; construction of calculating machine suspended. 1838. Author of 
* Economy of Manufactures,' 1821 ; 'Passages from the Life ot a Philosopher;' 'Auto- 
biographical Beminiscences,' 1864 ; and other works. 

BABINET, Jacquas. French astronomer, b. at Lusignan, March 5, 17M ; entered the 
Polyte<dmic School, 1812 ; lieutenant of artillery ; quitted the army, and b^uune succes- 
sively professor of mathematics at Fontenoy-le-Comtei at Poitiers, and at the College of 
Saint Louis ; professor of meteorology at * I'Ath^n^e,' 1825 to 1828 ; at the College de 
France, 1838 ; and at TAcademie des Sciences, 1840 ; astronomer to the Bureau of Longi- 
tudes. Author of ' Memoire sur la determination de la Masse de la plan^ Mercure,' 
1825; 'Sur la Pluie et les Inondations,' 1855; *De la T^l^graphie Electriqne: ligne de 
jonetion des cinq i)arties du Monde,' 1860 ; and other scientific works. 

BABIN6TON; Charles Cardiaei English botanist, b. 1808 ; educated at St John's 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B. A 1830; professor of botany at the University of 
Cambridge. Author of ' Flora Bathoniensis ;' ' Flora of the Channel Islands ;' * A Manual 
of British Botany ;' and other works. 

BABINGTON, Rev. Chnrclilll, Emrlish writer, b. 1821; graduated in honours at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1843 ; senior fellow, 1845 ; chaplain at Homin^iea, Cam- 
bridge, 1848 to 1861. Edited from MSS. recently discovered, 'Oration of Hyperides 
against Demosthenes;' 'Funeral Oration of Hyperides,' from papyrus in the British 
Museum ; and many other works. 

BABO, loumbert ▼on, German chemist, b. at Meinhem, grand duchy of Baden, 1790; 
president of the Society of ^Agriculture, Baden, 1831 ; professor of chemistry at the Uni* 
▼ersity of Friburg, 1853. Author of ' Instruction for the Culture of Prairies,' 1836 ; 
*The Vine and its Varieties,' 1843; 'The Principles of Agriculture,' 1851; and other 
works. 

BACH^ Alexander^ Baron ▼on, Austrian statesman, b. at Loosdorf, Lower Austria, 
Jan. 4, 1813 ; studied law, and was called to the bar at Vienna ; deputy of the order of 
Advocates, and one of the Provisional Commission for administnition of the city of 
Vienna in 1848 ; obtained the portfolio of Justice in the ministry of Schwartzenberg 
Stadion, 1848 ; minister of the Interior, 1849 ; ambassador and minister plenipotentiary 
to Rome, Aug. 1859, to Sept 1865. 

BACHE| Alexander Dallas, American military writer, b. in Philadelphia, July 19, 
1806; educated at the Military Academy, West Point, U.S. : lieutenant of engineers, 
1825 ; professor of mathematics at the University of Pennsylvania, 1827 ; president of 
Girard College, Philadelphia ; superintendent of United States coast survey, 1848. Pub- 
lished 'Different Systems of Instruction,' Philadelphia, 1839 ; and other works. 



I, Franklini American physician, brother of the preceding, b. at Philadelphia, 

Oct 25. 1792; graduated B.A. at the University of Pennsylvania, 1810; M.D. 1814; 
entered the medical department of the U.S. army, 1813; professor of chemistry in 
Franklin Institute of Pennsylvania, 1820-32. Author of ' System of Chemistry for the 
use of Students in Medicine ;' and other medical works. 

BACHBIiBTy Jean Iionis Theodore, French writer, b. at Pissy-Pdville, 1820; 
studied at the schools of Kouen and Versailles, and entered I'Ecole Norraale, 1840: 
naduated 1846 ; successively professor of history at the colleges of Havre, Chartres, and 
&L Quentin, at Clermont, Ferraud, Contances, and Rouen. Published ' The War of a 
Hundred Tears,' 1852; 'The Catholic Kings of Spain, to Ferdinand and Isabella,' 
1853. 




fifty years. Author of 'Quadrupeds 

A^issiz's Sketch of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World, and their Relation 

to different Types of Men,* 1855 ; and other works. 



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BACK, Sir Geors6y English navigator, b. at Stoclq)ort, 1796; entered the Rojral Navy, 
1808 ; appointed to the Trent, lieut-coramander John Franklin, 1818 ; sailed with Captain 
Franklin on the Arctic Expedition, 1819 ; lieutenant, 1821 ; commander of the expedition 
to discover Sir John Ross, 1833 ; appointed to the Terror, 1836 ; knighted, 1839 ; flag 
rank, 1857. Author of * Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the 
Great Fish or Back River, and along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in 1833-36 ;' and 
other works. 

BAECKERy IiOOlS det French archseologist, h. at Si Omer, April 16, 1814 ; studied 
law at Paris, and practised as barrister in his native town ; judge at Bergnes, 1844. 
Author of *Ch&teau de la Motte aux Bois,' 1848; 'Analogic de la Langue des Goths et 
des Franks avec le Sanscrit,' 1858 ; ' Langue neerlandaise,' 1863 ; and other archaeo- 
logical and historical works. 

BAEHR^ Johann Cbristian Felix, German'^hilologist, b. at Darmstadt, June IS, 
1798 ; studied at Heidelberg ; titular professor of Classical Literature in the University 
of that town, 1826 ; chief librarian, 1833 ; su^rior inspector of the Lyceum, 1839 ; 
director of the Philological Seminary, 1845. Author of * Herodotus,' Leipsic, 1832-34 ; 
edited the ' Annals of Heidelbei^ ;' and numerous historical and philol(^cal works. 

BABR, Charles Ernest de« Russian naturalist, b. in Esthonia, Feb. 17, 1792; 
studied medicine at the University of Dorpat ; professor of zoology at Konigsberg, 1819 ; 
appointed professor at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 1834 ; nominated correspondent 
of the French Aca<lemy of Sciences, 1858. Author of * History of the Development of 
Animals,' Konigsbeig,' 1828-37 ; ' Researches on the History and Development of Fishes,' 
Leipsic, 1835 ; ' Studies on the Russian Empire,' St. Petersburg, 1856. 

BAGGALIsAY, Richardi English politician^ b. 1816; educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1839, and M.A. 1842 ; called to the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn, 1843 ; made a Q.C. 1861 ; returned M.P. for Hereford, 1865. 

BAGGE. Sir WilUam, English politician, b. 1810; educated at the Charterhouse, 
andBaUiol College, Oxford; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Norfolk; made 
a baronet, 1867; M.P. for West Norfolk, 1837-57, and since 1865. 

BAGNALIa, Charles, English politician, b. 1827; educated at King's College, 
London ; is a magistrate for Staflbrdshire and North Riding of Yorkshire ; returned 
M.P. for Whitby, 1865. 

BAOOT, WUliam Bacrot, Baroiii English politician, b. 1811 ; studied at the 
University of Oxford; M.P. for Denbighshire ftom 1835 to 1852 ; was lordin-waiting to 
the late I^ince Consort ; succeeded his fkther, second baron, 1856. 

BAOTVELIii Johni English politician, b. 1811 ; educated at Winchester ; is a magis- 
trate for Waterford, and a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Water- 
ford and Tipperary ; was high sherifl", 1884 ; M.P. for Clonmel since 1857. 

BAIIaEYy Cra^xrshay, English politician, b. 1794 ; is a magistrate and deputy-liea- 
tenant for the county of Glamorgan ; has been high sheriff of Monmouth and Brecon ; 
M.P. for Monmouth since 1852. 

BAIIiEYy Sir Joseph Russell, English politician, b. 1840 ; educated at Harrow, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; is a magistrate for the counties of Hereford and Brecon ; 
high sheriff, 1864; deputy-lieutenant for Brecon and Radnor; returned M.P. for Here- 
fordshire, 1865. 

BAILEY. Joseph Roosevelt, American Catholic priest, b. at New York, 1814 ; 
studied lor the Protestant Episcopal Church ; embraced Catholicism, 1842, and entered 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice, at Paris; ordained priest, and returned to the United 
States, 1844 ; consecrated to the Bishopric of Newark, 1853. 

BAILEY, Philip James. English poet b. at Nottingham, April 22, 1816 ; educated 
at various schools, and matriculated at the University of Glasgow, 1831 ; studied law, 
and admitted of Lducoln's Inn, 1835; called to the bar, 1840. Author of 'Festus,' 
London, 1839, seventh edition 1864: 'The Angel of the World,' 1860; *The Mystic,* 
1855 ; ' The Age,' 1858, and other works in verse and prose. 

3AILLARGER, Jnles Gabriel Franqois, French physician, b. at Montbazon, 
1806; studied medicine at Paris ; assistant at the Hospital of Saltp^triere, 1840; devoted 
principally to the treatment of nervous and mental diseases. 

BAILLIE. Henry James, English politician, b. 1804 ; is a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant for the county of Inverness ; was joint secretary of the Board of Control, 
1852 and 1858-59 ; M.P. for Inverness-shire since 1840. 

BAIN, Alexander, English writer, b. at Aberdeen, 1818; entered Marischal College 
1836; graduated M.A. 1840; assistant secretary to the Metropolitan Sanitary Commia- 



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sioners, 1S47 ; examiner in logic and moral phUosopfay in the University of London, 
1857 to 1862; appointed crown professor of logic In the University of Aberdeen, 18*50. 
Author of ' Moral Philosophy,' 1852 ; *The Study of Character, including an Estimate of 
Phrenology/ 1861 ; and several scholastic works. 

BAINESy ^dWKtdf English politician, b. 1800 ; educated at the Protestant Dissenters' 
Grammar School, Manchester; M.P. for Leeds, in his brother's place, since 1859. 
Author of 'A Visit to the Vaudois of Piedmont;' 'The Woollen Manufacture of Eng- 
land ;' and ' The Life of the late Edward Baines. ' 

BAIRDy Robertj American writer, b. at Fayette, conn^ Pennsylvania, 1798. Author 
of * History of Temperance Societies,' 1836 ; * A View of Religion in America,' Glasgow, 
1842; 'Tiie Christian Retrospect and Register,' New York, 1851; and contributions to 
American periodicals. 

BAIRDy Spencer, American naturalist, b. at Reading, |Pennsylvania, 1823; professor 
of natural science at Dickenson College, and assistant secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. Editor and translator of the ' Iconographie Encyclopedia,' 1851 ; and 
author of various papers on zoology and natural history. 

BAITOR| Joban Qeorg, Swiss philologist, b. at Zurich, 1801 ; studied at Munich, 
Gottingen, and Konigsberg ; professor at the University of Zurich, 1827 ; resigned 1849. 
Published 'Des Orateurs Attiques,' Zurich, 1837-50; the collected works of Plato, in 
21 vols. : and other classical works. 



, John, Dutch philologist, b. at Leyden, Sept. 1, 1787 ; professor of Greek and 
Latin literature at the University of Leyden, 1815; member of the Institute of the 
Netherlands, 1821 ; and of the Academy of Sciences, 1855. Author of * Posidonii Reliquie,' 
Leyden, 1810 ; * Scholia Hypomnemata,' ib. 1837-52 ; and numerous books and pamphleta 
on political economy and Greek and Itoman antiquities. 

UaA.RD. Antoine Je'rome. French chemist, b. at Montpellier, Sept. 80, 1802 ; pro- 
fessor to the College Royal and School of Pharmacy, at Montpellier, 1826 ; professor of 
chemistry to the Faculty of Sciences ; member of the Academy of Sciences, 1844 ; master 
of the conferences at the Normal School, 1849 ; appointed to the chair of chemistry at the 
College of France, 1851. 

, Michael William, English composer, b. at Dublin, May 15. 1808; appeared 
in the Opera ' Freischtitz,' 1824, at the Norwich Theatre ; director of the Italian Opera 
in London, 1845 ; lessee of the English Opera House, 1839. Among his numerous operas 
are 'The Bohemian Girl,' 'The Daiighter of St. Mark,' 'Satanella,' 'The Armourer of 
Nantes,' 'Blanche de Nevers,' and ' The Puritan's Daughter.' 

BAIaFOUR, John Hutton, English botanist, b. 1802; graduated M.A. and M.D. at 
Edinburgh, 1831 ; professor of botany at the University of Glasgow ; secretary to the 
Royal Society, Edinburgh. Author of 'Manual of Botany;' ' Phyto-Theology, or 
Botany and Religion ;' ' The Plants of Scripture ;' and other botanical works. 

BAIaFOURIER, Adolphe Paul Emile. French painter, b. at Montmorency, 
August 11, 1816 ; studied law, and called to the bar at Paris. Exhibited, 1853-57, ' Views 
of Forezza ;' ' Mazeppa ;' *Bois de Pins au bord de la Mer,' 1864 ; and many others. 

BAIalfcAWTINE, William, English hiwyer, b. 1808; called to the bar of the Inner 
Temple, 1834; made a Q.C. 1863. 

BAIiTZER, Johan Baptist, German Catholic theologian, b. July 16, 1803, at Ander- 
nach on the Rhine ; studied at the University of Bonn, under Professor Hermes, 1823 
to 1827 ; professor of theology at Breslau, 1830-31 ; ecclesiastical examiner, 1844 ; and 
canon at Breslau, 1846. Author of ' Theological Letters,' 1844-53 ; and numerous other 
theological works. 

BAIaTZER, Wilhelm Ednard, German Protestant theologian, b. at Hohenleine, 
Prussia, Oct 24, 1814 ; studied theology at the|Universities of Halle and Leipsic, 1834-38 ; 
Protestant minister of the town of Delitzch, 1840; resigned and went to Nordhausen, 
1847 ; took part in the Parliament of Frankfort, 1848. Author of ' The New Prophets, 
Discourses on their Life, Character, and Importance,' Leipsic, 1853 ; and other theo- 
logical works. 

BAIaUFFI, Gaetano, Italian author, b. at Ancona, March 29, 1788 ; secretary to Pope 
Gregory X Vl. ; bishop of Imola, Sept. 21, 1846 ; cardinal, Dec. 1846. Published ' History 
of Religion in America,' Rome, 1848 ; ' The Divinity of the Church of Rome,' 1868. 

BAIiZE, Jean E'tienne Panl, French painter, b. in Rome, Aug. 25, 1815; studied 
in Paris at the School of Fine Arts, 1831 ; and, under M. Ingres, executed 'The Combat 
between Fitz-James and Roderick Dhu, from the Lady of the Lake,' 1836; 'La lApida- 
tlon de Saint ^tienne,' 1861 ; and other paintings. 

_ _ _ - — 



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BANCROFT, Geor^ey American politician and hiHtorian, b. at Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, Oct. 3, 1800 ; graduated with honours at Harvard College, 1817 ; studied at Gottin- 
gm and Berlin, 1818; tutor, of Greek in Harvard College; collector at the Port of 
oston, 1838 to 1841 ; democratic candidate for governor of the State of Massachusetts, 
1844 ; administrator of the Navy Department, 1845 ; minister-plenipotentiary to Great 
Britain, 1846 to 1849. Author of ' History of the United States,' first voL 1834, vol. viiL 
1860 ; contributor to the North American Review, and other works. 

BANVIIiIiE, Theodore de. French poet, b. at Paris, 1820. Author of 'Les Nations,' 
an opera, 1851 ; * The Cousin of the King,' 1857 ; ' Scenes of my Life,' 1859 ; and a great 
number of dramas in verse and prose. 

BARAGX7AY, D'HIlliers Achille, Comte de, French general, b. at Paris, 
Sept. 6, 1795 ; entered the army, 1807 ; oecame lieutenant, 1812 ; captain, 1814 ; captain 
of the Royal Guard, 1815; chief of a battalion, 1818; lieutenant-colonel, 1825; colonel, 
1830 ; governor of the Military School of St. Cyr, 1833 ; mar6chal de camp, Sept. 29, 1836 ; 
major-general, 1836 ; general of division, 1844 ; chief in command of troops in the third 
military division, 1851 ; vice-president of the Senate ; ambassador of France to Constan- 
tinople, 1853-^4 ; field-marshal, Aug. 28, 1854. 

BARAIfT, Rafael Maria, American writer, b. at Maracaibo, Venezuela, at the 
beginning of the present centory. Published * History of Venezuda,* Paris, 1841 ; and 
other works. 

BARATGAX7, Emile, French writer, b. at Bordeaux, 1792 ; studied law at Paris : 
contributed to several literary journals ; inspector of royal hospices in Spain ; resigned 
and obtained a pension, 1830. Author of ' Georgine,* 1820 ; * Bagatelles,* 1831 ; and 
other romances. 

BARBARA, laools Charles. French novelist, b. at Orle^ans, 1822; studied at the 
College of nis native town, and at the College of Louis le Grand, Paris. Author of 
'Revue de Paris,' 1854; 'Histoires dmouvantes,' 1855; 'Ary Zang,' 1862; and other 
novels. 

BARBAROUX, Charles Oze', French magistrate, b. at Marseilles, Aug. 16, 1792 ; 
studied at the Lyceum of Louis le Grand, and at I'lScole d'Aix; called to the bar of 
Nimes, 1814 ; procureur-g6n6ral at Pondichery, 1830 ; councillor of state, 1852 ; senator, 
Feb. 8, 1858. Author of ' History of the United States,' 1824 ; and other works. 

BARBBS, Armand, French politician, b. at Pointe k Pitre, Guadeloupe, Sept. 18, 
1809 ; studied law at Paris ; arrested for conspiring against the life of Louis Philippe, 
Aug. 1835 ; governor of the Luxembourg at the Evolution of 1848 ; represented the 
department of Aude at the Constituent Assembly, 1848; arrested and sentenced to 
imprisonment for life, 1849 ; liberated by order of the Emperor, 1854. 

BARBEY D'AUREVILIiY, Jules, French journalist and novelist, b. at St. Sau- 
veur le Vicomtes, 1811. Author of * L' Amour impossible,' 1841 : ' Dix-neuvi^me Si6cle, 
les Homuies et les OBuvres,' 1861-63; 'Le Chevalier Destouches,' 1864; and numerous 
works of fiction. 

BARRIER, Henri Anguste, French writer, b. at Paris, April 28, 1805. Author 
of *Les Mauvais Gargons,' 1830 ; * II Pianto et Lazare,' 1837 ; ' Rimes H^roiques,' 1843. 
Translated Shakespeare's * Julius Ceasar' into French ; and is the author of numerous 
satires. 

BARBIER, Paul Jules, French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, 1822. Author of ' Le 
Poet,' 1847 ; 'Voyage autour d'une jolie femme,' 1852 ; 'La Reine de Saba,' 1862; 'La 
Fille d'Egypte,* 1862 ; * Peines d' Amour iwrdues,' 1863 ; and numerous dramas. 

BARCLAY, Alesander Charles, English politician, b. 1823 ; educated at Harrow, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge ; returned M.P. for Taunton, 1865. 

BARDELEBEN, Kurt Von, German politician, b. in Prussia, April 24, 1706 ; 
entered the army, 1813 ; married the daughter of President Anerswald, at Konigsberg, 
1819 ; deputy of the nobles to the provincial Diet, 1834 ; signed the petition addressed to 
the King Frederick William IV. 1840 ; envoy to the National Assembly at Frankfort, 
1848. 

BAROSIiEY, Sir James Lomaz, English physician, b. at Nottingham, 1801; 
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh, 1823; consulting physician to the Manchester In&inary ; 
fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London ; deputy-lieutenant and magistrate 
for the county of Lancaster. Author of articles in the Cycl(ypcedia of Practical Medieine, 
and 'Hospital Facts and Observations,' 1837. Knighted, 1863. 

BARGES, I'Abbe' Jean Joseph Iie'andro, French philologist, b. at Auriol, 
Douches du Rh6ne, Feb. 27, 1810 ; studied Arabic and Hebrew at Marseilles ; ordained 
priest, 1834 ; professor of Arabic at Marseilles, 1837 ; and of Oriental languages at Paris, 



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1842 ; honorary canon of Notre-Dame, 1850. Anther of ' Temple de Baal 4 If arMfllea, 
Grand Phoenivian Inscription,' 1847 ; and other workt. 

BARING, Hon. Alesander Hnch, English politician, b. 1835; educated at 
Harrow, and Christ Chnrch, Oxford; gnuioated B.A. 1867; M.P. for Thetford ainee 
1857. 

BARING, Henrj Blni^bain, English politician, b. 1804 ; educated at Christ Chnrch, 
Oxford; graduated B.A. 1825; M.P. for Callington, 1831-82; lord of the Treasuiy, 
1841-6 ; M.P. for Marllwrough since 1882. 

BARING. Hon. Thomas Georye, English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford ; was a lord of the Admiralty, 1857-68 ; appointed undersecretary for 
India, 1859 ; nnder-secretary for war, Jan. 1861 ; re-appohited to India Office, July, 1861 ; 
M.P. for Penrhyn and Falmouth since 1857. 

BARING, Thomas, English politician, b. 1800; educated at Winchester; M.P. for 
Yarmouth ftx»m 1835 to 1837 ; and for Huntingdon since 1844 ; offered the poet of Chan- 
choUor of the Exchequer, which he declined, 1852 and 1858 ; one of the commissionera of 
the International Exhibition, 1862. 

BARKIiY, Sir Henry, English administrator, b. in London, 1815 ; studied law ; 
M.P. for Leominster, 1845 to 1849 ; governor and commander-in-chief of British Guinea, 
1849; governor of Jamaica, 1853-56; governor of Victoria, 1856; governor of the Mau- 
ritius, 1863; K.U.B. civil division, 1853. 

BARN ABO, Alexandroi Italian cardinal, b. at Foligno, March 2, 1801 ; held 
several offices in the Papal States, and elevated to the dignitv of a cardinal priest, 
under the title of St. Susanna, 1856; prefect of the Sacred Congregation of tlw 
Propaganda. 

BARNARD, Henry, American scholastic writer, b. at Hartford, Connecticut, United 
States, 1811; graduated at Yale College, 1830. Author of 'School Architecture;' 

* Normal Schools in the United States, and in Europe ;' ' Report« on Common Schools 
in Connecticut,' 1838-54; and other publications on the system of public schools. 

BARNES, Rev. Albert. American theological writer, b. at Rome, State of New 
York, Dec« 1, 1798 ; studied theology at Princetown Seminary, and appointed minister 
of the first Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, 1830. Author of 'Commentaries on 
the New Testament, and on the Books of Job, Isaiah, and Daniel' 

BARNES, Thomas, English politician, b. 1813 ; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
for the county of Lancaster ; M.P. for Bolton, 1862-57, and since 1861. 

BARNES, Rev. William, English poet and philologist, b. at Bushhay, Bagber, 
Dorset) 1810 ; kept a school at Dorchester ; curate of Whitcombe, Dorset, 1847 ; rector 
of Winterboume Came, 1862. Author of * Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect ;' 
•A Philological Grammar :* • Views of Labour and Gold ;* * A School-book of Geography 
and Ethnology;' and numerous philological and scholastic works. 

BARNETT, Henry, English politician, b. 1815 ; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
for Oxon, and major of Oxfordshire yeomanry cavalry ; M.P. for Woodstock, 1865. 

BARNI, Jnles Romain, French writer, b. at Lille, Nord, June 1, 1818 ; studied at 
the Royal College of Amiens ; entered the Ecole Normal, 1837 ; professor of philosophy 
at Rouen, 1851 ; professor of history and philosophy at the Academy of Geneva, 1861. 
Author of ' Observations on the Sentiment of the Beautiful and the Sublime,' 1846 ; 

* Philosophy of Kant,' 1850 ; 'The Martyrs of Liberty of Thought,' 1862 ; and numerous 
metaphysical and critical works. 

BAROCHE, Pierre Jules, French statesman, b. at Paris, Nov. 8, 1802, the son of a 
merchant : studied jurisprudence, and became advocate in 1823 ; nominated b&tonnier 
of the bar of Paris, 1846 ; elected deputy for Rochefort, 1847 ; deputy to the Constituent 
Assembly for the department of Charente infericure, 1848; apT)ointed procureur-g^n6ral 
of the Republic, 1849 ; minister of the Interior, 1850-51 ; minister of Foreign Affairs, 
April 10 to Oct. 14, 1851 ; appointed president of the Council of State and minister, 1861 ; 
nominated minister of Justice and keeper of the Great Seal— Garde des Sceaux — 
June 24, 1863. 

BARON, Vincent Alfred. French actor and sculptor, b. at Trdvoux, June 11, 1820 ; 
went to Paris, 1835 ; entered the School of Design and studied at the School of Fine Arts, 
1837 ; as a sculptor, he exliibited in 1848 several medals and portraits, * Samson,' 
'Bauvalelt,' and many others; as an actor, he played in * Le Courrier de Lyon,' 

* Benvenuto Cellini,' and other pieces. 

BARRAUItT, Emile, French writer, b. at Paris, 1802 ; called to the bar, 1880; repre- 
sentative of Algeria in the Legislative Assembly, 1860. Author of ' Aux Artistes, du 



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Pas86 et de I'avenlr des Beaux Arts,' 1830 ; * History of the War of Mehemet-Ali in 
Syria and Asia Minor/ 1836 ; ' Le Christ,' 1864 ; and numerous religious, historical, and 
political works. 

BARRIERE, Theodore, French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, 1823 ; assistant in the 
Ministry of War and Marine, 1834-43 ; devoted himself to dramatic literature ; first 
piece, ' Rosiere et Norrice,' played at the theatre of Beaumarchais and at the Palais 
Royal, 1842 ; ' Filles de Marbre/ 1863 ; * Un Manage en Ville,' 1864 ; and many other 
dramas. 

BARRON. Sir Henry Winston, English politician, b. 1795 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Waterford ; was 
high sheriff, 1867 ; M. P. for Waterford, 1832 to 1862, and 1866. 

BARROT, Csmille Hyacinthe Odillon, French statesman, b. at Villefort, Lozire, 
July 19, 1791 ; studied law, called to the bar, and practised at the Court of Cassation 
from 1814 to 1831 ; entered the Chamber of Deputies, 1830 ; was prefect of the Seine, 
1830-31. Published * Centralization and its Effects,' 1861. Took part in the conferences 
held In Paris in favour of Poland, 1864. 

BARROT, Ferdinand, French statesman, b. at Paris, Jan. 10, 1806 ; studied law, 
and called to the bar ; member of the Chamber of Deputies, 1845 ; represented Algeria in 
the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; secretary to Louis Napoleon when president, and acted 
as minister from Oct. 1849 to March, 1860 ; ambassador to Turin, 1860-61 ; senator 
and municipal councillor of Paris, 1864. 

BARROT, Adolphe, French diplomatist, b. 1808, brother of the two preceding; envoy 
to Haiti ; consul-general in Egypt, and minister of the Republic to Lisbon, 1830 to 
1849 ; envoy to Naples, 1851-53 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Balgium, 1853, and ambassador to Madrid, 1858 ; senator, Oct. 5, 1864. 

BARRY, Rev. Alfred, English theological writer, b. 1826 ; studied at King's College, 
London, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; graduated B. A 1848, and fellow, 1848 ; ordained, 
1850 ; head master of the Grammar School at Leeds for eight years ; principal of Chel- 
tenham College, 1862. Author of * Introduction to the Old Testament/ • Notes on the 
Gospels. ' 

BARRY, Charles Robert, English politician, b. 1824 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin ; graduated B. A. 1845, M. A 1863 ; called to the Irish bar, 1847 ; appointed law 
adviser to the Irish government, 1866 ; M.P. for Dungarvan, 1865. 

BARRY, Edward, English architect, brother of preceding, b. 1830 ; standing architect 
to the Houses of Parliament ; erected the New Grammar School at Leeds, and numerous 
other public building**. 

BARRY, Frangois Bernard, French painter, b. at Marseilles, 1816 ; studied at Paris 
under M. T. Gudin. Exhibited ' Effet de brouillard,' 1840 ; • Arriv6e des eaux de la M6di- 
terran6e au lac Timsah,' 'Ceremony of Nov. 18, 1862,' 'Thebes,' 'Ruins of Kamac,' 
'Chonna,' 'First Cataract of the Nile;' 1864, and numerous landscapes and marine 
paintings. 

BARRY, GeorjBre Richard, English politician, b. 1S25; educated at the Royal 
College of Mauritius ; a magistrate fbr the county of Cork ; returned M.P. for county 
of Cork, 1866. 

BARRY, Michael, English lawyer, b. 1810 ; educated in France, and at the Queen's 
University, Ireland, where he graduated D.L. 1860 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Iun» 
1859 ; appointed Queen's advocate at the Gold Coast, 1864. 

BARRY, Sir Redmond, English administrator, b. 1813 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1838 ; solicitor-general for the colony of Victoria, 1850 ; 
judge in the Supreme Court there, 1851 ; knighted, 1860 ; chancellor of the New Uni- 
versity at Melbourne. Published a volume of essays and inaugural addresses. 

BARTHE'IaEMY. Ancruste Marseille, French poet, b. at Marseilles, 1796; 
studied at the College of Juilly. Author of ' Les Adieux k Sidi-Mahmoud,' 1825 ; 
' Napol6on en Egypte,' 1828 ; 'Constautine,' 1837 ; ' Nouvelle Nemesis,' 1844-45 ; ' Les 
deux Marseilles,' 1858 ; and many other poems and political satires. 

BARTHBIaBMY, SAINT HIIJkIRE, Jnles. French author, b. in Paris, Aug. 19, 
1806 ; member of the Institute ; attached to the Ministry of Finance ; appointed pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin philosophy at the College of Prance, 1838 ; after the coup 
d'6tat of Dec. 2 refused to take the oath, and voluntarily quitted his chair in the College 
of France. Author of 'Politique d'Aristote,' 1838; 'La Logique d'Aristote,' 1839-44 ; 
* Des Vedas,' 1854 ; ' Le Boudha et sa Religion, Ac' 1869 ; new edition, 1862 ; and many 
other philosophical works. 



Bar HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Bat 
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Tf John Rosselly American ethnologist, b. at Providence, Rhode Island, 
Oct. 23, 1805 ; educated at New York and in different schools in Canada ; founded the 
American Ethnological Society with A Oallatine ; secretary of state Of Rhode Island. 
Author of 'Progress of Ethnol<^, Ac.' 1847; 'Personal Narrative of Explorations and 
Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, in the years 1860-63-64.' 

BARTTBIaOT. Walter Barttelot| English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Rugby ; 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Sussex, and lieutenant-colonel of Sussex rifle 
volunteers ; M.P. for West Sussex since 1860. 

BASCIiE DE laAGREZEi Gnstavei French magistrate and archsBologist, b. at 
Pau^ Aug. 23, 1811 ; studied law at Paris, and called to the French bar, 1836; procureur- 
g^nend at Pau, 1837 ; councillor at the Imperial Court in the same town, 1862. Author 
of * Le Droit Criminal 41' usage desJur^s,' 1864; 'Antiquities of B^am,' 1846; 'Histoire 
Religieuse de la Bigorre,' 1863; and other arch^olc^cal works. 

BASS, Michael Arthur, English politician, b. 1837; educated at Harrow and 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; graduated B.A 1860, M. A. 1863 ; is a magistrate for Staf- 
ford ; M.P. for Steffoid, 1865. 



, Michael Thomas^ English politician, b. 1799 ; educated at Burton Grammar 
School; deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Stafford and Derby ; M.P. for Derby sine* 
1848. 

BASSANO, Napoleon-Joseph-Hnsi&es Maret, Dnke of, French diplomatist, 
b. at Paris, July 3, 1803 ; entered the diplomatic service after the Revolution of July, 
1830, as secretary to the ambassador at Brussels; accredited minister in the Grand 
Duchy of Baden, 1849, and in Belgium, 1861 ; senator, Dec. 31, 1862; grand chamberlain 
to the imperial palace. 

BASSANVIIfliE, Anais Iiebnm, Coxntesse de, French authoress, b. 1806; 
founded Le Moniteur des Danus et dea Demoiselles and Le Dimatiche des Families. 
Author of 'Aventures d' une Epingle,' 1846 ; 'Les Deux Families,' 1859 ; ' La Chambre 
Rouge,' 1863; and other works. 

BASTARD D'ESTANGt Henri-Bruno, Vicomte de, French magistrate, b. at 
Paris, Nov. 14, 1797; studied law and was called to the bar; procure ur-g6neral at 
Alenyon, 1820 ; at Puy, 1822 ; at NImes, 1826 ; councillor of the Royal Court at Paris, 
1833. Author of ' Recherches sur I'ancien duch^ pairie de Randan,' 1830; ' Parliament 
de Toulouse,* 1864 ; * Les Parlements de France, Essai historique sur leur Usages, leur 
Organisation, Ac' 1868. 

BASTIDE. Jnles, French writer and politician, b. at Paris, Nov. 21, 1800 ; studied at 
Paris, and became editor of the National and the Rivue Hationale^ 1836 to 1847 ; 
secretary-general to the minister for foreign affairs, 1848; minister for foreign affairs, 
1848. Author of ' Public Religion in France,' 1847 ; 'War of Religion in France,' 1869 ; 
and other works. 

BASTIDE,' Jenny Dofourqneti French authoress, b. at Rouen, July 8, 1792 ; has 
written under the double name of Jenny Bastide and Caiiiille Bodin. Author of " La 
Belle M6re/ 1828; 'Les Memoires d'uu Confesseur,' 1846; ' Francine de Plainville,' 
1850 ; and several dramas and works of fiction. 

BATBIE. Ansehne Polycarpe, French lawyer, b. at Seissan, May 31, 1828 ; auditor 
to the Cfouncil of State, 1849; LL.D. at Paris, 1860; charged with the reorganization 
of the Council of State, 1861 ; professor and examiner-in-law to the Faculty of Paris, 
1862. Author of ' Treatise on the Theory and Practice of the Public Administration of 
Law,' 1863 ; and other legal works. 

BATEMAN, Kate Josephine, American actresa» b. at Baltimore, United States, 
1842; first appeared as one of the 'Bateman Children' in London, 1851 ; studied for the 
stage, and re-appeared 1869 ; played at the leading American theatres, and in England 
the part of 'Leah,' and other tragedies. 

BATES, Ed'veard, American lawyer, b. at Goochland, Virginia, 1793 ; studied law at 
St. Louis, 1814 ; called to the bar, 1817 ; attorney-general in President Lincoln's 
Cabinet, 1861. 

BATESON, Sir Thomas, English politician, b. 1819 ; is a deputy-lieutenant for 
the county of Londonderry; M.P. for L<mdonderry, 1844 to 1867 ; was a lord of the 
Treasury in 1852; M.P. for Devizes since 1864. 

BATHURST, Allen Alexander, English politfcinn.b. 1832; educated at Eton, and 

Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.P. for Cirencester sime 1807. 
BATTAIIaliE, Charles Amable, French musical writer, b. at Nantes, Sept. 80, 

1822 ; studied medicine at Caen, and obtained the diploma of M.D. ; professor of singing 



HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. 
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at the Conservatoire, 1851. Author of ' Nonvelles Recherches sur la Phonation/ 1861 ; 
' De la Physiologic appliqu^e k I'Etude du M^canisme Vocal/ 1863. 

BAX7CHART| Alesander-Quentin, French politician, b. at Villiera4e-Sec, Aisne 
Feb. 7, 1809 ; studied law, and was called to the bar at Laon ; member of the Council- 
(General at Aisne ; member of the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; after the coup d'dtat, 
Dec. 2, 1862, was made councillor of state. 

BAUDRILIiARTi Henri-Josepli lae'on. French political economist, b. at Paris, 
Nov. 28, 1821 ; studied at the College of Bourbon. Autiior of * Discours sur Voltaire/ 
1844 ; * Manual of Political Economy,' 1857 ; ' Publicistes Modernes,' 1862-63 ; and otlner 
workis on iK)litical economy. 

BAUERy Bntno* German Biblical critic, b. at Eisenbuig, Saxe-Altenburg, Sepl 6, 
1809 : studied at. the Schools and University of Berlin ; do^r of theology. 1834 ; pro- 
fessor at Bonn, 1889. Author of ' Review of the Life of Jesus, by Strauss,' 1835 ; * Review 
of Gospel History of John,' 1840 ; ' Review of Gtospels, and History of their Origin,* 
1850 ; and many other theological and critical works. 

BAUER, Reinhard EdnTln . German writer, b. at Walda, Saxony, July 7, 1816 ; 
studied theology at the University of Leipsic. Published • Primitive Christianity,' 1846 ; 
'Christianity of the AposUes,' 1847 ; * Christianity of the Church,' 1848. 

BAUERUB, Adolphe, German dramatic author, b. at Vienna, April 9, 1786 ; founded, 
1808, the Theatrical JmrruU of Vienna. Author of * Theresa Krones,^1854m55 ; * Ferdinand 
Raymond,' 1855 ; • Director Karl,' 5 vols. 1856. 

BAUER NFEIfD, Eduard| German poet and dramatic author, b. at Vienna, 1804 ; 
studied law ; employed in the administration of the Austrian government, 1826. 
Author of 'Lustpiele,* 1833; * Saemtliche Gedichte von Shakespeare,' 1827; 'Baron 
Ringelstem,' 1829; * Ein Deutscher Krieger,' 1848 ; and other poems and dramas. 

BAUM GARTNER, Karl Heinrich, German physician, b. at Pforzheim, B:iden, 
Oct. 21, 1798 ; studied at the Universities of Tiibingen and Heidelbei^ ; graduated M.D. 
1818 ; surgeon, 1820 to 1824 ; prqfessor of medicine, University of Friburg ; privy coun- 
cillor of the Grand Duke of Baden. Published ' Elements of raysiology. Pathology, &c.' 
1837, second edition 1842 ; 'New Treatment of Pneumonia,' 1850; and many other 
medical works. 

BAUMGARTNER, Andre, Baron ^otk, Austrian statesman, b. at Friedberg, 
Bohemia, Nov. 23, 1793 ; studied at the School of Linz, 1810, and at the University of 
Vienna ; professor of medicine at Ollmtitz, 1817 ; professor at University of Vienna, 
1823 ; founded Journal of Physics and Matliematics, 1826 ; minister of public mines, 
1848 ; minister of finances, and commissioner of the government, 1851 ; minister of 
commerce, 1855 ; member for life of the Upper Chamber of Austria. 

BAUMGARTNER, Gallus Jacqnes, Swiss politician, b. at St. Gall, Oct. 18, 1797; 
studied law at the School of Fribourg ; member of the Council of the Canton of St. (Jail, 
1825 ; contributed to the adoption of the Constitution of 1831 ; member of the Executive, 
1832; retii-ed, 1841 ; founded the i^et^; Swiss GazetUy 1843. Published 'Events on the 
Political Battle Field,' 1844. 

BAUM STARK, Eduard, German political economist, b. at Sinzheim, March 10, 
1807 ; studied at the University of Heidelberg'; professor at the University of Greifswald, 
1838 ; professor and one of the directors of the Academy of Sciences, Eldena, 1840 ; 
head master, 1843 ; deputy to National Assembly of Prussia, 1848 ; nominated member of 
the First Chamber, 1849. Published ' On Taxes upon Income,' 1849 ; ' History of the 
Working Classes,' 1863. 

BAUR, Ferdinand Christian, German Protestant theologian, b. June 21, 1792 ; 

5rofessor at the Seminary of Blaubeuren, 1817 ; at the University of Tiibingen, 1826. 
Published 'Symbolical, Mythological, and Natural Religion of Antiquity,' 1825 ; 'The 
Evangel of St. Mark, its Origin and Character,' 1851 ; and other theological works. 

BAUTAIN, I'Abbe' laonls Eugenie Marie, French author, b.at Paris, Feb. 17, 
1796 ; entered the Ecole Nomiale, 1813 ; professor of theology at the College of Stras- 
bourg, 1816 ; entered holy orders, and appointed professor of philosophy, and canon of 
Strasboni?; cathedral, 1828. Author of 'Moral PhUosophy,' 1842; ^Christians of our 
Time,' 1859 ; 'The Art of Public Speaking,' 1863. 

BAVA, Jean Baptiste Euse'be, Baron de, Italian general, b. at Verceil, Aug. 
1790 ; studied at the Military School of St. Cyr, and became lieutenant, 1814 ; captain 
and major, 1840 ; governor of the province of Alexandria, 1847 ; commanded a corps 
d'arm6e on the declaration of war with Austria, 1848 ; general, 1848 ; minister of war, 
1849; Inspector-general of infantry, 1862; organized the army for the expedition to 
Crimea, 1855. 



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.•«.*«.M, William Edward, English politinian, b. at Dundee, 1825; studied at 
Dundee, and at the University of Edinburgh ; travelled in Europe and America ; M.P. 
for Montrose since 1855. Author of *TagU8 and the Tiber,' 1848 ; * America and the 
Americans,' 1850. 
BAZA'INE. Francois AchiUe, French general, b. Feb. IS, 1811 ; studied in the 
Boole Polytechnique ; entered the army, 1831 ; served in Africa, 1832 ; captain, 1839 : 
lieutenant-colonel, 1848 ; commanded brigade of infantry in the Elast, 1853 ; general of 
division in the Crimea ; inspector-gencml of infantry, 1856 ; commander of tue French 
expedition to Mexico, 1862 ; marshal of France, Sept 5, 1864. 

BAZAL6ETTE, Joseph WlUiam, English civU engineer, b. 1819 ; engineer to 
the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers ; engineer-in-chief to the Metropolitan Board of 
Works ; designer of the Thames embankment firom Westminster to Blackfriars Bridge, 
and of the new street from Blackfriars to the Mansion House. 

BAZIaEY, Thomas, English politician, b. at Hilton, near Bolton, 1797 ; educated at 
Bolton Grammar School ; opened the tree trade campaign at Liverpool with Cobden and 
Brooke, 1837 ; president of Manchester Chamber of Commei-ce from 1845 to 1859 ; one of 
the Royal Commissioners of Great Exhibition of 1861 ; M.P. for Manchester since 1858. 

BEACH, Sir Michael Edward Hicks, English politician, b. 1837; educated 
at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1858, andM.A. 1861 ; is a magis- 
trate and deputy-lieutenant for Gloucestershire; retmed M.P. for East Gloucestershire, 
1864. 

BEACH, William Wither Bramston, English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at 
Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1849, and M.A. 1852 ; is a magistrate 
for Hants ; M.P. for Hants since 1857. 

BEAL, Rev. 'William, English author, b. 1815 ; educated at King's College, London, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. ; vicar of Brooke, Norfolk, 
since 1847; LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen. Author of 'The Nineveh Monu- 
ments and the Old Testament ; ' ' A Letter to the Elarl of Albemarle on Harvest Homes ; ' 
editor of West of England MagcusHe. 

BEAIJB, Lionel, English physician, b. 1820; graduated M.B. at the University of 
London, 1851. Author of "The Microscope in its Application to Practical Medicine;' 

* Anatomy of the Liver ;' and other medical works. 

BEAUCHAMP, Henry Ly^on, Earl of, English politician, b. 1829 ; entered the 
army, 1843 ; M.P. for Worcestershire, 1853-63 ; deputy-lieutenant of Worcestei-shire, 
1859 ; succeeded his father, fourth earl, 1863. 

BEAUCHESNE, Alcide Hyacinthe Dn Bois de, French writer, b. at Lorient, 
March 31, 1804 ; studied at Noyou and at Douai. Author of * Poetical Souvenirs,' 1830; 
'Louis XVII., his Life, Agony, and Death,' 1852, third edition 1861. 

BEAUFORT-D'HAUTPOUIa, Charles Marie Napoleon. French general, 
b. at Naples, 1804 ; studied at the Military School of St. Cyr, 1820-24 ; went with the 
expedition to Algeria, 1830; staff-major to Ibrahim Pasha, 1834-37; attach^ of the 
embassy to Persia ; served in Algeria, 1848 ; lieutenant-colonel and staff-miyor to 
General Pellssier, 1849 ; colonel, 1850 ; general of brigade, 1854 ; commander of the 
expedition to Syria, 1860. 

BEAUMONT, Gnstave Ansnste de la Bonninlere de, French writer and 
politician, b. at Beaumont-le-Chartre, Feb. 16, 1802 ; called to the bar, 1824. Author of 

* Traits du Syst^me P^nitentiaire aux ^tats-Unis, et de son Application a la France,' 
1833 ; ' Ireland, its Social, Religious, and Political Condition,' two vols. 1839, seventh 
edition 1863. 

BEAUMONT, Henry Frederick, English politician, b. 1833 ; educated at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; a magistrate for the North Riding, and deputy-lieutenant for 
the West Riding, of Yorkshire; M.P. for South-west Riding of Yorkshire, 1865. 

BEAUMONT, Joseph, English colonial judge, b. 1832 ; called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple, June, 1852 ; appointed chief justice of British Guiana, and judge of the 
Vice-Admiralty Court, April, 1863. 

BEAUMONT, Wentworth Blackett, English politician, b. 1829 ; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; deputy-lieutenant for Northumberland; M.P. 
for South Northumberland since 1852. 

BEAUREGARD, Peter Gnstav Toussaint, American general, b. at New 
Orleans, 1817 ; entered the Military Academy of West Point, 1833. and graduated, 1835 ; 
captain of engineers, 1863 ; superintendent of the Academy of West Point, 1854 ; re- 
signed his commission in U.S. army, 1861, and joined the Confederate States; com- 
manded the southern army at the battle of Bull Run, July, 1861 ; second in command 



Be a HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORART BIOGBAPHT. Bek 
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at the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1S62; defended Charleston, 1863; snrrendered with 
General Lee at the end of the civil war, 1866. 

BEAUVAUy Charles Juste Franqoia Victnmleni Prince of Craon^ 

French senator, b. at Haroud Meurthe, March 7, 1793 ; entered the army, 1810 ; officer 
of carabiniers in the campaign against Russia, 1812 ; nominated senator, and elected 
councillor-general of the Meurthe, 1862. 

BEAVAN, Rev. James, English author, b. 1800 ; educated at St Edmund's Hall, 
Oxford, and graduated B. A 1824 ; successively curate of Leigh, Staffordshire, and vicar 
of Welford, Northamptonshire ; professor of divinity at the University of Toronto, 1842. 
Author of 'An Account of the Life and Writings of St. Irenseus,' 1841. 

BECH STEIN. Lndwlffi German writer, b. in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, Nov. 28, 
1801. Author of ' Der Fiirstentag,' 1834 ; * Grumbach,' 1839 ; * Philidor,' 1842 ; ' Wollen 
und Weiden,' 1850 ; and other works of fiction. 



3CK| Karl, German poet, b. at Baja, Hungary, 1817 ; studied medicine at the 
Universities of Vienna and Leipsic. Author of * Night,' 1838; 'Songs of a Poor Man,' 
1846 ; .' Saul,' a tragedy ; and. other works. 

BECKER, Johan Phlllpp, German writer and politician, b. at Frankenthal, Bavaria, 
March 19, 1809. Author of 'History of the Revolution of May, 1849;' and several 
political works. 

BECQUEREIf, Antolne Ce'sar, French physician, b. at Chatillon sur Loing, 
Loiret, March 7, 1788 ; quitted the Polytechnic School as officer of engineers, 1808 ; 
served in Spain under General Suchet ; inspector of the Polytechnic School, 1S13 ; 
quitted the army, 1815 ; member of the Academy of Sciences, and professor of physics 
in the Museum of Natural History, Paris. Author of ' Treatise on Electricity and Mag- 
netism,' 1834-40 ; ' Treatise on Electro-Chemistry ;' and other works. 

BECTIVE. Thomas, Earl of, English politician, b. 1822, eldest son of second 
Marquis of Headfort, in the peerage of Ireland ; state-steward to Lord Eglinton when 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in 1852 ; high sherifT of Meath ; M.P. for Westmoreland 
since 1854. 

BEDFORD, Paul, English comedian, b. at Bath, 1798; first appearance in London, at 
Drury Lane, Nov. 2, 1824. Author of ' Recollections and Wanderings,' 1864. 

BEECHER, Catherine Esther, American authoress, b. at East Hampton, Lower 
Illinois, 1800; educated at Lichfield, U.S. ; principal of a school at Cincinnati. Author 
of ' Duty of American Women to tiieir Country ;' * The True Remedy for the Wrongs 
of Women,' 1851 ; * Common Sense applied to Religion,' 1867. 

BEECHER, Rev. Charles. American theological writer, b. 1810; pastor of a church 
at Newark, New Jersey. Autnor of ' The Incarnation ; or. Pictures of the Virgin and 
her Son,* 1849 ; 'Review of Spiritual Manifestations," 1853 ; 'Pen Pictures of the Bible,' 
1866 ; &c. 

BEECHER, Rev. Edi^vard, American writer, b. 1804 ; educated at Tale College, 
where he graduated, 1822 ; studied divinity at Andover, and New Haven ; tutor in Yale 
College, 1825 ; pastor at Park Street Chapel, Boston, 1826 to 1831 ; president of Illinois 
College, Jacksonville, 1831 to 1844 ; pastor at Salem Street Church, Boston, 1846 to 1856 ; 
I)astor of a church at Galesburg, Illinois. Author of ' Baptism ; its Import and Modes ;' 
• The Conflict of Ages ;* and other works. 

BEECHER, Rev. Henry Ward, American writer and orator, b. at Lichfield, Con- 
necticut, United States, 1813 ; graduated at Amherst College, 1834 ; studied theology at 
Lane Seminary ; presbyterian minister at Laurenceburg, Indiana, 1837 ;\ removed to 
Indianapolis, 1839; pastor of Pl3rmouth Church, Brooklyn, New York, 1847. Author 
of ' The Star Papers,' 1858 ; ' Life Thoughts,' 1858 ; and other works. 

BEECROFT, Georee SklrrOTe, English x)olitician, b. 1809 ; a magistrate and deputy, 
lieutenant for West Riding of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Leeds since 1857. 

BEGBIE, Matthe^ English colonial judge, b. 1825 ; educated at St Peter's College, 
Cambridge ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, Nov. 1844 ; appointed judge in Britisli 
Columbia, Sept. 1868. 

BEISLER, Hermann von, German politician, b. at Bensheim, 1790 ; served in the 
war of independence, 1813-15 ; minister of Justice of Bavaria, 1847, and minister of 
Public Instruction, 1848 ; member of the National Assembly at Frankfort, 1848 ; minister 
of the Interior, 1849 ; Bavarian councillor of state, and president of the Supreme Court. * 

BEKE, Charles Tilstone, English traveller, b. in London, Oct. 10, 1800 ; studied 
law at Lincoln's Inn ; acting British Consul in Saxony, 1836 to 1838 ; secretary of the 
National Association for Protection of British Industry and Capital in London, 1849 to 



Befc HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Bel 

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1853. Antbor of * An Essay on the Nile and its Tributaries,* 1847 ; * On the Geographical 
Distribution of Languages in Abyssinia,' 1849 ; ' Sources of the Nile, with History of 
Nilotic Discovery,' 1860. 

BEKKER, Emmanuel, German philologist, b. at Berlin, 1785; finished his studies 
at Halle ; professor of Greek literature at Berlin since 1807 ; member of the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences. Author of 'Attic Orators,' 1823 ; * Sextus Gmpiricus,' 1842. 

BEIAEUF, Antoine Louis Pierre Joseph Godard. Marqulv de. French 
statesman, b. at Rouen, Oct. 20, 1791 ; councillor-auditor to the Court at Paris, 1814 ; 
first president at the Court at Lyons, 1829 ; member of the Chamber of Peers, 1837 ; 
appointed senator, 1852. 

BEIaCHER. Sir Isdwardf English navigator, b. 1799 ; entered the navy, 1812 ; pre- 
sent at the battle of Algiers ; assistant-surveyor to Captain Beechy in the Blossom, 1824 ; 
commander, 1829 ; in command of the Etna, 1830 ; commander of the Terror and Ertims 
for Arctic service, 18.33 ; commander of the Sulphur fVom 1836 to 1842 ; knighted, 1843 ; 
captain of the Samarang in the East Indies, 184.3-49; commanded the expedition in 
search of Sir John Franklin, 1852 to 1854 ; obtained flag rank, 1861. Author of several 

* Narratives ' descriptive of his voyages, of various nautical works, and of a sea romance 
entitled * Horace Edward Brenton.' 

BEIaCREDI, Count Richard, Austrian statesman, b. Feb. 12, 1823 ; president of 
the civil administration of Silesia, 1862-63 ; vice-president of the Bohemian government, 
1863-64; governor of Bohemia, May 27, 1864, to July 27, 1865; appointed minister of 
state and president of the Council of Ministers, July 27, 1865. 

BEIaGIOJOSOy Christine Trivulsio, Princess of, Italian authoress, b. at 
Milan, June 28, 1808 ; daughter of the Marquis of Trivulzio ; married to Prince Emile di 
Barbian e Belgiojoso, 1824. Author of *Asia Minor and Syria,' 1858; 'Scones in the 
Life of a Turk ;' and other works. 

BEIiHAVEN and STENTON, Robert Montgomery Hamilton. Baron, 

Scottish statesman, b. at Wishaw-house, Lanark, 1793 ; commissioner of the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland ; obtained the title of fiaron Hamilton and seat in 
the House of Lords, 1831 ; lord-lieutenant of the county of Lanark, 1863. 

BEIala, John, American politician, b. at Nashville, Tennessee. 1791 ; elected to the 
House of Cougress, 1827 to 1841 ; senator, 1847 to 1859 ; candidate for tiie presidency 
of the United States, 1860. 

BEIala^ Sir John, English general, b. at Bonytoun, Fife, 1782 ; entered the armv, 1805 ; 
major-general and governor of Guernsey, 1848 to 1854; colonel, 1853; general, 1860; 
Knight of the Bath, 1860. 

I, John. English sculptor, b. in Norfolk, 1812. Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
1832, * Girl at a Brook ;' executed the ' Eagle Slayer,' 1837 ; ' The Child's own Attitude,' 
1845; 'The Guards' Memorial/ 1860; and numerous other statues and works of 
sculpture. 

Blaliy Thomas. English naturalist, b. at Poole, Dorset, Oct. 11, 1792 ; entered Guy's 
Hospital, 1814 ; fellow of I^innsean Society, 1815 ; president of the Ray Society, 1859 ; 
professor of zoology at King's College, London, 1832 ; lecturer at Guy's Hospital from 
1816 to 1860. Author of ' The Anatomy and Diseases of the Teeth ;' * Natural History of 
British Reptiles ;* and other works on natural history. 

BEIaI»A.NGE . Joseph IiOUls Hippolyte, French liistorical painter, b. at Paris, 
Jan. 17, 1800. Exhibited • The Battle of the Alma,' 1855 ; * Two Friends,' * Sebastopol,' 
1855 ; and other paintings. 

BEIalaET^ Benjamin lK>uis, French writer, b. at Paris, Nov. 7, 1805. Author of 

* Queen of France,' 1839; *Le Timbre et I'Exposition Universel,' 1855; and other 
works. 

BEIaliOWSy Rev. Henry Whitney, American author, b. at Boston, U.S. June 10, 
1814 ; graduated at Harvard College, 1832 ; and at the University School of Cambridge, 
U.S. 1834 ; pastor of First Congregational Society, New York, 1838. Author of * Defence 
of the Drama,' 1857 ; and other works. 

BEIaMONTET| IiOuis, French poet and politician, b. at Montauban, March 26, 1799. 
Author of ' Les Tristes,' 1824 ; * Le Souper d'Auguste,' 1828 ; ' Les Nombres d'or,' 1855 ; 

* Le Luxe des Femmes et la Jeunesse de I'Epoque,' 1858 ; and other poems and political 
works. 

BEIiMORE, Somerset Richard Lowry Corry, Earl of, English statesman, 
b. 1835; eldest son of the third Earl of Belmore. in the peerage of Ireland; educated 
at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated M.A. 1856 ; elected represeuta- 



Bel HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Ber 

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tlve peer of Ireland, 1857; under-secretary of state for the Home Department, July, 
1866, to August, 1867 ; appointed governor of New South Wales, Australasia, Aug. 22, 
1867. 

BELPER| Riflrht Hon. Edward Stmtt, Iiord. English statesman, b. 1801 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduatea, 18*23 ; M.P. for Derby, 1880 ; 
privy councillor, 1845 ; chief commissioner of railways, 1846 to 1848 ; M. P. for Arundel, 
1851 ; M. P. for Nottingham, 1852 ; chancellor ol the Duchy of Lancaster, 1852 to 1854 ; 
raised to the peerage. 1856. 

BENDEMANNy Ednard, Grerman painter, b. in Berlin, Dec. 3, 1811 ; professor at the 
Acadeniy of Arts at Dresden, 1840 ; director of the Academy at Dusseldorf, 1860 ; exe- 
cuted ' The Orief of the Jews ;' ' Jeremiah amidst the Ruins of Jerusalem,' 1837 ; fresco 
of ' Poetry and the Arts ;' and many others. 

BENEDEK, lK>iils, Austrian general ; b. at Oldenburg, Hungary, 1804 ; entered the 
Austrian army as a comet, 1822 ; colonel, 1843 ; brigadier-general, 1849 ; governor of 
Hun^^ry, 1860 ; commander-in-chief of the Austrian army in Italy, 1864 ; commander- 
in-chief in the war against Prussia, 1866. 

BENEDICTi Jcdes. English composer, b. at Stuttgart, Wtirtemberg, Nov. 27, 1804 ; 
produced his first English opera, 'The Gipsy's Warning,' 1838; accompanied Jenny Lind 
to America, 1850 ; composed * The Lily of Killamey,* 1862 ; * Richard Cceur de Lion,' 
1863 ; • St. Peter,' for the Norwich Festival, 1866. 

BENFEY, Theodore, German philologist, b. at Northen, near Gottingen, Jan. 28, 
1809 ; educated at Gottingen and Munich ; professor of Sanscrit and comparative grammar 
at Gottingen, 1834. Author of 'The Names of the Montlis in use among Ancient Na- 
tions,' 1836 ; • The Cruciform Inscriptions of Persia,' 1847 ; ' Handbook of the Sanscrit 
Tongue,* 1852-^4 ; and other philological works. 

BENNETT| William Stemdale, English composer, b. at Sheffield, 1816 ; studied 
at the Royal Academy of Music ; professor of music at Cambridge, 1856. Composed 

• Naiades / * The Merry Wives of Windsor ;' * Paradise and the Peri ;' and many 
others. 

BENNETT, Rev. William James Early, English theological writer, b. 1806 ; 
studied at Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1827; incumbent of Portman 
Chapel, aud St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, till 1851 ; vicar of Frome. Author of • Principles 
of the Book of Common Prayer ;' ' Errors of Romanism ;' * Lives of tiie Fathers of the 
Church of the Fourth Century ;* and other works. 

BENNETT, Williain Cos, English poetical writer, b. at Greenwich, 1820. Author 
of 'War Songs,' 1855; 'Queen Eleanor's Vengeance, and other Poems,* 1857; 'The 
Worn Wedding Ring,' 1861 ; and other works. 

BENSON. Sir John, English civU engineer, b in Sligo, 1812: architect of the 
Great Industrial Exhibition of Dublin, 1852. Knighted at the opening of the Exhibi- 
tion. 

BENTINCK, Georire Angrastns Frederick Cavendisli, English politician, 
b. 1821 ; educated at Westminster ; called to the bar at .Lincoln's Inn, 1846 ; M.P. for 
Taunton, 1859 to 1865; M.P. for Whitehaven, 1865. 

BENTLEY, Robert, English botanist, b. 1820 ; member of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, 1847 ; professor of botany at King's College, London, and professor of 
materia medi(!a and botany in the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Author of 

* A Manual of Botany ;* contributor to the Pftarmaceutical Journal. 

BENTON, Thomas Hart, American politician, b. in Orange county, North Carolina, 
1783 ; advocate at Nashville, 1811 ; member of Congress, 1820 to 1851. Author of ' Thirty 
Years' Views, or a History of the Working of the American Government,' 1853 ; and 
other works. 

BENYON, Richard, English politician, b. 1811; educated at Charterhouse, and 
St. John's College, Cambridge; graduated B.A. 183.3, and M.A. 1835; called to the bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, 1837 ; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Berks ; high sheriff 
1857 ; M.P. for Berkshire since 1860. 

BERENGER, Alphonse Marie Marcellin Thomas, French magistrate, b. at 
Valence, May 31, 1785: president of the Court of Cassation, 1849 ; retired 1860. Author 
of 'De la" Repression Penale, ses Formes et ses Effets,' 1856. 

BBRESFORD, Dennis William Pack, English politician, b. 1818 ; educated at 
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich ; appointed second lieutenant, R. A. 1836 ; captain, 
1846 : retired, 1854 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Carlow ; high 
sheriff, 1856 ; M.P. for county of Carlow since 1862. 



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BERESFORD-HOPE, Alexander James, English politician, b. 1820; edncated 
at Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; graduated B.A. 1841, M.A. 1844; ia a 
magistrate for Kent; M.P. for Maidstone, 1841-52 and 1857-69, and for Stoke-on- 
Trent, 1865-68; returned M.P. for Cambridge University, 1868. 

BERESFORO, Ri^bt Hon. William, English politician, b. 1794; educated at 
Oxford, and graduated, 1819 ; served in the army, and attained the rank of midor ; 
M.P. for Harwich, 1841 ; M.P. for North Essex, 1847 to 1865 ; secretary of the War 
Department, 1852. 

BBROHAUS, Heinrich, Oerman geographer, b. at Cleves, May 3, 1797; studied 
engineering, and served as volunteer in the army of 1815; profesisor of mathematics at the 
Berlin School of Civil Engineering, 1824. Author of The Indians of NorUi America,' 
1848 ; and other geographical works. 

BER6K, Theodore, German author, b. at Leipsic, May 22, 1812 ; professor of Latin 
at Halle, 1835 ; professor at Berlin, 1839, and at Cassel, 1840 ; professor of philosophy 
at Marboug, 1842 to 1847 ; professor at Priebourg, 1852. Author of • Anacreon,' 1834 ; 
' Fragment of Aristophanes,' 1840 ; and several other works on classical literature. 

BeRIOT, Charles An^tist de. Belgian violinist, b. at Louvain, Belgium, Feb. 20, 
1802; studied at Paris; married Madame Malibran, 1836. Composed 'The Siege ot 
Corinth,' and other concert jiieces. 

BERKEIaEY, Francis Henry Fits-Hardinare, English politician, b. 1794, 
younger son of the filth Earl of Berkeley ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; M.P. for 
Bristol since 1837. 

BERKELEY, Hon. Georgre Charles Grantly FitcHardinire, English 
author, b. 1800 ; entered the Coldstream Guards, 1816, but retired from the service in 
1821 ; M.P. for the Western Division of Gloucestershire, 1832 to 1847. Author of 
' Berkeley Castle,' 1836 ; ' Love at the Lion ; ' and other works of fiction and miscel- 
laneous writings. 

BERKEIaBY, Georflre, English colonial administrator, b. 1815 ; appointed colonial 
secretary and comptroller of customs, Honduras, 1845 ; lieutenant-governor of St Vincent, 
April, 1864. 

BERKELEY, Rev. Miles Joseph, English botanist, b. at Biggin, 1803 ; educated 
at Rugby, and Christ's College, Cambridge ; graduated, 1825 ; incumbent of two parishes 
near Wansford, Northamptonshire, and rural dean forOundle and Weldon, 1833. Author 
of ' English Flora,' 1836 ; 'Antarctic and New Zealand Flora,* 1860. 

BERNARD. Aristide Martin, French politician, b. at Montbrison, Loire, Sept. 17, 
1808 ; fought at the barricades, and condemned to deportation. May, 1839 ; liberated, 
1848 : refugee in Switzerland after 1849. Author of * Dix Ans de Prison au Mont 
St Michel, et k la Citadelle de DouUens,' 1854. 

BERNARD, Clande, French physician, b. at St Julien, near Villefranche, July 12, 
1813 ; studied in Paris ; M. D. 1843 ; elected to the Academy of Sciences, 1855 ; professor 
of experimental physiology at the Paris University, 1856. Author of ' Lessons on Phy. 
8iolog3', exx)erimental and applicable to Medicine,' 1855 ; and other medical works. 

BERNARD, Hon- Henry Boyle. English politician, b. 1812; magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant for county of Cork, ana colonel of South Cork light infantry; M.P. for 
Bandon since 1863. 

BERNARD, William Bayle, American dramatist, b. at Boston, United States, 
1808. Author of 'The Nervous Man and the Man of Nerve;' *His Last Legs ;' and 
other drauias. 

BERNERS, Riffht Hon. Henry William 'Wilson, Baron, English agri- 
culturist, b. 1797 ; educated at Eton, and Emmanuel College, Cambridge ; succeeded to 
the title, 1851 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Leicestershire ; president of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, 1859, and of Sniithfleld Club, 1860, 1861. 

BERNHARD. Karl Saint Aubin, Danish novelist, b. early in the present 
century. Author of 'The Chronicles of the Times of King Eric of Pomerania,* 1860 ; 
* Christian VII. and his Court,' 1847 ; aud other works of fiction. 

BERNSTORFF, Arthnr, Count von, Prussian diplomatist, b. at Berlin, Feb. 21, 
1808 ; entered the diplomatic service, 1831 ; took part in the conference of London on 
Dano-German question, 1864 ; ambassador from the court of Prussia to Great Britain. 

BERRYER, Pierre Antoine, French lawyer and politician, b. at Paris, Jan. 4, 
1790 ; studied for the bar ; deputy for the department of Haute Loire, 1830 : member of 
the French Academy, 1855 ; defended Count Montalembert, 1868 ; elected to the Corps 
Ugislatif, 1863. 



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BERTH OUD, Samuel Henri, French writer, b. Jan. 19, 1804. Author of 'Contes 
Misanthropiques/ 1831 ; 'La Mare du Diable/ 1847 ; 'Zephyr d' £l-Arouch,' 1850; and 
other works. 

BERTRAND, Josepb laouis Francois, French mathematician, b. at Paris, 1822; 
stndied at the College of St Louis and the Polytechnic School ; professor at the Lyc^, 
St. Louis, 1850 ; professor of physics and mathematics at the College of France, 1862. 
Author of * Treatise on Algebra,' and other works. 

BERWICK, William Noel, Baron, English officer, b. 1802 ; entered the army, 
1817, and served chiefly in India ; retired from service with the grade of colonel, 1865 ; 
succeeded his brother, fifth baron, in the title and seat in House of Lords, 1861 ; deputy- 
lieutenant of Shropshdre, 1852. 

BESSBOROUOH, John Georse Brabason Ponsonby, Earl, English 
diplomatist, b. in London, 1809 ; studied at Trinity College, Cambridge ; entered House 
of Commons, 1831 ; ambassador at St Petersburg, 1833 ; succeeded his father, fourth earl, 
in the title and seat in the House of Lords, 1847 ; lord-lieutenant of Carlow, 1838 ; 
master of the buckhounds to the Queen, 1859. 

BEUST. Friedericb Ferdinand, Baron -von, Austrian statesman, b. at Dresden, 
Jan. 13, 1809; educated for the diplomatic career; secretary of Legation for Saxony in 
England, 1836-38 ; in France, 1838-41 : in Bavaiia, 1848 ; minister nf Foreign Affairs of 
the kingdom of Saxony, Feb. 1849 till Sept. 1866 ; appointed minister of Foreign Affairs 
of the Austrian monarchy, Oct 30, 1866 ; president of the Council of Ministers, Feb. 24, 
1867 ; invested, by decree of the Emperor, with the title of Keichskanzler, or chancellor 
of tlie empire, July 1, 1867. 

BI ARD, Francois Animate. French painter, b. at Lyons, June 27, 1800 ; studied in 
the Academy of Fine Arts ; exhibited ' Arabian overtaken by the Simoon in the Desert,' 
1833 ; * The Sequel of a Masquerade ;' ' Slave Market on the Gold Coast ; ' ' Combat of 
the Polar Bears ;' and other paintings. 

BIBER, Rev. George Edinrard, English author, b. 1801; educated in Qermany; 
Ph.D. of Ttlbingen, and LL.D. of Gottingen ; naturalized in England, 1839, and admitted 
to holy orders in the Church of England. Author of ' Memoir of Henry Pestalozzi, and 
his Plan of Education ; ' ' Bishop Blomfield and his Times ;' and other works. 

BIBESOO, George Demetrina, Roumanian statesman, b. at CraSova, 1804 ; 
educated at Bucharest and Paris, 1817 to 1824 ; under-secretary of state in Wallachia, 
1830 ; secretary of Oeneral Assembly, 1841 ; hospodar of Wallachia, 1843 ; resigned and 
retired to Vienna, 1848. 

BICKERSTETH, Ven. Edinrard, English theological writer, b. at Acton, Suffolk, 
1814 ; studied at Cambridge, and graduated B. A. 1832 ; studied theolo^ at Durham Uni- 
versity, and ordained 1839 ; vicar of Aylesbury, and archdeacon of Buckingham, 1853. 
Author of ' Gk)d's Judgments in India ; a Warning to England ;' and other works. 

BIDDER, George Parkea, English civil engineer, b. 1800 : one of the engineers of 
the Blackwall Rauway, and the Electric Telegraph Company ; president of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers, 1860-61. 

BIDDUIaPH, Micbael, English politician, b. 1834 ; educated at Harrow ; magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Hereford ; M.P. for Herefordshire, 1865. 

BIDDUIaPH, Robert MTddletOn, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at Eton, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; lord lieutenant of Denbigh, and colonel of Denbigh militia ; 
M.P. for Denbigh, 1830-32 ; M.P. for Denbighshire, 1832-34, and since 1852. 

BIEDERMAMN, Friedericb Karl, German philosopher and politician, b. 
Sept 25, 1812 ; professor of philosophy at the University of Leipsic, 1838. Author of 
* Fundamental Philosophy,' 1837 ; ' The German Parhament/ 1848; and several political 
and philosophical works. 

BIGSBY, Robert, English writer, b. at Nottingham, 1806. Author of * Visions of the 
Times of Old, or the Antiquarian Enthusiast/ 1848 ; ' Ombo,' 1853. Has a literary pension 
of 1001. a year. 

BIIaLING, Archibald, English physician, b. in Ireland, 1791 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, and Oxford ; fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London, 1818 ; 
physician of London Hospital from. 1817 to 1836 ; member of the senate of London 
University, and examiner for degrees in medicine. Author of ' First Principles of Medi- 
cine,' and other medical works. 

BINGHAM, laord George, English politician, b. 1830; educated at Rugby; 
appointed captain and lieutenant-colonel of Coldstream Guards, 1859 ; retired, 1860 ; 
was aide-de-camp to his father in the Eastern expedition, 1854; returned M.P. for the 
county of Mayo, 1865. 



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BINNEYy Rev. ThomaSi English theological writer, b. at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1799 ; 
educated at Wymondley College ; miuister of Independent Chapel at Newport, Isle of 
Wight, 1825 ; pastur of Weigh House Chapel, Fish Street Hill, London, 1829. Author of 
* Dissent not Schism ; ' ' The Closet and the Church ; ' and other writings. 

BIRCH, Rev. Henry Mildred, English cluiigynian, b. 1820 ; educated at Eton, 
and King's College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1843 ; assistant-master at Eton, 1845 
to 1851 ; took holy orders, and became rector of Prestwich, near Manchester, 1852 ; 
chaplain to the Queen and to the Prince of Wales. 

BIRCH, Samuel, English author, b. in London, Nov. S, 1813 ; educated at Greenwich, 
Blackheath, and Merchant Taylors' Si'hool, 1831 ; commissioner of Public Records, 1834 : 
keeper of Oriental, Mediseval, and British Antiquities in the British Museum, 1861. 
Author of * History of Ancient Pottery,* 1867 ; * Papyrus of Naskhem,' 1868 ; and other 
antiquarian works. 

BIRKS, Rev. Thomas Ra^wsoiou English author, b. Sept. 1810; graduated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; rector of Kelshall, Herts, 1844. Author of ' First ElemenU 
of Prophecy ;' * Modem Astronomy ;' 'Treasures of Wisdom ;' and other works. 

BISCHOFF, Theodore lK>tiis Wilhelm, German anatomist, b. at Hanover. Oct. 28, 
1807; studied at Dusseldorf, Bonn, and Heidelberg; graduated Ph.D. 1829, and M.D. 
1832 ; professor of anatomy at Munich, 1854. 

BISMAROK-SOHONHAUSEN, Count Otto von, German statesman, b. 
1813, the son of a landowner in Saxony ; studied Jurisprudence at Berlin and Gottingen ; 
elected member of the German Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; Prussian minister pleni- 
potentiary at the Diet of Frankfort, 1851-59 ; ambassador to the Court of St Peters- 
burg, 1859-^2; ambassador to the Emjperor of the French, May, 1862 ; Prussian minister 
of Foreign Affairs, and chief of the Cabinet, Sept. 28, 1862 ; chancellor of the North 
German Confederation, July 14, 1867. 

BIiAAUW, William Henry, English antiquarian, b. 1793; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated, 1813; magistrate and deputy-lfeutenant for 
Sussex. Author of ' The Baron's War,' 1844 ; and other works. 

BIiACKAIala, Samuel Wensley, English colonial administrator, b. 1820; M.P. 
for the county of Longford, 1847 to 1851 ; lieutenant-governor of Dominica, 1851 to 1857 ; 
governor of Sierra Leone, 1862. 

BIiACKBURN. Sir Colin, English Judge, b. 1813 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1835; called to the bar of the Middle Temple; 
puisne judge of Queen's Bench, 1859. 

BIJkCKIE, John Stuart, English author, b. at Glasgow, July, 1809 ; educated at 
Aberdeen and Edinburgh, Gottingen, Berlin, and Rome; professor of Greek in the 
University of Oxford. Author of translation of ' Faust,' 1834; ' Poems in English and 
Latin,' 1860 ; and other poetical works. 



Rev. William, English writer, b. 1813; educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1835; vicar of Stanton-on-Hine, Heath, Shropshire, 
1855. Editor of ' Diplomatic Correspondence of the Right Hon. Richard Hill,' 1845. 

BLAIR, Montgomery, American statesman, b. 1812 ; educ^ited at West Point, New 
York; studied law at St. Louis; secretary of the navy, 1861; postmaster-geneial, 
1863-64. 

BLAKE, John Aloysius, English politician, b. 1826; educated at Waterford and at 
Pan, France; formerly a merchant in Waterford; mayor, 1855-6-7, and president of 
the Chamber of Commerce, 1858-59; M.P. for Waterford since 1857. 

BLANC, Louis, French author and politician, b. at Madrid, Oct. 28, 1813; founded 
the Bemie du ProgriSf 1838; member of the Provisional Government of France, 1848; 
one of the representatives of Paris to the National Assembly, 1848; went into exile to 
England, 1849. Author of ' Histoire des Dix Ans, 1830-40,' 4 vols. Paris, 1841 ; * Histoire 
de le Revolution franQaise,' 10 vols. ib. 1853-62 ; * Lettres sur I'Angleterre,' 2 vols. 
1866-67; and numerous other historical and political works. 

BLAND, Rev. Miles, English writer, b. 1786; educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and graduated B.A. 1808; rector of Lilley, Herts, 1823; prebend of Wells cathe- 
dral, 1826. Author of 'Algebra;' *The Elements of Hydrostatics;' * Mechanical and 
Philosophical Problems ; ' and other elementary works. 

BLAND, 'William, English writer,b. Jan. 21, 1788 ; educated at Caius College, Cambridge, 
and at the University of Edinburgh. Author of 'Principles of Agriculture,' 1827 ; * Ex- 
perimental Assays on the Principles of Construction in Arches, Piers, and Buttresses,' 
1862. 



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BLENNERH ASSET, Sir Rowland, English politician, b. 1839; edncaied at 
Stonyhurst, and Chrittt Chorch, Oxford ; a magistrate for the county of Kerry; M.P. for 
Galway since 1865. 

BLIGH, Hon. Sir John Duncan, En^ish diplomatist, b. 1798 ; educated at Eton, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1818; entered the diplomatic service as 
attach^ at Vienna, 1820 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Stockholm, 
1835 ; minister plenipotentiary to Hanover, 1838-^. 

BLOOMFIftlaD, Rlfrbt Hon. Jolm Arthur Don^rlas. Lord, English diplo- 
matist, b. 1802; entered the diplomatic service, 1818: envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary to St. Petersburg, 1844 ; to Berlin, 1851 ; ambassador at Vienna, 1860. 

BLUHME, Christian Albert, Danish statesman, b. at Copenhagen, Dec. 27, 1794; 
judge of the Court of Appeal. 1822 ; minister for the Colonies, 1823 to 1825 ; director- 
general of Customs, 1848 ; minister of the Interior, 1851 ; president of the Council of 
Ministers, 1852-53 ; minister of Foreign Afl'airs, and president of the Council of Ministers, 
July, 1864, to Sept. 1865. 

BODE, Rev. John Ernest, English writer, b. 1816; educated at Eton, Charter- 
house, and Christ Church, Oxford; graduated B.A. 1837; rector of Castle Camps, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Author of ' Ballads (irom Herodotus,' and other works. 

BOETTOHER, Adolf, German writer, b. at Leipsic, May 21, 1815. Author of 'On 
the Watch Tower,' 1847 ; * The Pilgrimage of the Flower Spirits,' 1851. Translated the 
poems of Shakespsare, Byron, Pope, 1842 ; Milton, 1846 ; Ossian, 1847 ; and many others, 
into German. 

BOETTIGER, Karl 'WllheUn, German historian, b. at Bautzen, Aug. 15, 1790; 
studied at Weimar, Gotha, liCipsic, and €K)ttingen ; professor at the Uuiversity of Leipsic, 
1819; professor of literature and history at the University of Erlangen. Author of 
'Universal History,' 1849; 'History of Germany and the Germans,' 1845; and many 
other historical works. 

BOGARDUS. James, American inventor, b. at Catskill, New York, March 14, 1800 ; 
apprenticed to a watchmaker, 1814; invented the 'King Flyer,' for cotton-spinning, 
1828 ; a ' Dry Gas-meter,' 1832 ; an ' Engraving Machine,' 1836 ; a ' Machine for Pressing 
Glass,' about 1840 ; and made many other mechanical improvements. 

BONAPARTE, Prince Lonls lanclen, English philologist, b. in Woreestershire, 
Jan. 4, 1813 ; second son of Lucien, brother of Napoleon I. ; entered France after the 
Revolution of 1848 ; returned deputy to the Constituent Assembly for Corsica, 1849 ; 
f^nch senator, Dec. 1852. Published, at his own press, in Bayswater, London, several 
works in the Basque language ; the ' Parable of the Sower,' in seventy- two Eurojiean 
languages and dialects ; and numerous other philological worlcs. 

BOND, WlUlam Oranch, American astronomer, b. at Portland, Maine, 1789 ; one of 
the earliest American discoverers of the comet of 1811 ; astronomical observer to Har- 
vard College 1840. Author of parts of 'Annals of the Observatory of Harvard CoU^^' 
for 1855-66. 

BON HAM, Sir Samuel Georsre, English colonial administrator, b. 1803 ; was 
governor of Prince of Wales Island, Singapore, and Malacca, 1837-47 ; governor and com- 
mander-in-chief of Hong Kong and its dependencies, and plenipotentiary and chief 
superintendent of British trade in China, from March, 1848, to April, 1854 ; created a 
baronet, Nov. 22, 1852. 1 

BONHEUR, Rosa, French animal painter, b. at Bordeaux, March 22, 1822 ; painted \ 
'Chfevi-es et Moutons,' 1839 ; 'Labourage Nivemals,' 1849; 'Horse Fair,' at the French j 
Exhibition of pictures in London, 1855 ; ' Haymaldng Season in Auveigne,' 1855 ; and { 
numerous other pictures of the same class. 

BONHEUR, Augrnste, French x)ainter, b. at Bordeaux, Nov. 4, 1824, brother of the \ 
preceding ; painted ' Les Enfants aux Hannetons,' 1845 ; ' Souvenir de la basse Bre- ; 
tagne,' 1857 ; ' Le Combat, la Mer, le Ruisseau,' 1863 ; and other paintings. 

BONHEUR Jnles, Isidore, French sculptor, b. at Bordeaux, May 15, 1827; 
brother of the preceding ; executed ' Le Combat d'une Lionese et d'un Cavalier Anicain ;* 
' Hercule et les Chevaux de Diom^de,' 1855 ; ' Z^bre et l& Panthere,' 1853 ; ' Enfants et { 
Chiens ;' ' Un Jockey,' 1864. 

BON JEAN, laouis Bernard, French politician, b. at Valence, Drdme, Dec. 4, 1804 ; 
called to the bar ; LL.D. 1830 ; advocate-general to the Court of Cassation, 1850 ; senator, 
1855 ; member of the Council of Education. 

BONNECHOSE. Francois Panl Emlle-Bolsnormand de, French writer, 
b. at Leyenlorp, in Holland, Aug. 18, 1801 ; librarian at the Palace of St Cloud, 1829, 
Author of ' Rosemonde,' 1826 ;' ' Histoire de France,' tenth edition 1855 ; and other works. 



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BONOMIy Joseph, English traveller and writer, h. in London, 1796; studied anatomy 
and sculpture at the Royal Academy. Author of 'Nineveh and itit Palaces,' third 
edition 1857 ; ' £gypt. Nubia, and Ethiopia/ 1862 ; and other works. 

BOOTH, George Sdater, English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at Winchester, and 
Balliol College, Oxford; graduated B. A. 1847, M A. 1849; called to the bar of the Inner 
Temple, 1851 ; magistrate for Hants, and lieutenant of Hants yeomanry ; M.P. for Hants 
since 1857. 

BOOTH. James, American chemist^ b. 1810; professor of applied chemistry in Franklin 
Institute; melter and refiner iy the United States mint, Philadelphia. Published 
'Encyclopaedia of Chemistry, Practical, Theoretical, Ac.* 1850; 'Recent Improvements 
in the Chemical Arts,' 1851. 

BOOTH Rev. James, English writer, b. 1814; gr9duated in honours at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin ; rector of Stone, near Aylesbury, 1859 ; magistrate for the county of Buclts. 
Author of 'New Method of Tangential Co-ordinates ;' ' Examination of the Province of 
the State,' 1846. 

BOOTH, Sir Robert Gore, Bart. English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at West- 
minster, and at Queen's College, Cambridge; graduated M.A. 1826; M.P. for Sligo 
since 1850. 

BORGES DE OASTRO, Jose Ferrelra, Portuguese diplomatist, b. at Porto, 
Oct. 3, 1825; attach^ in Russia 1841, at Berlin 1844, at Rome 1847; secretary at 
Madrid, 1851; charg6 d'affaires at Turin, 1860. Pubhshed 'Collec^ao dos Tradados, 
Convencos, &c.' 1856. 

BORROW, George, English writer, b. at East Dereham, Norfolk, 1803 ; articled to a 
solicitor, 1818 ; entered the service of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 1833. Edited 
at St Petersburg the New Testament in Mandchu, or Chinese-Tartar ; twice imprisoned 
in Spain for circulating the Scriptures. Published 'Zincali,' 1841 ; ' The Bible in Spain,' 
1842 ; ' Lavengro,' 1851 ; ' The Romany Rye,' 1857 ; and numerous other works. 

BORSINI, Iiorenso, Italian poet, b. atSienne, 1800; D.D. 1810; studied law; advo- 
cate at Rome, 1823. Author of '^Sentimental Voyage,' 1842 ; ' Le mie Prigioni in Sicilia, ' 
1841 ; ' L'Asino,' 1844 ; 'Novissimo Oalateo,' 1851 ; and other poems. 

B08W0RTH, Rev. Joseph, English philologist, b. in Derbyshire, 1790 ; graduated 
at Aberdeen; M.A. LL.D. and Ph.D. at Leyden, 1831; D.D. 1839; professor of Anglo 
Saxon at Oxford; rector of Water-Stratford, near Buckingham, 1858. Author of 
'Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar,' 1823; 'Anglo-Saxon Dictionary,' 1848 ; and other 
philological works. 

BOTTA, Paul Emile, French archseologist and traveller, b. 1805 ; French consul at 
Alexandria and Mosul. Author of 'Excavations at E^orsabad,' 1843; 'Inscriptions 
discovered at Khorsabad,' 1848. 

BOVOHER DE OREVECOUR DE PERTHES, Jacques, French writer, b. at 
Rethel, Sept. 10, 1788. Author of ' Voyage to Constantinople and Greece,' 1856 ; * Voyag*; 
to Russia,' 1859 ; ' Les Maussades, Complaintes,' 1862 ; ' Sous dix Rois, Souvenirs de 1791 
k I860,' 1864; and other miscellaneous works; also published accounts of his archaBo- 
logical discoveries at Abbeville. 

BOVCIOAULT, Dion, English actor and dramatic author, b. in Dublin, Dec. 26, 1820. 
Author of * London Assurance ;' * Colleen Bawn ;' * The Octoroon ;' ' The Vampire ;' and 
many other dramas. 

BOVDET, Paul, French statesman, b. at Laval, Mayence, Nov. 13, 1800 ; called to the 
bar at Paris, 1821 ; represented the College of Laval at the Chamber of Deputies, 1834 to 
1848 ; minister of the interior, June 23, 1863 ; senator, March 31, 1865 ; secretaiy of the 
Senate ; member of the Council General of Mayence. 

BOUET-WIIaliAVMEZ, Ootuit laouis Edonard, French naval commander, 
b. April 24, 1808 ; admitted to the naval service, 1823 ; ensign, 1829 • lieutenant, 1835 ; 
captain. Sept 17, 1844 ; rear-admiral, Aug. 12, 1854 ; took part in the Crimean expedition 
under Admiral Hamelin ; prefect-maritime of Cherbourg ; prefect-muritime of Toulon, 
March 4, 1861 ; vice-admiral, July 9, 1860. 

BOVGENEL, Jean Francois, French military commander, b. at Paris, May 16, 
1786 ; attach^ to the Prince of Neufch&tcl, 1806; ofl9cer of ordnance in campaigns, 1813, 
and prisoner in Russia ; took part in the battle of Waterloo ; lieuteuant-colonel, 1827 ; 
colonel of 6t^ Lancers, 1830 ; field-marshal, 1888 ; lieutenant-general, Dec. 28, 1846 ; staff- 
mi^or-general of reserve, 1851. 

BOVILIalER, Francisqne, French philosopher, b. at Lyons, July 12, 1818 ; studied 
at Paris and Lyons, 1834-37 ; proffessor of philosophy at Orleans ; president of tlie 



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Imperial Academy of Lyons, 1856. Author of 'Histoire et Critique du Cartesiauisme,* 
Paris, 1842 ; ' Du Priucipe vital et de TAme pensante, ou Exanien des diverRes 
Doctrines sp^ciales et pRychologiques, Ac* 1862; and several translations from the 
German of Kant and Fichte. 

BOUISSONi Friia90lS| French physician, h. at Manguis, Hdranit, 1818; studied 
medicine at Montpellier and Delpech ; professor of surgery to the Faculty of Stras- 
bourg, 1837; professor of pathology and suifrery at Montpellier, 1840; professor of 
surgery to the Faculty of Medicine at Paris, 1851 ; chief surgeon at the civil and military 
hospital of Saint Eloi de Montpellier, 1845. Published *De la Bile, de ses Variations 
physiologiques, de ses Alterations morbidet/ Montpellier, 1843 ; and many other medical 
works 

BOUIiANGER, Gnstave Rodolpbe Olareneei French painter, b. in Paris, 
April 25, 1824 ; studied under P. Delaroche, in the School of Fine Arts. Painted * Jules 
Cesar arriv6 au Rubicon,' *La Maison du Poet tragique 4 Pompeii,* 1857 ; an *Arab,' 
1861; 'Jules C^sar 4 la tdte de la dixi^me Legion,' 'Cavaliers Sahariens,' 1864; and 
many other historical pictures. 

BOUIJkNGERy Henri Alexandre Ernest, French composer, b. at Paris, 
Dec. 16, 1815 ; educated at the Conservatoire of Paris under Lesneur and Hal^vy. Com- 
posed 'Le Dii^ble k I'Ecole,* 1842 ; 'Les Sabots de la Marquise/ 1854 ; and other comic 
operas. 

BOUIaANGER. IjOniSy French painter, b. at Verceil, Piedmont, March 11, 1806 ; 
studied under Quillon, Lethi6re, and Ach ; appointed director of the Imperial School of 
Fine Arts at Dijon, 1860. Exhibited ' Mazeppe, le Depart,' 1828 ; * Le Triomphe de 
Petrarque,* 1836; 'Les Georgiques de Virgile,^ *Le Marchand de Lacets,* 1863; and 
numerous portraits. 

BOULATIONIER, Sebastien Joseph, French politician, b. at Valognes, Manche, 
Jan. 11, 1805 ; studied law at Paris ; chief of the bureau to the ministry of the interior, 
1837 ; elected representative of the department of the Mauche, councillor of state, 1849. 

BOUIaAY, De lA Menrthei Frangois Joseph, French statesman, b. in Paris, 
1800 ; councillor of state, 1887 ; vice-president of the Republic, 1848 ; president of the 
Committee of the Interior for Public Instruction, 1855 ; entered the Senate, June 9, 
1857. 

BOULE, laonis Aniruste De'sire', French dramatic writer, b. Sept. 1, 1799. Anthor 
of 'Les 20,000 Francs,' 1832; 'L'Honneur de Mamfere,' 1837; *Les Ruines de Vaude- 
mont,' 1845 ; * Les (Euvres du D^mon,' 1854 ; and other dramas. 

BOULET, Jean Baptlste Etienne, French lawyer, b. at Metz, Feb. 4, 1804 ; 
studied law and was called to the bar of the Royal Court of Paris. Published ' Ferriere 
raodeme, ou nouveau Dictionnaire des Termes de Droit et de Pratique,' 1824; 'Sur 
I'Affhinchissement des Colleges communaux,' 1852. 

BOUIiIaE'E, Anne Angnste. French historian, b. at Bourg, Ain, Nov. 4, 1795; 
studied law, and became a magistrate in his native town, 1821 ; procureur du roi at 
Bergerac, 1823, and at M&con, 1826 : resigned, 1830. Published 'Histoire de i^ce 
pendant la demi^re Ann^e de la Restauration,' 1839 ; ' Histoii*e complete des Etats 
G^n^raux et autres Assemblies Representatives de la France depuis 1802 jusqu'en 1826,' 
Paris, 1845 ; and other historical works. 

BOUQUET, Charles Jean Olande, French mathematician, b. Dec. 7, 1819 ; admitted 
to the Ecole Polytechnique, 1839 ; appointed professor of mathematics at the Royal 
College of Marseilles, 1841 ; to the Faculty of Sciences at Lyons, from 1845 to 1852 ; 
professor in Paris at the Lyc^e Bonaparte, and at the Lyc^e Louis le Grand. Author of 
' Sur le Calcul des Variations,' 1841, and of numerous essays and contributions to the 
Journal de MathinuUiquea. 

BOURASSE, I'Abbe' Jean Jacqnes, French author, b. at St. Manre, Dec. 23, 
1813 ; studied at the Seminary of Tours ; professor at Tours, and appointed titular canon 
of the cathedral of that town in 1843. Author of ' Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux, de^ 
Reptiles et des Poissons,' Tours, 1840 ; ' Histoire de notre Seigneur J&ius-Christ,' 1861 ; 
and numerous archeoological and theological works. 

BOURBAKY, Charles Denis Banter, French military commander, h. at Paris, 
April 22, 1816; lieutenant of the Zouaves, 1836; captain, June, 1842; chief of a bat- 
talion, 1846; lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 1850; colonel, Dec. 1851; general of brigade, 
Oct 14, 1854 ; general of division, Aug. 12, 1857 ; took i>art in the Crimean campaign, 
and the expedition to Italy in 1859. 

BOURBEAU, lK>nis OliTer, French lawyer, b. at Poitiers, March 2, 1811; studied 
law, and was called to the bar at Poitiers ; elected mayor of Poitiers, 1847 ; represented 



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Vienne at the Assemblde Confltituante, 1848 ; professor to the Faculty of Law at Poitiers, 
1841. Author of ' Th6orie de la Procedure Civile,' Paris, 1837-45. 

BOURBON, Pierre Benri Diendonne', French i>oIitician. b. at Port an Prince, 
June 22, 1801 ; member of the General Council for the canton of Charroux, and manager 
of the Orleans Railway Company ; deputy to the Corps L^gislatif for Vienne. 

BOURBOUSSON^ The'ophile Eare'ne, French politician, b. at Vaucluse, July «, 
1811 ; studied medicine, and graduated M.D. ; electeu to the Constituent Assembly, 
1848 ; returned to the Legislative Assembly, 18G1. 

BOURCIER DE VILLIERS. Charles Jean Baptiate. Oomte de, French 
I)olitician, b. Dec 8, 1798 ; entered the army, and retired as captain of cavalry. Member 
of the Council General for the canton of Epinal ; representative at the Corps L^gislatif 
of the department of the Vo^;e8 since 1852. 

BOURDON, Jean Baptiate laidore, French physician, b. at Merry, Ome, 
Aug. 26, 1796; studied medicine at Montpellier and Paris: graduated M.D. 1823; 
member of the Academy of Medicine, 1825. Author of * Lettres 4 Camille sur la 
Physiologic,' Paris, 1829; 'Conrs complet d' Education de« Filles,' * Precis d'Hydrologie 
m^cale, ou les Eaux min^rales de France,' 1860; and numerous other medical works. 

BOURGADB, 1' Abbe' Frangois, French philologist and missionary, b. at Gallon, 
July 7, 1806; studied theology at the Seminaiy of Auch ; ordained a priest, 1832 ; sent 
as missionaiy to Africa, 1838, and founded at Tunis a hospital and college. Author of 
* Soirees de Carthage,' 1847 ; and other historical and philological works. 

BOURNE. James, English politician, b. 1812 ; educated at Shrewsbury ; is a deputy- 
lieutenant for the county of Lancaster, and lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Lancashire 
Artillery Militia; M.P. for Evesham, 1865. 

BOURQUEIaOT, JjOoIs Felix, French writer, b. at Provins, Seine et Mame, Aug. 19, 
1815: studied law, and was called to the bar of the Royal Court of Paris; president ot' 
the Society of Antiquaries of France, 1856. Author of * Histoire de Provins,' Provins, 
1839-40; * Liscriptions antiques de Nice, de Cimez, et de quelques lieux environnants,' 
Paris, 1850; 'Litterature fran^ais conteniporaine ; ' and numerous memoirs, article», 
and pamphlets. 

BOURQUENEY, Francois Adolpbe, Baron de, PVench diplomatist, b. at 
Paris, Jan. 7, 1800 ; entered the diplomatic service as third secretary to the embassy at 
Rome : secretanr to the embassy in London, 1840; ambassador to Constantinople, 1844 ; 
ambassador at Vienna, 1853 ; senator, Mareh 31, 1856. 

BOUSQUET, Jean Baptiate Edonard, French physician, b. 1794; studied 
medicine at the Faculty of Montpellier, and received the diploma of M.D. May, 1815; 
practised in Paris, and was appointed chief of the bureaux of the Academy of Medicine, 
1820: titular member, 1824; secretary of the Council of Administration, 1830. Author 
of ' Traits de la Maladie scrofuleuse,' 1821, and numerous other medical works. 

BOUSSINGAULT. Jean Baptiste Joseph Diendonne', French chemist, 
b. at Paris, Feb. 2, 1802 ; educated at the Mining School of St Etienne ; professor oi' 
chemistiy at Lyons, 1839; professor of agriculture in the Conservatory of Arts and 
Trades, Paris. Author of * M^moires de Chimie agricole et de Physiologic,' Paris, 1864 ; 
and other works on chemistry and agriculture. 

BOUTARIE, Edfirar, French historian, b. at Chftteauxdun, July 1, 1830; studied at 
the Bourbon Collie, and at the Paris School of Administration. Author of ' La Franc<> 
sous Philippe le Bel,' 1862; ' Les Institutions militaires de la France,' 1863 ; and edited, 
with M. Delisle, 'Les Acts dn Pariement de Paris.' 

BOUTHOR8, Jean laonls Alexandre, French antiquarian, b. at Beauquesne, 
Somme, June 27, 1797 ; studied law at Paris, and was an advocate at the Royal Court of 
Amiens. Author of * Voyage du Roi au Camp de Saint Omer,' Amiens, 1828; * Ciyptes 
de Pic^ie, etc.' ib. 1838; ' Les Proverbes, Dictions, et Maximes du Droit rural tra- 
ditionnel,' ib. 1859 ; and other antiquarian works. 

BOUTO'WSKI, Alexander, Russian political economist, b. at St Petereburg, 1814; 
entered the government service, and received the title of councillor of state ; member 
of the Imperial Society of Agriculture of Moscow. Author of * Essay on National 
Wealth, and the Principles of Political Economy,' St. Petersburg, 1847. 

BOUVERIE, Rt. Hon. Edward Pleydell, English statesman, b. 1818; educated 
at Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1888; M.P. for 
Kilmarnock since 1844 ; under-secretary of state for the Home Department from 1850 
to 1862 ; chairman of committees of the House of Commons, 1853 to 1856 ; vice-president 
of the Board of Trade and paymaster-general, March, 1866; president of the Poor 



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Law Board, 1858; second church estates commissiouer, 1859; member of the Privy 
Council, 1855. 

BOUVET. Francois Josepb Frandsoiie, French writer, b. at Vieux-d'Izenave, 
Ain, April 25, 179§. Author of 'Loisirs de la Solitude de Poesies et Novelles,* Paris, 
1828; 'De la Confession et du Cdlibat des Pr^tres,' 1815 ; aird numerous political and 
theological works. 

BOUVIER, Sauveur-Henri Victor, French physician, b. at Paris, Jan. 22, 1799 ; 
studied medicine in Paris, and obtained the diploma of M.D. 1823; professor of the 
Academy of Medicine,, and chief physician of the Infant Hospital. Author of ' Re- 
cherches sur quelques Points d'Anatomie et de Physiologic, etc.* 1823; *La Surdi 
Mutit^,' 1852 ; and numerous other medical works, 

BOUZIQUB. Etienne Urstn, French writer, b. at Ch&teauneuf-sur-Cher, Jan. 7, 
1801 ; educated at the College of Bourges; studied law in Paris, and was called to the 
bar at Bourges ; member of the General Council, 1833 ; mayor of Bourges, 1848. Author 
of • Th6atre8 et Souvenirs,' Paris, 1857 ; * Servius Tullius,' a tragedy, 1826. 

BOVILIi, Sir William, English judge, b. 1814; called to the bar, 1841; M.P. for 
Guildford, 1857-65 ; chief justice of the Common Pleas, 1866. 

BOIVEN, Francis, American writer, b. at Charleston, 1814; studied at the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge; contributed to the North American Review from 1843 to 1853; 
professor of moral philosophy and political economy at Harvard College. Author of 
'Critical Essays on the History and Present Condition of Speculative Philosophy,' 
Boston, 1842 ; and several lectures on metaphysics. 

BOWEN, Sir George Fergrason, English colonial administrator, b. in Ireland 
in 1822 ; educated at the Charterhouse, and at Trinity College, Oxford ; elected fellow of 
Brasenose College, Oxford, 1844 ; admitted a member of Lincoln's Inn, 1844 ; appointed 
president of the University of Corfu, 1847; resigned, 1851; chief secretary to the 
(Jovernment of the Ionian Islands, 1854,; C.M.G. 1855 : K.C.M.G. 1856: and promoted to 
G.C.M.G. 1860; first governor of Queensland, 1859-67; governor of New Zealand, 1867. 
Author of * Ithaca,* 1850 ; • Mount Athos, Thessaly, and Epiras.' 

BOIVERS, Very Rev. Georce Hall, English theological writer, b. 1794; studied 
at the Grammar School, Pembrmce, and Clare College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.D. 1829; D.D. 1849; rector of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, London, 1831; dean of 
Manchester, 1847. Author of numerous sermons. 

BOWMAN, William, English medical writer, b. at Nantwich, 1816; studied at Eine's 
College, London. Author of * Lectures on the Parts concerned in the Operations of the 
Eye ; * ' Observations on Artificial Pupils ; ' and many others. 

BOTVRING, Edgar Alfred, English writer, b. 1826, younger son of Sir John 
Bowring ; eaucated at the London University ; entered the Civil Service in the Board of 
Trade, 1841 ; successively private secretary to the Earl of Clarendon, Earl Granville, and 
Lord Stanley of Alderley ; secretary to the Royal Commission for the Gi-eat Exhibition 
of 1851. Author of * The Book of Psalms,* and English versions of the poetical works 
of Schiller, Goethe, and Heine. 

BOWRING, Sir John, English politician and author, b. in Exeter, Oct. 17, 1792 ; 
editor of the Westminster Review, 1825 to 1830 ; M.P. for the Clyde boroughs, 1885 to 
1837; M.P. for Bolton, 1841 to 1849; appointed British consul at Canton, 1849; pleni- 
potentiary in China, governor of Hong-Kong, and received the honour of knighthood, 
1854; concluded a treaty of commerce with Siam, 1855; retired on a pension, 1859. 
Author of a great number of geographical, historical, and poetical works, and of trans- 
lations from the Russian, Danish, German, Spanish, Portuguese, and other languages. 

BOWITER, Sir George, Bart. English politician, b. in Berkshire, 1811 ; studied at 
Oxford ; was called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1839 ; convert to the Roman 
Catholic faith in 1850, having previously been created an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford; 
M.P. for Dundalk since 1852. Author of 'Commentaries on the Constitutional Law of 
England,' several legal works, and a pamphlet on the Roman Catholic question. 

BOXAIiL. William, English painter, b. at Oxford, 1800 ; entered the Royal Academy 
as a student in 1819 ; exhibited at the R.A. 'Milton's Reconciliation with his Wife,* 
1829; 'Cordelia,* 1830; and 'Hope* in 1838; elected A.RA. in 1861, and R.A. in 
1863. 

BOYD, Rev. Andrew Kennedy Hutcbinsoni English writer, b. at Auchinleck, 
Ayrshire, Nov. 1825 ; educated at the University of Glasgow ; ordained, 1851 ; incum- 
bent of St. Bernard's, Edinburgh. Author of numerous articles in Fraser's Mctgazine 
under the signature of A.K.H.B. ; republished in separate volumes uuder the title of 
'Recreations of a Country Parson.* 



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BOYD, Rer. James R. American wiiter, b. in Now York in 1804 ; professor of moral 
I philosophy and college preacher at Hamilton College. Author of 'Eclectic Moral 

I Philosophy/ and numerous scientific and philosophical works. 

BOY£^ Caspard Johaaiiy Danish poet, b. at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1701 ; tttrdied in 
I Denmark, and was appointed professor in the Seminary of Instrup in 1818 ; became 

I pastor at SoUerod in 1826, and at Helsingford in 1835. Author of 'Conrad;' 'Kong 

Sigurd ;' and several dramas and religious poems. 
I BOYERy Fhiloxe'ne. French writer, b. at Orenoble in 1827 ; studied at the College 
of Stanislas. Author of 'Sapho,' Odton, 1860; 'Le Cousin du Boi,' ib. 1857; *Les 
Chercheurs d'Amour,' 1855 ; ' D^laiss^s,' 1856 ; and numerous dramatic pieces. 

BRAl>DON| Mary Elisabetby English novelist, b. in London, 1837. Author of 

* Loves of Arcadia,' London, 1860; • Lady Audley's Secret ;' * Aurora Floyd ;' ' Eleanor's 
Victory ;' * John Marchmont's Legacy ;' ' Only a Clod ;' * The Lady's Mile ;' and nuuiurous 
other novels and works of fiction. 

BRAOIJEaYy Rev. XSdinrardy English writer, b. in 1827; educated at Durham University ; 
graduated at Durham ; was ordained 1850, and appointed incumbent of Bobbingtuu, 
Staffordshire, 1857, and rector of Denton, Hunts, 1859. Author of ' Verdant Green ; ' 

* Glencreggan,' 1861 ; * The Curate of Cranston, with other Prose and Verse,' 1862 ; 'A 
Tour in Tartan Land,' 1863; 'Wild Cantire/ 1864; and nxmierous other works; alxo 

, contributor to Punchy the Illiutrated London Newa, and other periodicals, under the 
pseudonym of 'Cuthbert Bede.' 

BRADIJESY, Rev. OeoTge Granvillei English clei-gyman, b. in 1821 ; educated at 
Rugby, and University College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1844, and was elected 
a fellow ; assistant-master in Rugby School for several years, and was appointed head- 
master of Marlborough College, 1858. 

BRADYy John, English politician, b. 1812 ; is a member of the Royal College of 
, Physicians, and of the College of Surgeons ; a magistrate for the county of Leitrim, 

I and M. P. for the same since 1852. 

BRADY, Rigrbt Hon. Masiere, English magistrate, b. in 1796; educated nt Trinity 
College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1819 ; solicitor-general for Ireland, 1837, and 
attorney-general, 1889 ; chief baron of the Irish Exchequer, 1840, and advanced to the 
Irish Chancellorship, 1846 ; vice-chancellor of the Queen's University in Ireland. 

I BRADY, Sir Francis, English colonial Judge, b. 1810 ; called to the Irish bar, 
1836 ; appointed chief justice of Newfoundland, and judge of the vice-admiralty, 1847 ; 
, knighted, 1860. 

BRAGG, Braxton, American military commander, b. in Warren County, North Caro- 
' lina, in 1815 ; admitted into the Academy at West Point, 1833, where he graduated, 1837 : 

served in the Mexican war under General Taylor, and at the commencement of the civil 
war becjime brigadier-general in the Confederate army ; general of division, 1862. 

BRAME, Jnles Louis Joseph, French politician, b. at Lille, Jan. 9, 1808 ; member 
of the General CouncU for the canton ol Cysoing ; elected to the Corps L6gislatif for 
the D^partement du Nord, 1857, and re-elected, 1863. Author of 'L' Emigration des 
I Campagnes. * 

BRAMWELIa. Sir George IViUiam Wiltshire, English judge, b. in London 
i in 1808 ; called to the bar in 18.38; became a Q.C. 1851 ; meniber of the Common Law 

; Procedure Commission, 1852; elevated to the bench as baron of the Exchequer in 

1856. 

BRAND, Henry Bouverie Willian&, English politician, b. 1814 ; secretary to 
; Sir G. Grey ; M.P. for the borough of Lewes since 1852 ; lord of the Treasury under the 

I ministry of Lord Palmerston, 1855 to 1858. 

BRANDS, William Thomas, English chemist, b. in London, 1788 ; studied at 
St. George's Hospital ; professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution, 1813 ; fellow of 
the University of London^ 1836; D.C.L. at Oxford, 1853. Author of * Outlines of 
Geology ; * * Manual of Chemistry ;' and other scientific works. 

BRANDIS, Christian Augnstns, German author, b. at Hildesheim, Hanover, 
Feb. 15, 1790; studied at the Universities of Kiel, Gottingen, and Copenhagen; secretary 
of the Prussian Legation at Rome ; appointed professor at Bonn, 1821 ; in 1837 he went 
to Greece, and was member of the cabinet and councillor to King Otho for several 
years. Author of a work *0n Greece," Leipsic, 1842, and numerous volumes on classics, 
history, and philosophy. 

BRANDON, Robert. English architect, b. 1810. Published, with his brother, 'An 
Analysis of Gothic Architecture ;' • The Open Timber Roots of the Middle Ages,* 1842 ; 

* Parish Churches,* 1854. 



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BR A.NDT. Helniicb yron, German military writer, b. in Westphalia in 1780 ; studied 
law at Kouigsbei-g, and entered the Prussian army; took part in the campaign of 
1813-14 ; chief of staff, 1830 ; colonel, 1842 ; and mi^or-general, 1848. Author of * Ueber 
Spanien,' 1823 ; * Handbuch flir den ersten Unterricht in der hohem Kriegskuust,' 1829 ; 
and other worlcs. 

BRANISS. Oluristlleb Jnllaai German author, b. at Breslau, Sept. 18, 1792 ; 
studied at Berlin and Breslau ; graduated Ph.D. at the University of Gottingen, 1823; 
professor t« the School of Philosophy at Breslau, 1825. Author of 'Geschichte der 
Philosophic seit Kant,' Breslau, 1842 ; and numerous other philosophical works. 

BRASOASSATy Jacques Raymondi French painter, b. at Bordeaux, Aug. »0, 
1805 ; studied imder Richard and M. Hersent Exhibited * Mercure et Aigus,' 1827 ; 
'^tude de Chiens,' 1831 ; ' Le Golfe de Naples/ 1845 ; and numerous other paintings. 

BRASSEYy Thomas^ Engish civil engineer, b. at Buerton in 1805; educated at 
Chester; constructed the Grand Junction, Severn Valley, Lancaster and Carlisle, Cale- 
donian, North Stafford, Buckinghamshire, South- Western, Eastern Union, Western of 
France, and Mediterranean railways, and several lines in Spain. 

BR ATI ANO| DemetrinSy Roumanian politician, b. at Bucharest in 1818 ; educated 
at the National College of Bucharest, and studied law in Paris, where, fh)m 1836 to 1848 
he published numerous political articles in the NationcU and the Revue Indipendantef 
under the pseudonym of 'Regnault ;' deputy to the Parliament of Rouniania. 

BRATIIiNO| John, b. at Bucharest, 1822, brother of the preceding; entered the 
army, 1838 ; studied in Paris, at the Polytechnic School and the College of France, 1841 ; 
deputy to the Parliament of Roumania. Author of * Mdmoire sur I'Empire d'Autriche 
dans la Question d' Orient,' 1855 ; 'Memoire sur la Situation de la Moldo Valachie depuis 
le Trait6 de Paris,' 1857. 

BRAUN| Alexander Oarl Hermaani Ctennan politician, b. at Planen, Saxony, 
May 10, 1807 ; studied law at the University of Leipsic ; member of the Second Chamber 
of State, 1839 to 1842 ; member of the Diet of Saxony, 1845 ; president of the Second 
Chamber, 1848. Author of *Rechenschafts-bericht^' Leipsic, 1846; and several legal 
works. 

BRAUN. JobaimWiUielin Joseph, German theological writer, b. at Gronan, Prussia, 
April 27, 1801 ; studied at Cologne and at Bonn ; ordained at Vienna, 1825, and finished 
his theological studies at Rome ; member of the First Chamber of Prussia in 1860. 
Author of ^Deutschland und die National- Versammlung,' Aix-la-Chapelle, 1849; 'Die 
Lehren des sogenannten Hermesianismus, ilber das Verhkltniss ier Vemuuft zur Oflfeu- 
barung,' Bonn, 1835 ; and other theological works. 

BRAVO-MURIIiLOy Don Juan, Spanish politician, b. at Frejenal de la Sierra, 
Bad^oz, June, 1803 ; entered the College of Advocates at Seville in 1825 ; secretaiy to 
the Department of Justice, 1836 ; elected to the Cortes by the province of Seville, 1837 ; 
re-elected for the province Avila, 1839; minister of justice in 1847; minister of trade 
and public instruction, November of the same year; minister of finance in 1849 to 
1850 ; president of the Council of Ministers, 1851. 

BRAYy Anna Elisa, En^sh authoress, b. in Surrey, near the end of the last century ; 
married to Mr. Charles Stothard, 1818, who died in 1821: married again in 1825 to the 
Rev. Edward Atkyns Bray, vicar of Tavistock, who died 1857. Author of ' Memoirs of 
Charles Stothard,' 1823 ; ' The White Hoods,' a novel, 1828 ; ' The Borders of the Tamar 
and the Tavy,' 1836; and numerous novels and biographical sketches. 

BRAY| Othon Camille HuffO vont German diplomatist, b. at Berlin, May 17, 
1807 ; entered the diplomatic service of Bavaria, and charged with several missions to 
Vienna, Paris, and St Petersburg, 1831-42; minister of foreign affeurs of Bavaria, 
1846 ; envoy of Bavaria at St. Petersburg, 1849. 

BRAZIIa^ Dom Pedro II. Emperor of, b. Dec. 2, 1825; son yf the Emperor 
Pedro I. and of Leopoldina, archduchess of Austria ; succeeded to the throne on the 
abdication of his father, April 7, 1831 ; declared of age, July 23, 1840 ; crowned July 18, 
1841 ; married, Sept. 4, 1843, to Theresa, empress of Brazil, b. March 14, 1822, the 
daughter of the late King Francis L of the Two Sicilies. 

BRECRENRIDGB, John, American politician, b. at Lexington, K«ntucky, Jan. 21, 
1821 ; educated at Danville, and studied law at the Transylvania Institute ; entered the 
army as a volunteer in the Mexican war, 1847 ; returned to Congress, 1851 and 1853 ; 
vice-president of the United States, 1857-61 ; general in the Confederate service, 1861-65. 

BREEN. Henry He^art, English ^waiter, b. 1808; deputy-registrar of the Court of 
St. Lucia, 1832 ; provost-marshal of St Vincent, 1862. Author of ' St. Lucia, Historical, 
Statistical, and Descriptive;' ' The Diamond Rock ; ' and other works. 



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BREHM, Christlaa Ludvirlff, German naturalist, b. at Schdcran, Gotha, Jan. 24, 
1787; studied theology at Jena, and ordained minister in 1813. Author of * Lehrbuch 
der Naturgeschichte alier Europ. Yogel,' Jena, 1824-27 ; ' Die Kiinst Yogel als Blilge zu 
bereiteu, &c.' Weimar, 1842; and other works on ornithology. 

BKEHMER, Heinrich^ German politician, b. at Liibeck in 1800 ; studied law at Jena 
and Crottingen, and practised as an advocate in his native t-own ; member of the senate of 
Ltibeck, 1836 ; represented Liibeck at the Cionferences of Dresden, 185U, and at the Diet 
of the North German Confederation, 1866. 

BRBITHAUPT. John Au^xuit Friedericbi German mineralogist, b. at Probot- 
zella, near Saalfeld, May 18, 1791 ; studied at the University of Jena, and the Academy 
of Friborg ; appointed professor and inspector of precious stones in the latter town. 
Author of ' Ueber die Echtheit der Kristalle,' Friborg, 1816 ; ' Die Charaktere der Klasseu 
und Ordnungen des Mineral Systems,' ib. second edition, 1854; and numerous otlier 
worlcs on mineralogy. 

SRBUOND^ Jeaa Trsxigoin, French painter, b. in Paris in 1807: studied under 
MM. Ingres and Conder. Executed a great number of paintings on religious sufctjects : 
' Le Christ descendu de la Croix,' 1»52 ; ' Le Christ Consolateur,' * Le Christ et les Eul&nts,' 
for the church of St. Lambert of Vangirard, 1863. 

BRENIERi Baron Anatole, French diplomatist, b. in 1806; was successively 
secretary of legation at Lisbon and in London, 1831 ; niinister of foreign affairs trom 
Jan. 24 to April 10, 1851 ; niinister plenipotentiary to Naples, 1855 ; created senator, 
March 24, 1861. 

BRENIIa, Guillanme Joseph Ancnstei French writer, b. at Amiens, March 2, 
1811 ; barrister and justice of t^e peace in his native town. Editor of * Lettres incites 
de Mile. Philipon's adress^s aux Demoiselles Canet,' 1840 : author of * La Confrerie de 
Notre-Dame du Puy,' 1854 ; and other antiquarian works. 

BREQUETr I«Oiii8| French horologist and electrician, b. in Paris, Dec. 22, 1808 ; 
studied at Geneva, and made several discoveries in the science of horology and the use 
of electric telegraphs ; member of the Bureau of Longitudes, 1862. 

BRESSANT, Jean Baptiate Prosper, French actor, b. at Ch&lons-sur-Sadne, 
Oct. 24, 1815 ; made his d6but in Paris, 1835 ; played in * Clarisse Harlowe ;' ' Diane de 
Lys ;' ' Le Verre d'Eau ;* *Le Misanthrope ;' and many other dramas. 

BRETON. Frangois Pierre Hippolyte Ernest. French archaeologist, b. at 
Paris, Oct. 21, 1812 ; studied drawing under Regnier, Watelet, and Champiu. Published 
' Intioduction 4 1'Histoire de France, ou description physique et monumental de la Gaule 
jusqu' 4 r^tablissement de la Monarchie,' 1838 ; ' Pomp^ia,' 1855 ; and other arctueological 
worics. 

BRETON, Jules Adolphe, French painter, b. at Courriires, Pas de Calais; studied 
under Drolling and M. F. Devigne. Painted ' Les Gkmeuses ;' * Le Lendemain de la 
St. Sebastieu' and ' Petites Paysannes consultant les Epis,' 1857 ; and numerous other 
landscapes. 

BREWSTER, Right Hon. Abraham. English lawyer, b. in 1706 ; studied at 
Trinity College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1819 ; solicitor-general for Ireland from 
Feb. to June, 1846 ; appointed attorney-general and sworn member of the Privy Council, 
1853 ; retired, 1855. 

BRIAIaMONT, Alexia. Belgian military writer, b. at Venlo, May 25, 1821 ; studied 
in the Military School of Brussels ; secretary to General Chezal, minister of war, 1847 to 
1850 ; staff-major, 1855 ; captain, 1857. Author of * History of the Duke of Wellington,' 
1856-57 ; and several works on military science ; also founded the Belgian Army Journal 
in 1850. 

BRIAIaMONT, laanrent Mathieu, Belgian statesman, b. at Seraing, near Li^, 
in 1789 ; took part as a military officer in the French campaigns in Germany, Spain, and 
Russia, 1806-15 ; contributed to the revolutionary movement in Belgium, 1830 ; aide-de- 
camp to King Leopold I., and commander of Antwerp, 1837, and of Mons, 1840 ; minister 
of war, 1850. 

BRICHETEAU;^ Isidore, French physician, b. at St. Christophe Ande, Feb. 8, 1789; 
studied at the Lyceum of Poitiers ; physician to the Salp6tri6re Hospital for Chil- 
dren, and the Hdtel Dieu, at Paris. Author of ' Traits analytique sur le Croup, 1826 ; 
'Traits sur les Maladies chroniques qui ont leur si^e dans les Organes respiratoires,' 
1852 ; and numerous other medical works. 

BRIDGES, Sir Brook William, Bart. English politician, b. 1801 ; educated at 
Winchester, and Oriel College, Oxford; deputy-lieutenant for Kent; M.P. for East Kent, 
Feb. to July 1852, and since 1857. 



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BRIERRE DE BOI8MONT, Alexander Jacques Frangois, French phy- 
sician, b. at Rouen, Oct 18, 1797 ; physician to the Hospital of Bonshoinraes, at Pahs. 
Author of * Relation historique et mMicale du Cholera Morbus de Cologne,* 1832 ; * Des 
Hallucinations, ou Histoire raisonn^e des Apparitions, des Visions, des Songes, de I'Extase, 
du Somnambulisme, et du Magn^tisme,' 1845, second edition 1862 ; and other medical 
and scientific works. 

BRIEY OAMIIaLEi Count de^ Belgian statesman, b. 1799 ; member of the Senate, 
1839 ; minister of finance, 1841 ; minister of foreign aflfairs, from 1841 to 1843. , 

BRIGHT, Jobn, English politician, b. at Rochdale, 1811 ; partner in the firm of John 
Bright and Brothers, cotton spinners and manufacturers, Rochdale ; M.P. for Durham 
1843; M.P. for Manchester, 1847 ; for Birmingham since 1857. 

BRIOHTy Sir Charles Tilston. English civil engineer, b. in 1832; engineer 
to the En^ish and Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company, 1853 ; and one of the original 
projectors of the Atlantic Telegraph Company, 1856 ; M.P. for Greenwich, 1865. 

BRIONy Guatave, French painter, b. at Rothan, Vosges, in 1834 ; studied painting at 
Strasbourg under Gabriel Guerin. from 1841 to 1844. Painted 'Le Cliemin de Halage,' 
1852 ; * Batterie de Machines de Guerre,' 1861 ; * J^sus et Pierre sur les Croix,* 1863 ; and 
a number of historical paintings. 

BRIOT^ Charles Aui^uste Albert^ French mathematician, b. at St. Hippolyte^ 
Doubs, July 19, 1817 ; studied at the College of St. Louis ; admitted to the Normal 
School in 1838 ; professor of mathematics at the Royal College of Orleans 1841, to the 
Faculty of Lyons 1845, and at the Lyceums Buonaparte, St. Louis, and the Polytechnic 
School, Paris, 1848. Author of * LcQons uouvelles de Trigonometric,' 1850 ; and several 
works on mathematics. 

BRIQUES, Paul. French physician, b. at Chalons-sur-Mame, in 1798 ; member of the 
French Academy, 1860. Author of *De TEclairage artiflciel, consid^re sous le point de 
vue de I'Hygi^ne publique et priv6e,' 1837 ; 'Recherches sur I'Etiologie des Tubercules,' 
1842 ; *Trait6 cliniqne et therapeutique de I'Hysterie,' 1859 ; and other medical works. 

BRISCOE, John Ivatty English politician, b. 1792; educated at University College, 
Oxford; graduated B.A. 1812; M.A. 1816; magistrate for Surrey and Middlesex, and a 
deputy-lieutenant for Surrey ; M.P. for Surrey, 1830-32 ; for East Surrey, 1S33-34 ; for 
Westbury, 1837-41 ; and for West Surrey since 1857. 

BRISEBARREi Edouard lK)ui8 Alexandre. French dramatic writer, b. at 
Paris, Feb. 12, 1818; studied at the College of Charlemagne. Author of *LaFiole de 
Cagliostro,* 1835; *Le GarQon de Ferme,* 1861; 'Leonard,* 1863; and numerous other 
dramas. 

BRISSET. Pierre Nicolas* French painter, b. in Paris, Aug. 18, 1810; studied at 
the Paris School of Fine Arts. Painted * The Death of Priam,' 1840 ; and other historical 
and ecclesiastical works. 

BRISTED^ Charles Astor, Americ^in writer, b. at New York in 1820; studied in 
England, and at the University of Cambridge ; returned to America in 1847. Author u( 
* The Upper Ten Thousand ;* * Sketches of American Society ;* * Five Years in an 
English University ;* and other miscellaneous works. 

BR I STOW, Henry IViUiam, English geologist, b. in 1817 ; educated at King's 
College, London ; appointed assistant geologist in the Ordnance Geological Survey, 
1842 ; geologist on the Geolomcal Survey of Great Britain, 1847. Author of * Memoirs on 
the Geology of the Isle of Wight ;' and other geological works. 

BRIVES. JacqueSi French politician, b. at Moutpellier, Aug. 9, 1800 ; elected deputy 
to the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; member of the Legislative Assembly, 1850 ; 
imprisoned and exiled, 1851. 

BROCKHAUS, Hennann. German philologist, b. at Amsterdam, Jan. 28, 1806 ; 
studied Oriental literature at the Universities of Leipsic, Bonn, and Oxford ; professor at 
the University of Jena 1839, at Leipsic 1841, and in 1848 ; titular professor of Oriental 
literature and languages at Leipsic, 1848. Author of ' Kath& sarit s&gara,* Leipsic, 1839 ; 
and several translations from the Sanscrit and other Oriental languages. 

BRODHEAD, John Ronieyn, American wi-iter, b. in New York, Jan. 2, 1814 ; 
studied law. and was admitted to the bar of New York, 1835. Author of * History of 
the State of New York,* 1853. 

BROFFERIO, Anfl;elO| Italian author and politician, b. at Castelnuovo, province of 
Asti, Dec. 6, 1802 ; studied law at Turin, and called to the bar, 1830. Founded the Turin 
Messenger. Author of • Vitiges, King of the Goths ;* ' History of Piedmont from 1814 to 
the present time,* 1849-52 ; and numerous satires, dramas, tragedies, and poems. 



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BROOIalE, Albert, Prince de, French author, b. Jmie 13, 1821 ; became a con- 
tributor to the Remie des Deux MatCdeSf 1848. Author of ' Etudea morales et litteraireit/ 
1853 ; * L'Eglise et TEnipire Romain au Quatri^me Sitele/ 1856 ; ' Une R^forme Adminiii- 
trative en Alg^rie,' 1860. Member of the French Academy, 1862. 

BRO H AN* Ancvstine. French actress and dramatic authoress, b. at Paris, Dec. '2, 
1824 ; studied music at the Conservatoire, 1817-22 ; appeared at the Th^tre fhiU(^H, 
Paris, 1823 ; admitted soci^taire, or partner, at the Th^tre frangais, 1830. Author uf 
* Les Metamorphoses de I'Amour ;' ' Quitte ou Double ;' * Qui femme a, guerre a ;' and 
other comedies. 

BROMI^BY. Williain Darenport, English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Harrow, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant for the county of Stafford, and lieutenant- 
colonel of Staffordshire yeomanry cavalry ; M.P. for North Warwickshire since 1864. 

BRONGNIART, Adolpbe Theodore, French botanist, b. in Paris, Jan. 14, 1801 ; 
member of the Academy of Sciences, 1834 ; professor of botany at the Museum of Natural 
History, 1833 ; inspector of the University of Paris, 1852. Author of ' Enumeratiuu 
des Genres de Flantes cultive^s au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' 1843. 

BRONN^ Heinrich Georfr, (German naturalist, b. at Oriegelheim, near Heidelbeiy, 
March 3, 1800 ; studied at Heidelberg ; tutor at the University, 1822 ; professor of natural 
sciences at Heidelberg, 1828 ; professor and director of tlie geological cullectious of the 
University, 1835. Author of * System der urweltlichen Conchylien,' Heidelbei^, 1827 ; 
and other works on Natural History. 

BROOK S| CharleSi American writer, b. at Salem, Massachusetts, June 20, 1813 ; 
studied theology ; was minister in several paiishes, and settled at Newport, Rhodes 
Island, 1837. Author of ' Poems ;' ' Journey to India ;' ' Qemian Lyrics ;' and various 
other works in prose and verse. 

BROOKS^ Charles Shirley, English novelist and dramatic author, b. 1816; studie<I 
for the bar, but relinquished law for literature. Author of numerous dramas and novels : 
among them, * Our New Gtovemess ;' * The Creole ;' ' Aspen Court ;' ' The Qordian Knot ;' 
*The Silver Cord;' und many others: also contributor and special correspondent to 
several daily and weekly papers. 

BROSBOEIaL, Oharles, Danish novelist, b. in Jutland, April 7, 1820; studied 
painting at the Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen. Author of ' De to Studenter,' 
Copenluigen, 1838 ; 'EiagsSoenner,' 1845; ' Livets Conflicter,' 1844; 'Herregaards For- 
tsBUinger/ 1853 ; and other dramas and novels. 

BROSSARDy Ame'de'e Hippolyte, Marquis de. French military commander, 
b. at FoU^ny, March 8, 1784 ; entesea the army, 1801, and took part in the campaigns oi' 
the £!mpire ; lieutenant-colonel,. 1818; staff-m^jor in the expedition to Algeria, 1830; 
field-marshal, 1833; officer of the Ldgion d'honneur, 1822. Author of 'Melanges sur 
I'AfWque,' 1838. 

BROSSBT. Marie Felicite', French writer, b. at Paris, Feb. 5, 1802 ; studied in the 
College of Jesuits ; professor of Armenian and Georgian literature in the Imperial 
Ac^ulemy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, 1840 ; eonservateur of the collection of 
Oriental coins in the Imperial Palace of the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 1851. Author 
of • Chronique G^oigienne,' 1830; • Histoire de la G6orgie,' 1849-50 ; and other works. 

BROTy Charles Alphonse. French novelist and dramatic writer, b. at Paris. 
April 12, 1809. Author of 'Pnez pour elle,' 1833; 'Jane Grey,' 1835; 'La Comtessc 
aux trois Galants,' 1839 ; * Deux Coups de Tomierre,' 1863 ; * La Tour de Londres,' 1855 ; 
and other dramas and novels. 

BROUCKERE^ Henri Marie Joseph Ghislain de, Belgian politician, b. nt 
Bruges in 1801 ; magistrate and king's counsel at Maestricht and at Rureinonde till the 
Revolution of 1830 ; member of the National Congress, and one of the coinmissiouers 
who offered the crown of Belgium to Prince Leoxwld, 1831 ; civil governor of Antwerp, 
1833 ; minister of state, 1847. 

BROUOHTON, John Cam Hobhouse, ^^'4; ^S^^^^ politician and author, 
b. near Bristol in 1786 ; educated at Westminster, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated in 1808 ; M.P. for Westminster, 1820 to 1833 ; for Nottingham, 1834 to 1847 ; 
M. P. for Harwich ; raised to the peerage as Lord Broughton in 1851 ; chief commissioner 
of woods and forests, 1846-52. Author of 'Journey through Albania and other Provinces 
of Turkey with Lord Byron/ 1812 ; and other works. 

BROWN. Ford Madox. English painter, b. at Calais in 1821 ; studied in Belgium 
and Pans. Painted * Wicliff reading his Translation of the Scriptures,' 1848 ; • King 
Lear,' 1849; 'Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III.' 1851 ; 'Christ 
washing Peter's Feet,' 1852 ; and many other historical pictures. 



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BROVTN, Henry Klrke* American sculptor, b. at Leyden, Massachusetts, in 1814 ; 
studied portrait painting at Boston, 1832. Executed in bronze a statue of * De Witt 
Clinton;* 'The Angel of Retribution;' in marble, 'Hope;* bas-reliefis of the 'Hyadea* 
and ' Pleiades ;' the * Four Seasons ;' and other works of art. 

BROWN, John, English physician, b. at Biggar, Lanarkshire Sept. 1810 ; educated at 
the High School and University of Edinbuigh; M.D. of Edinburgh, and assessor to 
the rector of the University Court. Author of *Rab and his Friends;' 'Our Dogs;* 
contributor to the North British Review, Good WordSy and the Scot»ma%. 

BROWN, Re^. Thomas Richard, English philologist, b. 1791; educated at 
St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1814 ; vicar of South wick, 
Northamptonshire, 1834. Author of 'An Analysis of the Chaldee Text of Daniel,* 1838 ; 
' Hebrew Hieroglyphic Dictionary,' 1858 ; and other philological works. 

BROWN, Rer. William Haic, English divine, b. at Bromley. MiddlMex, 1823 ; 
studied at Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he graduated in high honours, 1846 ; 
M.A. 1849, and LL.D. 1864; fellow and tutor of Pembroke College; assistant master at 
Harrow; heail master of the Orammar School, Kensington, in connexion with King's 
College, London, 1857 ; head master of Charterhouse School, London, 1863. 

BROWNE, Charles Thomas> English author, b. at Wellington, Somerset, in 1825 ; 
graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. Author of ' The Tower of London,' 1844 ; ' Irene ; ' 
^AstreUo, or the Prophet's Vision,' 1850 ; 'Life of Soutbey,* 1854 ; ' The United States ; 
its Constitution and Powers,' 1856. 

BROWNE, Colonel Gore, English colonial administratoi*, b. 1807; entered the 
army, 1814 : commander of the 41st regiment daring the Affghanistan campaign, 1842 ; 
governor of St. Helena, 1851-54; governor of New Zealand, 1854-61; appointed governor 
of Tasmania, March, 1862. 

BROVTNB, Frances, English anthoress, b. at Stranorlor, Donegal, Jan. 16, 1816; 
lost her sight in infancy. Published 'Songs of our Land,' 1840; 'Legends of Ulster;' 
'The Ericksoiis;' and 'My Share of the World,' 1861. Literary pension of 201. p«r 
annum. 

BROWNE, Hablot Kniffhti English artist, b. in 1812. Designed the illustrations 
to part of 'Fickwick,' 1839, ' Nicholas Nickletby,' and most of Mr. Charles Dickens' 
works of flction; also to the Abbotsford edition of the 'Waverley Novels,' 'The Adven- 
tures of Sir Ouy de Guy,' and numerous other works, under the pseudonym of 'Phiz.* 

BRO^tTNE. Jankes Ross, American traveller, b. in 1817. Author of 'Etchings of a 
Whaling Cruise,* New York, 1846; a series of articles in Harper's Magazine; and 
' Youself, or tlie Journey of the Prangi,' ib. 1854. 

BROWNE, laord John Thomas, English politician, b. 1821 ; lieutenant in the 
royal navy, 1646; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant lor the county of Mayo; M.P. for 
the same since 1857. 

BROWNE, Re^. Henry, English author, b. 1804; educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1826 ; principal of the Theol(^cal College at 
Chichester, 1842Hir ; prebendary of the cathedral ; examining chaplain to the bishop of 
the diocese, and vicar of Pevensey, 1854. Author of 'Qrdo Saecloruiu,' 1844; ai-ticles 
in Kitto's 'Cyclopfedia of Biblical Literature;' and several volumes of Qreek and 
Latin classics. 

BROW19E, Ven. Robert Williaui, English divine, b. Nov. 12, 1809; educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School ; elected scholar and fellow of St John's College, Oxford, and 
graduated B.A. 1831; professor of classical literaturiB in King's College, London, 1835; 
chaplain to the bishop uf Lichfield, 1843; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1845; examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Bath and Wells, 1854 ; archdeacon of Bath, and rector ot* 
Weston-super-Mare, 1860 ; canon of Wells, 1863. Author of ' Histories of Greece and 
Rome ;' ' Histories of Greek and Roman Literature.' 

BROWNING, Robert, English poet, b. at CamberweU in 1612; educated at the 
London University. Author of 'Paracelsus,' 1836; ' Pippa Passes;' 'Strafford;* 
* Sordello ;' ' Men and Women ' 1856 ; ' Return of the Druses ; * ' The Soul's Tragedy ;' 
' Dramatis Personie,' 1864 ; and numerous other dramas and poems. 

BROVTNSON, Orestes, American writer, b. in New Hampshire, 1802; educated as 
Presbyterian, and successively ' Universalist ' preacher. Unitarian, and Roman Catholic. 
Author of ' Charles El wood,' a novel ; ' The Spirit Rapper ;' ' The Convert ; ' and several 
other works. Founded the Boston Quarterly Review, subsequently changed to BrotDn8an*s 
Quarterly. 

BRUCE, Charles Iiennox Onmmlng, English poUtician, b. 1790 ; educated at 
Winchester, and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant for Elgin and 



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[ 43 ] . 

Stirling ; joint secretary of the BoArd of Control, 1852 and 1853-60 ; M.P. for luvemeaa, 
1831-132 and'1833-^7, and for Elgin and Nairn since 1840. 

BRUCE^ John, English antiquarian, b. in London, 1802 ; eflucated for the law, but 
ceased to practise in 1840. Editor of * The Restoration of Edward IV.' 1838 ; * Verney'M 
Notes on the Long Parliament,' 1844 ; and a great number of works for learned societies ; 
also contributor to the Edinburgh Review and Gentleman's Magcuinc. 

BRUCEi Jjord Charles William Bmdenell, English politician, b. 1834 ; captain 
in the Ist Life Guards, and captain of the Royal Wilts Yeomanry Cavalry; Ji.P. for 
North WUtshire, 1865. 

BRUCE, Itord Ernest Ani^istas Charles Bradenell, English politician, 
b. 1811 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; gi-aduated MA. 1831 ; vice- 
chamberlain to the Queen, 1841-46 and 1852-.'i8 ; deputy-lieutenant fur Wilts ; M.P. for 
Marlborough since 1832. 

BRUCE, Rev* John Collinpn^iroody English historical writer, b. at Newcastle- 
upon-1'yne, 1805; educated at the Uuiventity of Glasgow, and graduated M.A. 1826, 
and LL.D. 1853. Author of 'A Handboiik of Euglish History;' ^'llie Baycux Tapestry 
elucidated,' 1856 ; * A Handbook to Newcastle ; ' and other historical works. 

BRUCE. Ri^ht Hon. Henry Anstin, English politician, b. 1815 ; called to the 
bar, 1837 ; appointed under-seci-etary for the tiume Department, 1862 ; vice-president of 
the Committee of Council ou Education, 1864 ; deputy-lieutenant of Glamorgan ; M.P. 
for Merthyr-Tydvil since 1852. 

BRUCE, Sir Henry Herrey, Bart. English politician, b. 1820 ; deputy-lieutenant 
for the count}' of Londonderry ; high sheritt, 1846 ; late lieutenant Ist Life Guards ; 
M.P. for Coleraine since 1862. 



L, Rayniond, French novelist, b. at Compile in 1805. Wrote under 
several pseudonyms. Author of *Le Ma^n,' 1828; 'Les Intimes,' 1831; *Les sept 
Peches capitaux,' 1838 ; * Au milieu des Douleurs,' 1842 ; aud numerous other works of 
flctioa. 

BRUCKNER, Frangois Aa^nste, French politician, b. at Strasbourg, Feb. 8, 
1814 ; entered the Polytechnic School, 1834 ; captain of artillery and member of the 
Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; member of the Legislative Assembly, 1851 ; exiled, 1852. 

BRUEN, Henry, English politician, b. 1828 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the 
county of Carlo w ; M.P. for county of Carlow since 1857. 

BRUOGEMANN, Carl Heinrich, German political writer; b. at Hopsten, 
Prussia, Aug. 29, 1810; studied at the University of Boim. Author of 'Der Deutsche 
Zollverein uud das Schutzsystem,' Berlin ; editor of the Cologne Gazette, 1845-48. 

BRUGGEMANN, Johann Heinrich Theodor, Prussian statesman, b. at Soest, 
Westphalia, in 1795 ; studied at the Univei-sity of Munster ; appointed professor of the 
Lyceiun of Dusseldorf, 1815, and director of the establishment, 181 r ; councillor of public 
instruction at Cobleutz, 1832; minister of public iustiuct.uu, 1849; vice-president of 
the second Prussian Chamber, 1850-51. 

BRUIaOVT, Alexander, Russian architect, b. at St. Petersburg early in tiM present 
century ; studied at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. Designed the theatre of 
Micha'iloff and the observatory, of the Academy of Sciences; superintended the 
restoration of the Imperial winter-palace. 

BRUN-I«AVAINNE, Elie Benjamin Joseph, French antiquarian writer, b. at 
Lille, July 22, 1791 ; appointed archivist of Lille, 1826. Author of 'Atlas topographique 
et historique de Lille,' 1830-36; 'Lea Sept Si6ges de Lille,' 1839; and other antiquarian 
and historical works. 

BRUNET, Jean Baptlste, French military writer, b. at Limoges, Nov. 8, 1814 ; 
studied at ihe Polytechnic tichool, and captain in 1832; member of the Constituent 
Assembly for Haut-Vienne, 1851. Author of * Histoire g6u6rale de I'Artillerie,' Paris, 
1842; 'La Question Algerienne,' 1847. 

BRUNET, de Presle, Charles Marie Vladimir, French antiquarian writer, 
b. at Paris, Nov. 10, 1809 ; member of the Academy of Inscriptions, 1852 ; professor of 
modem Greek at the School of Oriental Langiuiges, 1864. Published * Ki^cherches sur 
les J^blissements des Grecs en Sicile,' 1845 ; * L'Examen critique de la Succession des 
Dynasties^^lgyptiennes,' 1850. 

BRUNIUS, Carl Georflr, Swedish archeeologist, b. at Tanum, March 23, 1792; 
obtained the degree of Ph.D. 1814; tutor at the University of Lund, 1816; professor 



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of Greek, 1824. Author of * Life of Tyrtaeus,* in Greek, Lund, 1816 ; * Konstanteck- 
ningar under en Resa till Fahlun, etc' 1851 ; and several iSwedisli poems, and historical 
and antiquarian works. 

BRUNNOWi Ernst Fhillpp. Baron de, Russian diplomatist, b. at Dresden, 
Aug. 31, 1797; studied at the University of Leipsic, and received into the Russian 
diplomatic service at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1818 ; secretary to the embassy in 
London, 1&20-23 ; seci-etary to Count Woronzow, governor of Odessa, 1827; senior 
councillor to the Foreign Offlco, 1830 ; envoy extraordinary- and minister plenipotentiary 
to the Court of Wurtemberg, 1839 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Great Britain, 1840 to 1854 ; minister plenipotentiary at the Court of Prussia, 1864r-67 ; 
ambassador to Great Britain since 1858. 

BRUNO, Edooard Hnbert Joseph, French military commander, b. Jan. 16, 1802 ; 
general of brigade, 1859; governor and commander-in-cluef of the military school of 
Saumur. 

BRUYS, Ame'de'e, French politician, b. at Climy, Oct. 29, 1817 ; studied law at Paris, 
and admitted to the bar ; deputy to the Constituent Assembly for Satoe-et-Loire, 18^9 ; 
elected member of the Legislative Assembly, 1850 ; exiled, 1851. 

BRYAN, George Leopold, English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Oscott College ; 
justice of the peace, and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Kilkenny; returned M.P. 
for same county, 1865. 

BRYANT, WiUiank Onllen, American poet, b. at Cummington, Massachusetts, 
Nov. 3, 1797 ; studied at William's College from 1810-12 ; admitted to the bar, and 
practised at Great Barrington. Author of ' The Ages,' 1821 ; * Indian at the Burying- 
place of his Fathers ;' * Hymn of the City ;* * Battle Field ;' and numerous other poetical 
works. Established the New York Review and Athenfeum Magazine ; editor of the New 
York Evening Post. 

BUBE, Adolph, German author, b. at Gotha, Sept 23, 1802 ; studied at the college of 
his native town, and at the University of Jena, 1821 ; secretary of the archives of Gotha, 
1834 ; director of the Ducal Museum, of Kunstcabinet, of Gotha, 1842. Author of 
'Deutsche Sagen und sagenhafte Anklange,' Jena, 1842; 'Neue Gedichte,' ib. 1840; 
and other works in poetry and prose. 

BUOCIaEUCH, IValter Francis Montague Douglas Scott, Duke of, 

English statesman, b. 1806 ; studied at St. John's College, Cambridge, and graduated 
M.A. 1827; succeeded his father, 1819; high-steward of Westminster; governor of the 
Charterhouse ; lord-lieutenant of Midlothian and Roxbui^hshire, and captain of the 
Queen's body-guard in Scotland : lord privy seal and lord president of the council, 
1842-46. 

BUCHANAN, Isaac* Canadian politician, b. at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1810 ; entered 
a mercantile house at Glasgow as partner, 1830 ; took an active part in the suppression 
of the Canadian revolution of 1837 ; elected deputy for Toronto, 1841 ; member of the 
executive council of tiie province of Quebec, and president of the Board of Trade in the 
city of Hamilton. 

BUCHANAN, Riffbt Hon. Sir Andrew, English diplomatist, b. 1807 ; entered 
the diplomatic service, 1825 ; charge d'affaires at Florence, 1842, and at St. Petersburg, 
1844 ; minister plenipotentiary at Switzerland, 1852 ; envoy extraordinary at Copen- 
hagen 1853, at Madrid 1858, and at the Hague 1860 ; ambassador to the Court of 
Prussia 1862-66. 

BUCHEZ, Philippe Joseph BexOandn, French author, b. at Matagne-la-Petite, 
March 31, 1796 ; obtained diploma of M.D. 1825 ; representative of the department of 
the Seine at the Constituent Assembly, 1848. Author of * L'Essai d'un Traite coraplet de 
Philosophic au point de vue du Catholicisme et du Progr^s,' Paris, 1839 ; ' Histoire de la 
Formation de la Nationality Frangais,' 1859 ; and other philosophical works. 

BUCKINGHAM, Joseph, American journalist and politican, b. Dec. 21, 1779; 
member of the Legislature and of the Senate of Massachusetts. Author of ' Specimens 
of Newspaper Literature,' Boston ; ' Personal Memoirs and Recollections of Editorial 
Life ;' and other works. 

BUCKINGHAM AND CHANDOS. Richard Plantagrenet CampbeU, 
Duke off English statesman, b. 1823, only son of the second Duke of Buckingham ; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; sat as M.P. for Buckingham, 1846-57 ; 
keeper of the privy seal to the Prince of Wales, 1852 ; chairman of the London and 
North-Western Railway Company, 1853-61 ; succeeded to the dukedom, July, 1861 ; lord 
president of the council, July 6, 1866, to March 6, 1867 ; appointed secretary of state for 
the colonies, March 6, 1867. 



Buc HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORART BIOGRAPHY. Bul 

^ _[ 45 ] 



BUCKIaAND. Francis TreTelyan* Engliiib naturalist, b. in 1820 ; edticatod at 
Winchester School, and Christ Churchy Oxford, where he graduated B.A. Ib48 ; studied 
medicine, and was assistant-surgeon to the 2d Life Guards, 1854 to 1863. Author of 
' Curiosities of Natural History f and editor of his father's. Deou fiucldand's, ' Bridge- 
water Treatise on Greology and Mineralogy.' 

BUCKIaEYy Bdmnndy En^^h politician, b. 1834 ; JoAtfce of the peaoQ and deputy- 
lieutenant for the county of Merioneth ; assumed the surname of Buc'kley in lieu of his 
patronymic. Peck, by royal licence, 1864 ; M.P. for Newcastle-under-Lyne, 1865. 

BUCKMAN^ JameSy English writer, b. at Cheltenham, 1816; curator and resident 
professor at the Birmingham Philosophical Institution, 1846 ; professor of geology and 
botany at the Royal Agricultural College of Cirencester, 1848 to 1863. Author <»f * Our 
Triangle; Letters on the Geology, Botany, and Archaeology of the neighbourhood of 
Cheltenham,' 1842 ; ' The Remains of Roman Art,' 1850 ; * Science and Practice in Farm 
Cultivation,' 1863 ; and numerous other scientific woito. 

BUCK8TONB. John Bald'vriny English actor aad dramatic author, b. near London 
in 1802 ; made his debut at Wokingham, Berks, 1821 ; first appearance in Loudon at the 
Surrey Theatre, 1824; performed at the Haymarket Theatre since 1837, and became 
lessee and manager of the same« 1866. Author of more than one hundred and fifty 
comedies, dramas, and farces. 

BUCKlVAIaD. Joseph Heiniich TOn, Danish writer, b. at Vienna, Oct. 2, 1787 ; 
entered the military school of Copenhagen ; served in the French navy, and took part in 
tiie campaigns of Austria, Spain, and Portugal ; returned to Denmark in 1822, and pub- 
lished in !^nch and Danish a ^reat number of works : among them, ' L'Age po^tique 
d'un Scandinave,' Paiis, 1823 ; ' Tankelege og Digterforsag,' 1851. 

BUDBERGy Andrenr, Baron^ Russian diplomatist, b. in 1820; entered the 
diplomatic service, 1842 ; secretary of the Russian Legation at Frankfort, 1846 ; charge 
d'affaires in Uie same city, 1849 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Berlin, 1851 ; and to Hanover and Mecklenburg, 1852 ; the same at Vienna, 1856 ; 
returned to Berlin, March 19, 1858 ; ambassador to France, 1862-68. 

BUDDETXSy Anrelio. German writer, b. at Altenburg in 1817 ; studied medicine at 
Leipsic, and received the diploma of M. D. 1842. Author of * Petersburg im kranken 
Leben,' Stuttgard, 1846 ; * Halbrussisches,' Leipsic, 1847; * Das Schweizerland,' 1853. 

BUELIay Don Carlos^ American general, b. in the state of Ohio in 1819 ; admitted as 
a cadet at West Point, 1837 ; entered the armv as second-lieutenant of infantry, 1841 ; 
first lieutenant, and engaged in the war in Mexico, 1845 ; captain, 1846 ; major, 1847 ; 
assistant adjutant-general, 1848 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1861 ; major-general, 1862 ; retired 
from the army, 1865. 

BUPFETy laonis Joseph, French politician, b. at Mirecourt, Vosges. Oct. 26, 1818 ; 
studied law, and practised at the Paris bar ; elected to the French Constituent Assembly 
by the department of the Vosges, 1848 ; minister of commerce and agriculture, 1848-49 ; 
member of the L^slative Assembly, 1850-51 ; member of the general council for the 
canton of Thillot; deputy to the Corps L^slatif; 1864-67. 

BUGUETy Jean Joseph, French writer, b. at Leviers, Doubs, in 1793 ; studied law 
at Dijon, and obtained the d^ree of LL.D. 1821; member of the general coimcil of 
Doubs, 1858. Author of * CSuvres de Pothier, annot^es et mises en coir^lation avec lo 
Code Civil et la Legislation actuelle,' 1845-48 ; and several 'Memoirs.' 

BUIaGARIS, DemetrinSy Greek politician, b. at Hydra, 1801 ; entered the govern- 
ment service, and became senator, 1833 ; president of the provisional guvemment of 
Athens, 1862 ; president of the council, and minister of the interior, 1863-64. 

BUJjK£laEY, Sir Richard Bulkeley IVilliams, English politician, b. 1801 ; 
lord-lieutenant of the county of Carnarvon ; M.P. for Beaumaris, 1830-33 ; for Anglesey, 
1833-37 ; for Flintshire, 1841-47 ; and. again for Anglesey since 1847. 

BUIalaER, Sir Arthnr William, English politician^ b. at Calcutta, Bengal, 1808 ; 
educated at Edinburgh and Trinity College, Cambridge : called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 
1834 ; Queen's advocate in Ceylon, 1840 ; judge of the Supreme Court of Calcutta, 1848-58 ; 
M.P. for Devonport, 1869 to 1865 ; and for Liskard since 1865. 

BUIalaER, Sir Edward Mannlnyham. Bart. English politician, b. 1800; educated 
at Oriel College, Oxford; graduated B.A. 1821, and M.A. 1824; deputy-lieutenant for 
the county of Stafford, and high-sheriff; 1853 ; M.P. for North Statfoidshire, 1833-42 ; 
for Stafford, 1842-47 ; for North Staffordshire, 1865. 

BUIalaER, Sir Georire, English general, b. in 1804 ; entered the army, 1820 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the infantry, 1841 ; took part in the Kaflftr war, and was present at Boom 



Bnl HANDBOOK OF CONTBMPORARY BIOGRAPHT. Bixr 
[ 46 1 — 



Plats, 1848 : staff-major, 1852 ; fought at Alma and Inkerman ; mi^or-general and K.C.B. 
1855 ; lieatenant-general, 1862. 

BUIaOW. Friederich Knbech Heiniich TOn, Danish statesman, b. at Neustrup, 
Sohleswig, P^b. 4, 1791 ; entered the array, and present at the siege of Copenhagen in 
1807 ; commander of the fortress of Fredericia, 1848 ; governor of the duchy of Schleswig, 
1851-54 ; minister plenipotentiary of Denmark to Oreat Britain, 1865. 

BUIiOZy TrBSkQoiMf French writer, b. at Valbens, Geneva, in 1803 ; studied at Paris, 
and founded the Rev^ie dts Devx MoncUs, 1831, and L'Annvaire des Deux Mondes, 1850 ; 
royal commissioner for the ComMie FrauQaise, 1838 to 1848. 

BUIaWlSR, Rirht Hon. Sir Henry Iiytton Earle, English diplomatist, 
b. 1805 ; entered the diplomatic service in 1829, and successively attached to the 
British embassies at Berlin, Brussels, and the Hague; M.P. for Wilton, 1830; for 
Coventry, 1831-32 ; for Marylebone. 18.S4 to 1837 ; secretary of embassy at Constanti- 
nople, 18.S7 ; secretary of embassy at Paris, 1839 ; minister plenipotentiary at the Court 
of Madrid, 1843-48 ; ambassador at Washington, U.S. 1849 ; envoy extraordinary to 
Tuscany, 1852-65 ; ambassador at Constantinople, 1857-66. Author of ' An Autumn in 
Greece ;' * France, Social and Military ;' • The Monarchy of the Middle Classes,-' • Life of 
Lord Byron.' 

BUNGB, Alexander, Russian botanist, b. at Kiew, Sept. 24, 1803 ; studied at the 
University of Dorpat, and obtained the diploma of M.D. 1825 ; professor of botany at 
Kasan, and professor and director of the Botanical Gardens at Dorpat, 183G. Author of 
* Enumeratio Plantarum quas in China boreali coUegit,' St. Petersburg, 1831 ; * Beitrat; 
zur Kenntniss der Flora Russlands in den Steppen Central Asiens,' Bt. Petersburg and 
Leipsic, 1851 ; and numerous other works. 

BUNGB, Frederick George, Russian author, b. at Kiew, March 1, 1802, brother of 
the preceding ; studied law at the University of Dorpat, and professor of jurisprudence 
there, 1823. Author of * Ueber den Sachsenspiegel, als Quelle des mittleren und unige- 
arbeiteten livlandischen Bitterrechts,' Riga, 1827; *Liv.-Esth. und Kurlandisches 
Urkundenbuch nebst Regesten,' Reval, 1852-53 ; and many other legal works. 

BUNSBN, Robert ^VUhelm Bberhard, German chemist, b. at Gdttingen, 
March 13, 1811 ; studied at Gdttingen University, and at Paris, Berlin, and Vienna ; pro- 
fessor at the Polytechnic Institute of Cassel, 1836, and at the University of Marburg, 
1838 : titular professor at the University of Breslan, 1851. Author of ' Eisenoxydhydrat, 
das Gegengift, Ac* 1837 ; and other works on chemistry. 

BUOIa-SCHAUENSTBIN, Karl Ferdinand, Connt, German statesman and 
diplomatist, b. in tlie canton of Orisons, Switzerland, May 17, 1797 ; entered the Austrian 
diplomatic service, 1816 ; secretary to the embassy at Paris 1822, at London 1824, at 
Carlsruhe 1828 ; envoy extraordinary to the Court of Darmstadt 1831, at Stuttgard 1888 ; 
plenipotentiary at Turin, 1848 ; ambassador at London, 1851-52 ; minister of foreign 
affairs of Austria, 1852-59 ; privy councillor and chamberlain of the Emperor of Austria. 

BUONCOMPAGNIy Baltassarre, Italian author, b. at Rome, May 10, 1821 ; 
appointed member of the pontifical academy, De Nuovi Linc«i, 1847, of which he after- 
wards became librarian and treasurer. Author of ' The Life and Works of Guido Bonatti, 
Astrologer and Astronomer of the Thirteenth Century,' Rome, 1851 ; the ' Life and Works 
of Leonardo ^sano ;' and several other historical publications. 

BUQUETy Henri Alfred I^eopold. Baron, French politician, b. at Paria, 
July 15, 1809 ; mayor of Nancy, and member of the General Council for the canton of 
that town ; entered the Corps Ldgislatif for the second department of the Meurthe 
in 1852 ; re-elected, 1863. 

BURBURB I^EZBMBBEK, Iieon Phllliipe Marie, Chevalier de, Belgian 
writer aT»d musical composer, b. at Termonde in 1812; studied law and received the 
degree oi LL.D. from the University of Gand, 1832 ; librarian of the archives of the 
church of Notre-Dame of Termonde, 1842, and of the cathedral of Antwerp, 1840. 
Published * Inscriptions de la Province d'Anvers,* 1862. 

BURCHAM, Thonuis Borroi'ir, English lawj'er, b. in 1809 ; studied at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1830; elected fellow of Trinity College, 1832 ; 
called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1843 ; recorder of Bedford, 1848 ; police-magistrate 
in London, 1850. 

. BURDACH, Ernst, German anatomist, b. at Leipsiq, 1801 ; professor of anatomy at 
the University of Konigabeig. Published * Beitrag zur mikroskopischen Anatomie der 
Nerven,' Ednigsberg, 1887 ; and an edition of his father's works on anthropology in 
1847. 



HANDBOOK OP CJONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. 



Bnr 



I 47 > 



Oct 31 

Christ 



18&^fd^'eSd«^^*ti n •^"^•'^"'*°®' ^' a* Providence, Rhode Island, U.S. 
Church H^tford i«!n!?-''T'tl^' of Gottingen and Bonn. Germany ; rector of 
isinSlish vi™!^' o^H^ri'' bi8hop of Main?, 1847. Published 'The Book of 
i^^|lis^ erse ; and « Pages from the Ecclesia stical History of England.* 

educated at St. .John's College, 
at Rome, 1831 ; rector of Upper 

w blames your reviewer of L}^^ '. "^^® Topography and 

a l>o«^« » / *^ Viewer oi 835; and various pamphlets on 

a Panorama " for two mis- | 

^-ich one must be charged to Bulwer kitidan, K 1825; educated at 

!» other to Sir Algernon's own rash ^^ ^•^- ^^*^' magistrate and 

«ing 0, piece of reviewer's condensa- i**'^""^' ^'^' '*"' Lincolnshire, 

sferring to the actual text review<*d I lom ., x ^ i. «r 

>iir«5<> rw.r^««*u, r . *^; '^^®«« >- , 1819 ; educated at Worcester 

)urse, perfectly correct m declaring jUege, 1848. Author of a trans- 

descent on his father's side was a. 5^«naic Vases,' 1833; 'Oxfortl 

^But in so far as Bulwer himself Xs^ .^ ''^^^^' '''' ' ^°^'^^^* ^^ ^ 

■&- Norfolk ancestry as of sufficient -.*^t Caen College ; called to the 

LJustay a claim to ancient land-ownin« T^c?*^^®® of Lords; Q.C. of the 

^'aUtement about owning land since 'f^^'LZX'^'^^^l^fZ^^ 

' IS hjs own statement), a biographer < 

explain Bulwer's character rather than J^^"*«r, b. in London in 1815 • 
Jit on points of genealogical detail is W *? A^® ^"^ of the Middle 
accused but even to be applauded for ^^/of M^Js^l^^^^^^^^ 
an at his own flamboyant valuation r^^^S^csl, historical, and anti- 
lim accordingly. ji^ 

it Bulwer's mother was not really a i^^e^u^7&,^\'ji ^«,«2; 
IS stated on pages 4 and 5 of my ^'^ Tyrol.' "''^''^^^ «nd battle 

Tised-and I think justifiably— to !g*?*™I»?H Prussia, in 1807 • 
be argument that the eager adoption of yTmait ""^^^^^ *^^ ^'P^oma 
J as a traditional refinement, both by ^ ^^t PrussLn d&*/fnw*^ 
^ther and by Bulwer himself, wa« not i^'l^rT'«'.^«43^Crth%'^^^^^^^ 
characteristic of their readines; to strikr I w T''"'''"' ^^'^« 
iatudes but also helps to explain the «f &mo^ ^s^P'^f V««2 ; 
OS care with which Bulwer, at any rate, r^'^^'^^f^res^n t^'fee' 
„his pose of intellectuAlism. To sum- ^ "^^ ^^^^««ce,> Boston, ml; 
'is in one sentence of a review would "^rdeaux, Nov 18 ifinr 
ipossible; and your critic was surely .*'^,!?"^;, Anthor of ''fiSf 
5 taken Bulwer's acknowledged " in- ^^"°«**^« t^^ologiques,' isei !i 
imily pride " (the phrase is his own) alogues, Manche Anc ok , 
/alue, instead of demonstrating how K^f?.*" .*he Pa^nlt7of ffi^cl' 
r Ultimate standards, the currency was "rj cSs^S &X^^?'^? '°*^ 
f Such demonstration would have been aanscnt-Frangais,' 

jmic, at worst definitely misleading. 
Yours, 

MICHAEL SADLrEJ 



-^r^^^^^f Amorose JUTerivv, Aiuer' 
Union County, Indiana, May 23, 1824 ; educat 
lieutenant, Sept 8, 1847 ; first lieutenant, I 
and brigadier-general, Aug. 1861 ; commande 
army, 1864; governor of Rhode Island, 1866. 



Skeletons of SennoM ' 
Magazine. 

T, b. at Liberty 

iy. 1843 ; second 

^ 1863; colonel 

v^eneral Grant's 



HANDBOOK OF CONTEHPORART BIOOBAPHT. 



HANDBOOK O? CONTBMPORART BIOQUAPHT. 



I 'The Bwk of 

John'i Collin. 
nie,_l81l; rectoi ' " 

~lii«LevMtt7TeS6"B ' 
me, Engllih lolltlclan, b. I82G; edacited tt 
B ui4 LinoDlDBlilre » Jil.P- for LlbCOLDHhlET, 
ifflEsh Rgthnr, b. 1819; 9diica1«d at Worcester 
f tbo College, of Oiford,' 1857; Porlrait of « 

1819; edncllfd at CaenCnlkge; called to tfap 
tarycoiiuselinthaHotueotLorde; Q.C.oftbi- 

jiHcted Willi the AriBtocracy and ths Upper 

'Bh ffeaedlogical writer, b. In Londoti In I81fi; 
nand;, and called to tlie bar ot the Middle 
knight attendant of the nrdra- of Bt Patritk. 
rom the Unlvereity af Dublin. 1S«3. Editor of 
il booka on geneaJogiral. hiatorical, and anti- 

r, b, at PlriniBenti, Bavaria. Sept 9. Ifti: 

;• 'Scenea In the Tyrol.- 



* Hampahlre, It 



lAtols,' 1899; 'Corioaitia tbiologiquea,' 1861;' 

Titer, b. St Tfloguea, UaDChe, Aug. 25, 1831 : 

de Bacon,' leM; - Eesai sur le V^i, on Intnn 
M; ■ Dictionnaite olassiquo 8uigoril-PrMi5»iB,' 

tical wr11«r, b. at Oldham, HancheBter, in 1805; 
nat achool ; miiilBt«r of the United Cbrlstian 
the BaptiBt Church of Harylebone Bince 183fi. 
1828; 'SketchM and Skoletona of Bennona.' 
nd fCunder of the PrfadttTt' Maffawint 
Imerican milltaiy commander, b. at LlbeHj, 



Bnr HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Bus 
[ 48 ] 



BURRBIfli^ Sir Peroj, Bart. English politician, b. 1812 ; deputy-lieutenant for 
Sussex ; M. P. fur Shoreham since 1862. 

BURRITT, Alexander. American writer, b. at New York, 1807 ; studied at Columbia 
College, and graduated, 1824 ; called to the bar of New York, 1828. Published * Practi<^e 
of the Supreme Court of the State of New York,' 1840;* *A Law Dictionary and 
Glossary,' 1850 ; ' Treatise on Circumstantial Evidenoe,' 1866. 

BURRITTy EUhtiy American author and lecturer, b. in Connecticut, 1811 ; apprenticed 
to a blacksmith ; studied, while working at his trade, mathematics, Latin, French, 
Spanish, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, German, and Russian. Author of ' Sparks firom the 
Anvil,' London, 1848 ; and ' Olive Leaves,* ib. 1863. 

BURROI^Sy Gtoorffey English physician and medical writer, b. in 1802 ; studied at 
Cambridge, and graduated M.D. 1829 ; fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, 1832 ; 
physician to St Bartholomew's Hospital, 18.34 ; physician to Christ's HospitaL Author 
of ' The Disorders of the Cerebral Circulation, and the Connexion of Diseases of the 
Heart and Brain.' 

BURT. Archibald Paull, English colonial judge, b. 1818 ; called to the bar of the 
Middle Temple, Nov. 1845 ; attorney-general of St Christopher from 1849 to 1860 ; civil 
commissioner and chairman of quarter sessions in Western Australia, July, 1860 ; chief 
justice, 1861. 

BURTON, John Hill, English author, b. at Aberdeen, Aug. 22, 1809 ; studied at 
Marischal College, where he graduated A.M. ; advocate at the Scottish bar, 1831 ; 
secretary to the Prison Board of Scx)tland, 1854. Author of ' Life and Correspondence 
of David Hume,' Edinburgh, 1846 ; ' History of Scotlaud from the Revolution to the 
Extinction of the last Jacobite Insurrection,' London, 1853 ; *The Scot Abroad,* 1864; 
and numerous others, chiefly historical works. 

BURTON, Richard Francis. African traveller, b. 1821 ; entered the Indian army, 
1842 ; became captain, 1857 ; military secretary under General Beatson, 1855 ; counsel 
at Fernando Po, 1861. Author of *The Lake Regions of Central Africa ; * Abeokuta, and 
the Cameroon Mountains,' 1863 ; * Mission to Gelele, King of Dahomey,* 1864 ; and 
several other narratives, travels, and adventures. 

BURTON, Sir WiUiam l^estbrooke, English colonial judge, b. in 1794 ; served 
in the navy for some years ; was called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1824 ; recorder of 
Daventry, 1826 ; and appointed judge at the Cape of Good Hope, 1827 ; transferred to 
New South Wales, 1833, and to Madras, 1844 ; president of the Council or Upper House 
of Representatives at Sydney, 1856. Author of * Treatise on the Laws affecting 
Insolvents in New South Wales,* and ' State of Religion and Education in Australia.* 

BURY, Rigrht Hon. William Contts Keppel, Visconnt. English politician, 
b. in 1832 ; educated at Eton ; entered the Scots Fusilier Guards, 1849 ; private secretary 
to Lord John Russell, 1850-51 ; civil secretary and superintendent-general of Indian 
atfairs for the province of Canada, 1854 ; treasurer of the royal household, 1859 ; 
M.P. for Wick district of Bui^hs, 1860 ; sworn privy councillor, 1859. Author of several 
I)olitical and historical papers in Fraser's Magcaine and other periodicals. 

BUS, Alberic dn, Belgian politician, b. at Toumai, May 10, 1810, brother of tlie 
preceding ; cominissioner of the district of Mons ; elected to tiie Chamber of Repre- 
sentatives for the district of Tumhout, 1840 ; representative of Brussels, 1854. 

BUS, Frangois Louis Joseph dn, Belgian politician, b. at Toumai in 1791 ; 
deputy to the National Congress, 1830 ; member of the Chamber of Representatives for 
the district of Toumai, 1834-40 ; and for Tumhout since 1844. 

BUS DE OHISIONIBS, Bernard Ame Iieonard, Vicomte dn, Belgian 
naturalist, b. at Toumai in 1808 ; sent to the Chamber of Representatives for the 
district of Soignies, 1835-47 ; director of the Natural History Museum of Brussels ; 
member of the Entomological Society of France and the Royal Academy of Belgium. 

BUSR, GeorifCi American writer, b. at Norwich, Vermont, June 12, 1796; studied at 
the Seminary of Princetown, and was for several years missionary for the Presbyterian 
church to Indiana ; professor of Hebrew literature at the University of New York, 1831. 
Author of *Life of Mahomed,* 1832; 'Notes on Ghenesis, Exodus, Leviticus, etc.' New 
York, 1840 ; * The Soul, an Inquiry into Scriptural Psychology ;* and a great number of 
theological works. 

BUSK. Hans, English writer, b. in 1815 ; educated at King's College, London, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1841, and M. A. 1844 ; called to the 
bar of the Middle Temple, 1841. Author of * The Ride, and How to Use it '/ * Volunteers, 
and How to Drill them.* Founder, and for some years editor, of the New Quari^y 

Review. 



Bns HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHT. Byl 

[ 4» ] 



BU80NI, Philiivpe, French writer, b. May 15, 1806. Author of 'L'Egmont, oa Paris 
et Saint Cloud au 18 Brumaire/ 1831 ; 'Anselme,' 1835 ; ' Chefs^'oeuvre poetiques des 
Dames frtmQaises,' 1841 ; ' Les Etrusques,' 1843 ; ' M^moirea de hi Princesse Pidatine 
Duchesse d'Orl^ans/ 1832 ; and numerous contributions to the periodical press. 

BUSQUETy Alfred, French writer, b. in 1820 ; studied at Rouen and Paris. Editor 
of La SiUumetU, 1840 to 1850 ; contributor to the Pays, VArtisU^ la Liherti, Revue 

BUSS, Franx Joseph. German writer, b. at Zelle, in 1808; studied philosophy, 
medicine, and law, at Offenburg and at Fribuiv; professor of Public Law, 1833; 
member of the Second Chamber of the Grand Duchy of Baden, 1837-46 ; deputy to the 
National Assembly of Frankfort, 1848. Author of ' €kischichte und System der Staats- 
wissenschaft,' 1839 ; * Urkundliche Geschichte des national und territorLal Kirchenthums,' 
Schaffhausen, 1851 ; and numerous legal and theological works. 

BUSSIBREy Alfred Renonard, Baron de, French politician, b. June 14, 1804 ; 
president of the Tribunal of Commerce, Strasbourg ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for 
the department of Bas-Rhin, 1852 ; re-elected, 1863 ; manager of the company of the 
Credit Mobilier. 

BUSSON, jQlien Henri. French politician, b. at Joigny, Tonne, July 24, 1823 ; 
called to the bar, 1845 ; LL.D. Aug. 1848 ; deputy to the Corps L^slatif for the depart- 
ment of the Ariege, 1854 ; member of the General Council of the department for the 
canton of Castillon. 

BUSSYy Antoine Alexander Bmtos. French physician, b. at Marseilles, 1794 ; 
admitted M.D. at Paris, 1832 ; director of the 'Ecole de Pharmacie,' 1840 ; member of 
the Academy of Sciences, 1850. Author of ' Clinical Researches on the Soap-wort of 
Egypt,* Paris, 1833 ; and numerous other medical works. 

BUSTAMANTE, Don Carlos Maria de« Mexican archseologist, b. in Mexico 
near the end of the last century. Author of ' Statistical Memoir on the Oaxacu Country,' 
1821 ; ' Texcoco in the last Days of its ancient Kines,' Mexico, 1826 ; ' Descripcion 
Historica y Cronologica de las dos Piedras, etc.' Mexico, 1832. Editor of * A Complete 
History of the Events which have taken place in New Spain,' ib. 1839. 

BUTIaERy Bei^amln Franklin, American military commander, b. at Deerfleld, 
New Hampshire, Nov. 5, 1818 ; educated at Lowell High School and Waterville College ; 
admitted to the bar, 1840 ; member of the Massachusetts State Legislature, 1853 ; 
brigadier-general of militia. 1857 ; commanded the Federal Forces in Virginia, 1861 ; 
organized an expedition against New Orleans, which surrendered April 28, 1862 ; mqjor- 
general, Dec. 1862. 

BtTTIaER. Charles Sallsbnrj, English politician, b. 1812 ; magistrate for Middlesex, 
City of Westminster, and Liberties of the Tower, and commissioner of Land, Property, 
and Income Taxes ; M.P. for the Tower Hamlets since 1852. 




* Bamnm's Parnassus, ' 1850 ; * The Queen of Song ;' ' Miseries of Crinoline, ' 1859. 

BUTT, Isaac^ ^Bi^^ politician, b. in 1813; studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
graduated, 1835 ; Wliately professor of political economy, 1886 ; called to the Irish bar, 
1838; M.P. for Harwich, 1852: M.P. for Toughal, Ireland, since 1852. Author of 
'History of the Kingdom of Italy,' 1860; *A Letter to Lord Morpeth,' 1837; 'Lectures 
on Political Economy.' For some time editor and contributor to the Ihiblin, University 
Magcufine. 

BUTTERFIEIaD, WUllaniy English architect, b. Sept 7, 1814. Designed St Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury ; All Saints' church, Maigaret-street, London ; Baldersby 
church, Yorkshire; Tealmpton church, Devon; the new chapel at Balliol Collece, 
Oxford; and St. Alban's church, Baldwin's Gardens, Gray's Inn Road, and other public 
buildings. 

BUXTON, Charles, English politician, b. 1822 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; graduated in honours, 1843 ; M.P. for Newport, Isle of Wight, flx)m 1857 to 1859 ; 
M.P. for Maidstone, 1859-65 ; and for East Surrey, 1865. Author of a Life of his father. 
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, and of many articles in the Reviews of the day. 

BUXTON, Sir Thon&as Foivell. Bart- English politician, b. 1837 ; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge; graduated M.A. 1859; deputy-lieutenant for 
Essex and Norfolk; M.P. for Lyme Regis, 1865. 

BYIiESi^ Sir John Barnard, English judge, b. in 1801 ; called to the bar of the 

of Bucldngham, 1840; seijeant-at-law, 1843; Queen's 



Inner Temple, 1831; recorder 



E 



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seijeont, 1857; judge of the Court of CommoH Pleas, and knighted, 1858. Author of 
several legal works: among them, 'On the Usury Laws;' 'On Bills of Exchange;' and 
*The Sophism of Free Trade.' 

BYRON. Henry James. English dramatic writer, h. at Manchester, 18S5; educated 
at St Peter's School, London ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple. Author of 
'FraDiavolo;* 'Esmeralda;' 'Ill-treated IlTrovatore;' ' Dundreary married and done 
for ;' ' War to the Knife,' 1865 ; and numerous comedies, farces, burlesques, and 
pantomimes. 

BYSTROM. Joban NIklaSy Swedish sculptor, b. at Fhillippsden, Wermeland, 
Dec. 18, 1788; studied art at Stockholm. Executed several colossal statues of the 
Swedish kings in marble, and other works. Published, in the Swedish language, 
• Bystrom's Sculpture Gallery,' 1849-66. 



c. 

CABAIiLEROy Firmin Aflrosto. Spanish statesman, b. at Barajas del Melo, July 17, 
1800 ; studied law and called to the oar of Madrid ; took nart in the Revolution of 1820 ; 
retired to Estiamadura, 1823; elected to the Cortes for Madrid and Cuenga, 1836. 
Author of ' El Gobiemo y los Cortes del Estatuto, materiales para su Historia,' Madrid, 
1837 ; 'Manual Geografico-Administrativo de la Monarquia Espanola,' lb. 1844. 

CABANBIi, Alexandre, French painter, b. at Montpellier, Sept 28, 1823 ; studied 
under M. Picot, and executed ' Agonie du Christ du Jardin des Oliviers,' 1844 ; ' St. Jean,' 
1850 ; 'Le Martyr chr6tien,' 1855 ; ' Portrait de I'Empereur,' 1865 ; and numerous other 
paintings, chiefly historical 

CABATy Nicolas laouis, French painter, b. at Paris, Dec. 24, 1812 ; studied under 
M. Camille Flers, and painted * Le Soir au lever de la Lune,' 1855 ; * Une Source dans les 
Bois,' 1864 ; and other landscapes. 

CABBIa. Marie Joseph Dreullettey French actress, b. at Liege, Jan. 31, 1827 ; 
studied music under M. Louis Joseph Cabel, whom she married, and at the Conservatoire, 
1848-49 ; engaged at the Th^tre de I'Opera Comique, Paris, 1850-62. and at the Th^tre 
Lyrique,' 1863. 

CABRBRA, Don Ramon, Count of Morella, Spanish military commander, 
b. at Tortosa in Catalonia, Aug. 31, 1810 ; joined the cause of Don Carlos, 1883, and was 
made captain ; lieutenant-general, 1838, and created Count of Morella ; took refusre in 
France, 1840 ; resided in Lyons, 1841 ; landed in Spain, June 1848 ; fought the battle of 
Pasteral, Jan. 27, 1849 ; was wounded, and returned to France ; has lived in retirement 
since 1854. 

CABBIaliy Francis, English navigator, b. 1822; educated at Edinburgh and in 
Germany ; midshipman in an East Indiaman ; took part in the Chinese war as a volunteer ; 
present at the siege of Canton, the capture of Amoy and Ningpoo ; commander of a vessel, 
1844 ; navigated the river Murray, Australia, 1861. 

CADIZ. FitswillianiSy English colonial judge, b. 1825; studied at Pembroke College, 
Oxford, and graduated B. A. ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1855 ; acting clerk of 
council of the island of Trinidad in 1858 ; member of Privy Council of the island of 
Tobago ; appointed stipendiary magistrate in the same island, April 1862, and coroner 
and visiting justice of the gaol ; member of the executive committee, 1860. 

CADOGAN, Henry Charles, Barl of, English diplomatist, b. in London, 1812 ; 
educated at Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1832; was attach^ at 
St. Petersburg from June 1834 to July 1835 ; secretary of embassy at Paris from March 
1858 to July 1859 ; M.P. for Reading ftx)m 1841 to 1847 ; for Dover from July 1852 to April 
1857 ; colonel of the Westminster Middlesex Militia; succeeded his father, 1864. 

CADOOAN, Hon. Geor^rey English general, b. 1814 ; entered the Guards as ensign 
and lieutenant, Feb. 22, 1823; lieutenant and captain, 1838; lieutenant-colonel, 1847; 
colonel, 1854 ; created C.B. Dec. 29, 1856; mi^or-general, June 23,1862; cross of com- 
mander of the order of St Maurice, 1856, and the imperial order of Me^jidie, 1858. 

CADORE. Iionis de Champaany. Dnke de, French politician, b. Jan. 12, 1796 ; 
succeeded at the death of his father to the ducal title, 1834, and took his seat in the 
House of Peers, Sept. 11, 1835 ; after the Revolution of 1848 was counsel-general of the 
Loire ; charged to temporarily replace the Duke de Grammont at Rome, May 1861. 



Cad HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPUY. Cal 

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! CADOUDAIi, laOUis Georffe de, French writer, b. at Auzon, Haute Loire, Feb. 10, 

I 1823. Author of * Faits et R^cits contemporaines, et Recueil aiiecdotique,' 1860 ; ' Lea 

I Signes da Temps, Critiques lit^raires et morales,' 1801; 'Lea Serviteors des Hoiumes,' 

j 1864 ; and other works of general literature. 

I CAFFARELIaly EnfrenA Anjraite, Comte de, French politician, b. at Milan, 
Dec. 31, 1806 ; auditor to the Council of State, July 1832 ; pr6fet of Ille-et-Vllaine, 
Jan. 24, 1849 ; resigned, March 9, 1851 ; member of the General Council of Aisne ; member 
of the Corps L^islatif for the second circonscription of Ille-et-Vilaine, 1852. 

CAFF£y Paul laonis Balthasar, French physician, b. at Charabery, Saroy, 1803 ; 
diploma of M.D. at Paris, 1833 ; professor at the Hdtel Dien. Published * Rapport sur 
rOpthalmie regnante en Belgique,' 1840 ; and author of several medical works. 

CAHENy SamxMl, French writer, b. at Metz, Aug. 4, 1796; studied at the Jewish 
College at Mayence ; diifector of the Jewish School at Paris. Author of a French trans- 
lation of the Bible, in 18 vols., commenced 1831, completed 1853 ; * A Course of Hebrew 
Reading ;' and other elementary works. 

CAHIIiIiy Rer. Daniel l^illiam, English writer, b. in Queen's County, Ireland, 
1802 ; studied at Carlow Coll^, and at Maynooth, where he was ordained ; professor of 
Natural History in Carlow College. Author of several pamphlets, and former editor of 
the Dublin Telegraph. 

CAIIalilAUD, Frederic, French traveller, b. at Nantes, March 17, 1797 ; studied at 
Paris ; conservator of the Museum of Natural History at Nantes, 1827. Author of 

* Becherches sur les Oases, sur les Mines d'Emeraudes, et sur I'ancienne Route du Com- 
merce entre le Nil et la Mer Rouge,' 1822 ; ' Voyage k M6ro^ et au Fleuve Blanc, etc.' 1827 ; 
and other works of travels. 

CAIN. Anflruste, French sculptor, b. at Paris, Nov. 1822; studied under Reede. 
Exhibited ' The Dormouse and Tomtit,' 1846 ; * The From wishing for a King,' 1850 ; 

* The Eagle defending his Prey,' 1852 ; 'An Eagle chasing a vulture,' 1857 ; and numerous 
other works. 

CAIRD. JameSy English politician, b. at Stranraer, 1816; educated at Edinburgh; 
M.P. for Dartmouth, 1857; for Stirling, 1869; member of the Fishery Board, 1860; 
chairman of the Royal Commission on the Sea Fisheries of the United Kingdom, 1863. 
Author of several works on fiarming. 

CAIRD, Rer. John, Scottish minister, b. at Greenock, 1823 ; studied at the University 
of Glasgow, and licensed as a preacher, 1844 ; ordained minister of Newton-on-Ayre, 
1845 ; minister at Errol, in Perthshire, 1850, and at Glasgow, 1858. 

CAIRNS. Hngfh MacCalmont. lK>rd, English statesman, b. 1819; educated at 
Trinity Cfollege, Dublin ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, Jan. 1844 ; appointed 
Queen's counsel and bencher of Lincoln's Inn, 1856 ; solicitor-general, Mardi 1858, and 
knighted at that date; LL.D. of Cambridge, 1862; D.C.L. of Oxford, 1863 ; lord high 
chancellor, 1868. 

CAITHNESS, James Sinclair, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1821 • appointed 
deputy-lieutenant of Caithness, 1848 ; lord-lieutenant, 1856 ; succeeded his father, 
1855; lord-ii>waiting to the Queen from April 1856 to Feb. 1858 ; re-appointed, 1859 ; 
elected a representative peer for Scotland, June 1858 ; is the inventor of the ' Road 
Locomotive Steam Engine.' 

CAIiDERON, Philippe Hermoffenes, French painter, b. at Poitiers in 1833 ; 
studied at Paris under M. Picot. Exhibited at the Royal Academy 'The Gaoler's 
Daughter,' 1858 ; * Man goeth forth to his Labour,' 1859 ; * Drink to me only with thine 
Eyes,' 1863 ; * Women of Aries,' 1864 ; and numerous others. 

CAIiDERON, Don Serafin Esteran, Spanish poet, b. at Malaga about the begin- 
ing of the present century ; studied at the Universify of Granada ; professor of poetry 
and rhetoric there ; auditor-general of the Army of the North, 1834. Author of • Poesias 
del Solitario,' 1883 ; ' The Christians and Moors,' 1838 ; ' Andalusian Scenes,' 1847 ; and 
several others. 

OAIiFA, Ambrose Yonsouf-bey • Armenian writer, b. at Constantinople, March 2, 
1830 ; studied at the College of Mekhitaristes, Venice ; professor at the College of 
Moorat, Paris, 1848 ; pr^fet of studies in same college, 1854. Author of ' Universal 
History,* Venice, 1851 ; 'Armenian and French Dictionary,' Paris, 1860; and numerous 
other works. 

CAIiIiAGHAN, Jeremiali Thomas Fitscerald, English colonial administrator, 
b 1813 • educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; took honours in classics ; held the appoint- 
ment of Barrington lecturer on political economy to the Dublin Statistical Society ; was 

_ — X 2 



counsel to the attorney-general for Ireland ; appointed chief magistrate for Hong-Kong, 
1860 ; called to the Irish bar, 1854 ; appointed governor of Laboan, April 10, 1862 ; 
acting consul-general, 1866. 

CAIaMEIiS. Anatole Celesiiny French sculptor, b. in Paris, March 26, 1825; 
studied under Karl Elshoeet, Bosio, and Pradier, and at the School of Fine Arts, 1840. 
Executed * Ia Guerre,* 1840 ; 'La Naissance de la Vierge, *La Premutation au Temple ' 
(bas-reliefii for the church of St Maurice at LiUe), 1850-52 ; and numerous statues and 
groups. 

CAIiONNB, Alponse Bernard^ Vicomte de. French politician, b. at B^thune, 
1818 ; studied hiw in Paris, 1840 to 1842. Author of ^ B^rang^re,' 1852 ; ' Les Frais de la 
Guerre,' 1856 ; ' De la Defense des C6te8 en An^^eterre,' 1851 ; and numerous political 
works. 

CAIaTHORPEy Frederick Oonyh, Bsron. English politician, b. in London, 
1790 ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; assumed the name of Gough, 1845 ; M.P. for 
Hindon tvom 1818 to 1826 ; and for Bramber fh>m 1826 to 1830 ; deputy-lieutenant and 
high sheriff of Staffordshire, 1848 ; succeeded his brother in 1851. 

CAIiTHORPEy Hon. Frederiek William Henry Oongh, English politician, 
eldest son of the preceding, b. 1826 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Warwickshire ; 
M.P. for Worcestershire, 1855. 

CAIiVERT, GeoriTA Henry, American writer, b. at Baltimore, 1803; studied at 
Harvard College, and at the German University of Giittingen. Author of ' Illustrations 
of Phrenology,* 1882 ; * Count Julian,* 1840 ; * Scenes and Thoughts in Eiuope,' New 
York, 1848 ; and numerous translations of German works. 

CAIaVBRT, Rer. "William, English cloigyman, b. in 1819 ; educated at Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1842 ; appointed minor canon of St Paul's, 
1848 ; rector of St. Antholin and St. John the Baptist, Walbrook, 1849 ; incumbent of 
Kentish Town, 1858. Author of ' The Wife's Manual,* 1854 ; ' Pneuma. or the Wandering 
Soul,' 1856. 

CAMBACE'RES, Marie Jean Pierre Hubert, Dne de, French senator, b. 
at Montpellier, Sept. 20, 1798 ; studied law and called to the bar at Paris, 1823 ; senator, 
1851 ; grand master, of ceremonies in the Emperor's household. 

CAMBRIDGE, Georare Willian& Frederick Charles. Duke of, English 
prince, b. 1819, cousin to her Mqjesty; president of Christ's Hospital ; colonel in the 
Grenadier Guards ; ranger of St James's and Hyde parks ; appointed colonel in the army, 
1837 ; lieutenant-general, 1854 ; general commander-in-chief, 1856 ; field-marshal, 1862 ; 
served in ilie Crimea, 1854-55 ; has been inspector-general of cavalry. 

CAMDEN, John Charles, Marqnis, b. 1840; educated at Eton and Cambridge ; 
deputy-lieutenant of Kent; M.P. for Brecknock, 1866; succeeded his father, second 
marquis, Aug. 1866. 

CAMERON, Sir Duncan Alexander, English general, b. 1808 ; entered the army, 
1825 ; became captain, 1833 ; major, 1839 ; colonel, 1854 ; mi^jor-general, 1859 ; served in 
the Crimean campaign of 1854-55 ; lieutenant-general commanding the trooi>8 in New 
Zealand, 1863 ; created K.C.B. and knitted, 1864. 

CAMERON, Simon, American statesman, b. in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 
1792 ; appointed visitor at West Point, 1832 ; senator of the U. S. for Pennsylvania, 
1845 ; secietaiy of war to President Lincoln, 1861. 

CAMOU. Jacones, French general, b. May 1, 1792 ; entered the army, 1818 ; captain, 
1823 ; cnief of battalion, 1837 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1841 ; colonel, 1844 ; gietneral of 
brigade, April 1848 ; general of division, Feb. 6, 1852 ; commanded a division in the 
Crimea and in the wax in Italy; grand cross of the Legion d'honneur, 1857 ; senator, 
Dec. 30, 1863. 

CAMOYS, Thomas Stonor, Baron. Encash politician, b. in London, 1797; lord- 
in-waiting to the Queen fh)m 1846 to Feb. 1852 ; and trom Jan. 1853 to Feb. 1858 ; 
re-appointed, June 1859 ; returned M.P. for Oxford city, 1832, but was unseated on peti- 
tion ; contested Oxford in 1835, and Oxfordshire in 1887, unsuccessftilly ; summon^ to 
the House of Lords in 1839. 

CAMPBEIali, Sir Alexander, Bart. English colonial administrator, b. 1819; suc- 
ceeded his father, 1842 ; appointed superintendent of police in West Australia, Sept. 
1857 ; resident magistrate of Albany in that colony, 1861. 

CAMPBEIiIa, Alexander Henry, English politician, b. 1822 ; educated at Edin- 
burgh and Paris ; partner in the firm of Finlay, Campbell, & Co. East India merchants. 



Cam HANDBOOK OF CONTEMFOBABT BIOQRAPHT. Cap 
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London ; director of the London and St Katharine's Docks ; elected M.P. for Lannces- 
ton, 1865. 

CAMPBEIala, Sir Alexander Thomas Coekbnm, Bart. English politician, 
b. at Madras, 1804 ; succeeded his maternal grandfather in 1824; assumed the name of 
Campbell, 1825. 

CAMPBEIiIa. Sir Archibald Islay, Bart. English politician, b. at Garscube, 
Dumbartonshire, in 1825 ; educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford ; where he was 
second in classics, 1847 ; appointed captain of the Glasgow Yeomanry in 1849 ; resigned, 
1857 ; lieutenant-colonel-commandant of Ist Lanarkshire rifle volunteers, 1860 ; deputy- 
lieutenant of Aigyleshire, 1859 ; M.P. for Argyleshire fh)m 1851 to 1857. 

CAMPBEIalai Sir Ed'ward Fits-Gerald, Bart. English officer, b. in London, 
1822 ; succeeded his father, 1849 ; lieutenant of 60th Bifles, 1844 ; captain, 1850 ; major in 
the army, 1858 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1860 ; appointed aidende-camp to the commander-in- 
chief in India, 1849 ; military secretaiy to the governor-general, 1859 ; assistant-inspector 
of volunteers, 1864. 

CAMPBEIala, Sir Hngh Home, Bart. English politician, b. in Edinburgh in 
1812 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; succeeded his father in 1833 ; 
J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Berwick; M.P. for Berwickshire from 
1834 to 1847. 

CAMPBEIaliy William Frederick Campbell, laord, English politician, b. in 
18^4; educated at Eton, Balliol College, Oxford, and Trmity College, Cambridge; 
M.A. 1846; M.P. for Cambridge, 1847-^2; for Harwich, 185&-60; succeeded his father, 
1861. 

CAMPERDOWlf, Adam Dtmcan Haldaae. Earl, English statesman, b. at 
Edinbuigh, 1812 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity Coui^;e, Cambridge, where he graduated 
M.A. 1884 ; was a lord of the Treasury from March 1855 to March 1858 ; M.P. for South- 
ampton from 1837 to 1841 ; for Bath, 1841 to 1852 ; and for Forfarshire, 1854 to 1859 ; is 
deputy-lieutenant of Perthshire; appointed deputy-lieutenant of Forfarshire, 1850. 

CAMPHAUSBN, latidolf, Oerman statesman, b. at Kiinshoven, Aix-la-Cbapelle, 
Jan. 4, 1803 ; banker at Cologne, 1825 ; president of the Chamber of Commerce, Cologne, 
1839 to 1848 ; member of the provincial diet of the Bhine, 1842, and of the first general 
states diet convened at Berlin, 1847; president of the Prussian Council of Ministers, 
1848 ; minister of state, 1849. 

CAMPHAUSBN, Wilhelm, Oerman painter, b. at DUsseldorf, Feb. 8, 1810; studied 
at the Academy of Diisseldorf Painted ' The Puritans watching the Enemy ;' ' Godfrey 
de Bouillon at Ascalon ;' and numerous battle scenes. 

CANNON, Robertt English general, b. 1797 ; entered the military service of the East 
India Company ; lieutenant-colonel, 1835 - colonel^ 1837 ; retired, 1847 ; took part in the 
Russian war, 1853 ; commanded a Turkish division in Eupatoria, 1855 ; lieutenant- 
general, 1856. 

CANROBBRT. Frangois Certain, French military commander, b. at Gers, June 17, 
1809 ; studied at the military school of St Cyr, 1826 ; entered the army as a private soldier, 
1828 ; lieutenant, 1832 ; captain, April 1837 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1846 ; colonel, 1847 ; 
general of brigade, Jan. 13, 1850 ; general of division, Jan. 14, 1853 ; commander-in- 
chief of the French army in the Crimea, 1854-55 ; marshal of France, March 18, 1856 ; 
commanded in the Italian camiMugn of 1859. 

CANTERBURY, Most Rer. Charles Thomas IiOn^ley. English divine, 
b. near Rochester, 1794 ; educated at Westminster, and elected to Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1812; obtained first-class classical honours, and graduated B.A. 1815; M.A. 
1834; public tutor of Christ Church, Oxford, from 1818 to 1828; rector of West 
Tytherley, Hants, from 1827 to 1829 ; head-master of Harrow School from 1829 to 1836 ; 
bishop of Bipon, 1886 ; translated to Durham, 1856 ; to York, 1860 ; consecrated 91st 
archbishop of Canterbury, 1862. 

CANTU, Cesare, Italian historian, b. at Brisio, near Milan, Sept. 5, 1805 ; professor 
of literature in the College of Sondrio, 1823. Author of 'Universal History,' 1843-49 ; 
* History of the last hundred Years,' 1852 ; ' History of the Italians,* 1859 ; and 
numerous historical and poetical works. 

CAP, Paul AntOine Gratcap. French naturalist, b. at M&con, April 2, 1788. Author 
of * De la Classification methodique des Medicaments,' 1823 ; * Etudes biographlques 
pour servir 4 I'Histoire des Sciences,' 1857 ; and many medical works. 

CAPEFIOUB, Jean Baptiste Honore Raymond, French historical writer, b. 
at Marseilles, 1802; studied law at Aix and Paris. Author of 'Essai sur les Invasions 



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[54] 



des Nonnands.' 1823 ; *Hi8toire des grandes Operations financiires,* 1855-57 ; * L'^lise 
pendant les quatre demiers Si^cles/ 1858 ; and other historical works. 

CAPETOWN, Riffht Rer. Robert Gray, English colonial bishop, b. at Bishop- 
wearmouth Rectory, 1809 ; educated at Eton, and University College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B. A. 1831 ; M. A. 1834 ; ordained, 1833 ; appointed pierpetuaJ curate of Stockton- 
on-Tees, 1845 ; honorary canon of Durham cathedral, 1846 ; and first bishop of Cape- 
to^Ti 1847. 

CAPON, Sir David, English general, b. at Bombay, 1793 ; entered the service of the 
East India Company at Bombay, 1809 ; lieutenant-general, 1862. 

CARAOUBIi, Clement, French journalist, b. at Mazamet, Tarn, 1819. Author of 
'Quatre Mois en Mer,' 1840; 'Souvenirs et Aventures d'un volontaire Garibaldien,' 
1861 ; and numerous other works. Contributor to the Charivari^ 1848 ; the JoumcU des 
DebaUy 1865. 

CARAYON ItATOUR, Edmond, Baron de. French politician, b. at Paris, July 15, 
1811 ; member of the Chamber of Deputies for the Electoral College of Castres, 1846 ; 
member of the Corps L^gislatif after 1852 for the circonscription of Castres ; re-elected, 
1857. 

CARDBN, Sir Robert Walter, Bart. English magistrate, b. 1801 ; alderman of 
the city of London, 1849 : lord-mayor, 1857-^8 ; founded the City Bank ; unsuccessfully 
contested the borough of St Alban's, 1850, Gloucester, 1859, and Marylebone, 1861 ; 
magistrate for Middlesex and Surrey ; deputy-lieutenant for London. 

CARD^tTEIala. Rieht Hon. Bd'vrard. English statesman, b. in 1813 ; educated at 
Winchester ; elected to a fellowship at BaUiol College, Oxford, 1832, and graduated 1835 ; 
called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1838; M.P. for Clitheroe, 1842; for Liverpool, 
1847 to 1852 ; for Oxford, 1853 and 1865 ; secretary to the Treasury from Feb. 1845 to 
July 1846 ; president of the Board of Trade from Dec. 1852 to Feb. 1855 ; chief secretary 
for Ireland from June 1859 to July 1861 ; chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
1861-64 ; secretary of state for the colonies, 1864-66. 
* CARBIa, Philibert Fiore, Fren6h general, bom at Troyes, May 7, 1789 ; entered the 
army, 1807 ; colonel, 1832 ; field-marshal, April 22, 1846; retired with the grade of statf 
major-general 

CARBTTE, Antoine Bmest Hinpolyte, French officer and military writer, b. 
May 23, 1808 ; entered the Polytechnic School, 1828 ; chief of battalion, Dec. 21, 1852 ; 
lieutenant-colonel, Dec. 24, 1858. Author of ' j^tudes sur la Eabylie proprement dite,' 
1848-49 ; and works on Algeria. 

CARB\^, John Ed'wrard, English sculptor, b. 1785; studied under Sir A. Westmacott 
Executed the sculptures on the base of Nelson's column ; the statue of ' Whittington 
listening to the London Bells ;' and other works of art. 

CAREIV, Robert Sbapland, Baron, Irish magistrate, b. at Dublin, 1818 ; educated 
at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for Waterford, 1840 to 1847; succeeded his 
father, 1856 ; lord lieutenant of Wexford ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Water- 
ford ; colonel of the Wexford militia. 

CARBY, Alice, American authoress, b. at Moimt Healthy, Cincinnati, Ohio ; wrote 
under the signature of PaJtty Lee. Author of ' Hualco,' 1851 ; * The Children of 
Clovemook,* 1855 ; and of some voimnes of poems. 

CARBY. Henry, American writer, b. in Philadelphia in 1798. Author of ' On the 
Rate of Wages,* 1836 ; * The Past, the Present, the Future,' 1848 ; * Principles of Social 
Science,' vols. L and ii. 1858 ; and other works on political economy. 

CARBY, Sir Peter Safford, English lawyer, b. in Guernsey, 1803 ; educated at 
St. John's College, Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1825, M.A. 1830 ; called to the bar of the 
Middle Temple, 1830 ; recorder of Dartmouth, 1836 ; judge of the Court of Record in the 
city of Wells, 1838 ; professor of English law in University College, London, 1838 ; 
bailiff of Guernsey, and knighted, 1863. 

CARGIIala, John, English colonial judge, b. 1815 ; called to the bar of the Middle 
Temple, June 1841 ; appointed revising barrister at Jamaica, 1848 ; acting chairman of 
quarter sessions, 1855 ; appointed assistant judge of the Supreme Court of Jamaica, 1856. 

CARIaBN, Bmilia Fiyyare, Swedish novelist, b. at Stockholm, 1810. Author of 
•Waldemar Klein,' 1838; 'Rose of Thiatleton,' 1842; *The Maiden's Tower,' 1848; 
and many other works of fiction. 

CARLBTON, William, Irish novelist, b. at Clogher, Tyrone, 1798. Author of ' Traits 
and Stories of the Irish Peasantry,' 1830 ; 'Valentine M'Clutchy,' 1845 ; *The Black 
Prophet,' 1847 ; * WiUie Reilly,' 1855. Has a literary pension of 200i. a year. 



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CARIalSIaE. Hon. and Riffht Rer. Samnel WaldearaTe, bishop of. 

English diyine, b. 1817; educated at Balliol College, Oxford; graduated B.A. and 
double tirst-class, 1839 ; elected fellow of All Souls, 1839 ; M. A. 1842 ; canon uf Salisbury 
cathedral, 1857 ; consecrated 57th bishop of Carlisle, 1860. Author of * New Testament 
Millenarianism,' and a volume of sermons. 

CARIaYIaB, Thomasy English author, b. at Ecclefechan, Annandale, DumfHesshire, 
Dec. 4, 1795 ; studied at the University of Edinburgh. Author of • Sartor Resurtus,' 
1833 ; * The French Revolution,' 1887 ; ' Lectures on Hero Worship,' 1840 ; ♦ Oliver 
Cromwell's Letters and Speeches,' 1845 ; * Life of F^erick the Great,* 1860-d4 ; and 
numerous essays and translations fh)m the German. Elected lord rector of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, 1866. . 

CARMOIaY, Elliacin, French philologist, b. at Soultz, Haute-Rhin, 1805. Author of 
* Biography of Ancient and Modem Israelites,' in Hebrew, Metz, 1829 ; and a great 
number of Hebrew works. Founded the French periodical, La France Israelite, 1855. 
Grand Rabbi at Brussels, 1834 to 1889. 

CARMOUCHEy Pierre Francois Adolphe, French dramatic author, b. at Lyons, 
April 9, 1797. Author of * Le Vampire," 1820 : ' Les Envies de Mme. Godard,' 1848 ; * Le 
Bagne de Th^r^se,' 1861 ; ' La Comette jaune,^ 1864 ; and numerous other dramas. 

CARNARVON, Henry Howard Molynenx Herbert, Earl of, English 
statesman, b. in London, 1831 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
g^raduated first-class in classics, 1852 ; succeeded his father, 1849 ; appointed deputy- 
lieutenant of Hants, and captain of Hants Yeomanry, 1853 ; constable of Carnarvon 
Castle, 1854 ; high steward of the University of Oxford, 1859 ; secretary of state for the 
colonies, 1866-67. Author of * The Druses of Mount Lebiuion,' 1860. 

CARNE', Iionis Marcein, Comte de, French statesman and author, b. at 
Quimper, Feb. 17, 1804 ; secreta^ of eml^y, 1825 ; member of the Chamber of Deputies, 
1839 ; minister of foreign affairs, 1847 ; member of the French Academy, April 23, 1863. 
Author of • Vues sur I'Histoire contemporaine,' 1833 ; * l^tudes sur I'Hihtoire du Govern- 
ment representative en France de 1789 & 1848,' 1855 ; also contributor to the leading 
French i)eriodical8. 

CARNEGIE, Hon. Charles, English politician, b. 1833 ; deputy-lieutenant for 
Forfarshire ; M.P. for Forfarshire, 1860-66. 

CARNOT, laaaare Hyppolyte, French politician, b. at St Omer, April 6, 1801 ; 
studied law, and became an advocate ; member of the Corps L6gislatif for the first 
circonscription of Paris, 1863. Author of • Mdmoires de Henri Gr6goire EvSque de 
Blois,' 1837 ; * Mdmoires de Camot, par son Fils,' 1861. 

CARO, Elme Marie, French writer, b. at Poitiers, March 4, 1826 ; studied at the 
College of Stanislas and the £cole Normale ; master of the conferences at the j^cole 
Normale, 1858 ; inspector of the Academy of Paris, 1861 ; professor to the Faculty of 
Letters, July 1864. Author of 'L'ld^e de Dieu et ses Nouveaux Critiques,' 1864; and 
several other philosophical works. 

CARPENTER, Mary, English authoress, b. 1820. Author of ' Reformatory Schools 
for Children,' 1851 ; • Reformatory Schools, and their present Position,' 1855 ; and other 
works on the treatment of youthful criminals. 

CARPENTER, 'William Bird, EngUsh physician, b. 181S ; educated in Bristol, at 
University College, London, and at the University of Edinburgh, where he graduated 
M.D. 1839; appointed registrar to the University of London, 1856. Author of 'Prin- 
ciples of Genem and Comparative Physiology ;* and other medical works. 

CARR, John, English judge, b. 1815 ; educated at University College, London ; gra- 
duated B.L. 1839 ; called to the bar of Gray's Inn, May 1840; appointed Queen's advocate 
at Sierra Leone, May 1840 ; acting governor from April to Sept. 1841 ; chief justice, 1841 ; 
judge of the Vice- Admiralty Court, and president of the Council of the colony. 

CARRE', Micbel. French dramatic author, b. 1819 ; studied at the College of Charle- 
magne. Author of^* La Jeimesse de Luther,' 1843 ; ' La Reine de Saba,' 1862 ; ' Henriette 
Deschamps,' 1863 ; and many other works. 

CARRE', Narcisse Epamlnondas, French magistrate, b. at Paris, March 1, 1794 ; 
studied law ; called to the bar, 1815 ; president of the tribunal of Rochelle, 1831 ; of 
Tours, 1834 ; councillor of the Imperial Court of Paris, 1848. Author of * Code des 
Femmes,' 1828 ; ' La Taxe en Mati^re civile,' 1839. 

CARREIaET. Gilbert Alexandre, French general, b. at St. Pourcain, Sept. 14, 1789 ; 
studied at the military school of Fontainebleau, 1809-11 ; captain, 1822 ; chief of a 
squadron, 1830; colonel, 1838; mar6chal de camp, 1842; general of division, 1848; 
appointed senator, 1852. 



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CARRBYy Emile, French writer, b. at Paris, Sept 1820 ; stadied at the CJollege of 
St. Louis, and called to the bar at Paris. Author of • Recueil complet des Actes du 
Government provisoire,* 1848 ; 'Recite de Kabylie,' 1868. 

CARRIERB. MoritB, German writer, b. at Grindel, Duchy of Hesse, March 5, 
1817 ; studied at Giessen, Gottingen, and Berlin. Author of ' Kokier Dom als freie 
deutsche Kirche,' Stuttgpart, 1843 ; • Das Wesen und die Form der Poesie,' Leipsic, 1854 ; 
and numerous other works. 

CARRINGTONy Hon. Charles Robert, English poUtician, b. 1843 ; educated at 
Eton, 4ind Trinity College, Cambridge ; tp»duated M. A. 1863; comet in the Guards, 18b5 ; 
M.P, for Wycombe, 1865. 

CARRINGTON, Robert John. Baron, English administrator, b. 1796 ; studied 
at Christ Church, Cambridge; succeeded his father, 1838; lord-lieutenant of Bucking- 
hamshire ; colonel of the Bucks militia. 

CARTBUy John Bonham, English poUtician, b. 1817 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Hants ; M.P. for Winchester since 
1847. 

CARTBRy Sir John, English colonial judge, b. 1810 ; appointed chief justice of New 
Brunswick, Jaa 1857 ; knitted, 1859. 

CARTWRI6HT, Henry, English politician, b. 1814; captain and lieutenant-colonel 
in the Guards, 1846 ; M.P. for Northamptonshire since 1858. 

CARUS, Karl Ghistar, German physiologist, b. at Leipsic, Jan. 3, 1789. Author of 
* Versuch einer Darstellung des Nervensystems und ins Besondere des Gtehims,' Leipsic, 
1814; 'Letters on Landscape Painting,' ib. 1831; and numerous works on science 
and art. 

CARVBR, lVillian&, English colonial magistrate, b. 1819 ; graduated at Magdalen 
College, Cambridge; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1866; appointed actang 
deputy Queen's advocate for southern circuit, Ceylon, Oct 1858 ; acting police magistrate, 
Damboul, Jan. 1861 ; acting commissioner of requests, Harrispatoo, Ceylon, 1862 ; 
registrar of the Supreme Court, Feb. 1864. 

CARYSFORT, Granville Iiereson Proby, Earl, Irish magistrate, b. 1781 ; 
entered the British navy, 1798 ; vice-admiral, 1851 ; admiral, 1857 ; succeeded to the 
title, 1857 ; deputy-lieutenant of the county of Wicklow. 

CASABIANCA, Frangois Xavier, Comte de, French statesman, b. at Nice, 
June 27, 1797; studied in the Lyc6e Napoleon, and called to the French bar at Bastia, 
1820 ; held the portfolio of Agriculture and Finance, 1851 ; senator, July 28, 1852. 

CASHBIi, Right Rer. Robert Daly, Irish divine, and 50th bishop of Cashel, 
b. 1783 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; dean of St Patrick's, Dublin, 1842 ; 
consecrated bishop of Cashel, 1843. 

CASPARI, Karl Panl, German theological writer, b. at Dessau, Feb. 14, 1814 ; 
studied at the Universities of Leipsic, Berlin, and Konigsberg. Author of ' Biblische, 
theologische imd apologetisch kritische Studien,' Leipsic, 1842; ' Ueber' Michaund,' 
ib. 1851 ; and numerous theological works. 

CASTBIaBAJAC, Barthelemy Dominique Jacqnes Armand, Marqnis 

de, French general, b. at Ricaud, June 12, 1787 ; lieutenant in the army, 1807 ; chief 
of squadron, 1814 ; colonel, 1815 ; mar^chal de camp, 1826 ; lieutenant-general, 1840 ; 
entered the Senate, June 12, 1856. 

CASTlLlaB, Charles Hippolyte, French writer, b. at Montreuil-sur-Mer, Nov. 8, 
1820 ; studied at Douai and Cambrai. Author of ' Histoire de la Seconde R^pnblique 
frangaise,' 1854-55 ; * Parall^e entre C6sar, Charlemagne, et Napol^n,' 1858 ; and other 
works. 

CASTIaBM AINB, Richard Handcock, Baron, Irish administrator, b. 1791 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated M. A. 1812 ; deputy-lieutenant 
for Westmeath, Roscommon, and King's county. 

CASTIaBROSSB, Valentine Angnstos Browne, Viscount, English xK)li- 
tician, b. 1825 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for County Kerry ; was comptroller 
of her Majesty's household, 1857-58 ; re-appointed, 1859 ; M.P. for Kerry County since 
1852. 

CASTRBN, Matthias Alexander, Russian traveller and philologist, b. in Finland, 
in 1813 ; professor of Finnish literature at Helsingfors. Published a Syrian grammar 
and several works on Finland. ' 



0«s HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOORAPHT. Oay 

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CASMTAIali. Rer. HenrT; English divine, b. at Tateley, Hants, 1810 ; took his 
degrees of B.A. and M.A. at Keynon College, Ohio, U.S. 1833-34 ; honorary degrees of 
M.A. from Oxford, and D.D. fh)m Trinity College, Hartford, U.S. 1854. Author of 
' America and the American Church,' and other works. 

CATHCART, Alan Frederick, Earl, English magistrate, b. at Hythe, Nov. 14. 
1828 ; deputy-lieutenant ; magistrate and chairman of quarter sessions for North 
Riding of Yorkshire ; succeeded his father, 1859. 

OATOR. Sir \^illiain, English general, b. 1785 ; educated at Westminster and at 
the Military Academy, Woolwich ; entered the Royal Artillery, 1803 ; colonel, 1846 ; 
lieutenant-general, 1869; C.B. 1855; knighted, 1865. 

CATTERMOIiE, George, English painter, b. in Norfolk, 1800 ; R A. 1848. Exhibited 
at the Water Colour Society and l^e Royal Academy since 1830, chiefly battle-tields and 
similar subjects. 

CAUIaAINCOURT. Olivier Joseph, Marquis de, French officer, b. at Paris, 
1818 ; entered the military school of St Cyr, 1837 ; officer, 1843 ; member of the Tiegislative 
Assembly for Calvados, 1849 to 1851 ; member of the Corps L^islatif for same, 1852 ; 
oonmiander of the Ldgion dlionneur, July 3, 1861. 

CAUMONT, Aldrick Isidore Ferdinand, French lawyer, b. at St. Vincent, 
Cramisuil, May 15, 1825. Author of ' Dictionniaire uuiversel de Droit commercial 
maritime, ou R4i>ertoire methodique alphab^tique de Legislation, Doctrine et Juris- 
prudence nautique,' 1855-58 ; and other legal works. 

CAUMONT, Arcisse de, French antiquarian, b. at fiayeux, Aug. 28, 1802. Author 
of 'Cours d' Antiquity monumentales,' 1830 ; ' Ab^c^daire, ou Rudiment d'Arch6ologie,' 
1850 ; and other works. 

CAU88IN DE PBRCEVAIi, Amand Pierre, French philologist, b. at Paris, 
Jan. 13, 1795 ; professor of Arabic at the CoUege of France, 1833 ; member of the 
Institute. Author of 'I^ecis lustorique de la Guerre des Turcs centre les Russes, 
1769-1774, Ac.' 1822. 

CAUTIaBY, Sir Proby Thomas, English engineer, b. at Roydon, 1802 ; educated 
at the Charterhouse and at Addiscombe ; projector and designer of the Oanges Canal, 
opened 1854; KC.B. 1854; member of her Mivjesty's Indian Council, 1858; chairman 
of Indian Public Works Conmiittee, 1859. Author of various i>apers on physical 
science. 

CAVE, Stephen, English politician, b. 1820 : educated at Harrow, and Balliol College, 
Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1843 ; M.A. 1846; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1840 ; 
is J. P. and depuiy-lieutenant for Gloucestershire; J. P. for Sussex; M.P. forShoreham 
since 1859. 

CAVE, Thomas. English politician, b. 1825 ; is a merchant in London ; sheriff of 
London and Middlesex, 1864 ; M.P. for Barnstaple, 1865. 



CAVEIiIER, Pierre Jules, French sculptor, b. at Paris, Aug. 30, 1814. Executed 
* Penelope endormie,' 1849 ; bust of * Ary Scheffer,* 1859 ; * Napoleon l" Legislateur,' 
1861 ; and numerous statues and groups. 

CAVENDISH, IfOrd EdiNrard, English politician, b. 1838 ; educated at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; lieutenant in the rifle brigade ; and instructor of musketry, 
1861-64; M.P. for Sussex, 1865. 

CAVENDISH, lK>rd Frederick Charles, English politician, b. 1839 ; deputy- 
lieutenant for county of Lancaster ; M.P. for North-west Riding of Yorkshire, 1865. 

CAVENDISH, laord Georir® Henry, English politician, b. 1810 ; is a magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant for Derbyshire ; M.P. for Derbyshire since 1834. 

CAWDOR, John Frederick Vang^han Campbell, Earl, b. in London, 1817; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; graduated B. A. 1838, M.A. 1840 ; M.P. 
for Pembrokeshire, 1841 to 1860 ; succeeded his father, 1860 ; lord lieutenant of 
Carmarthenshire ; trustee of the British Museum. 

CAYIaE, Jean Mamert, French writer, b. at Vigan Lot, 1812 ; studied at the Royal 
, College of Cahors. Author of 'Pape et Empereur,* 1860; 'Les Congr^s de Malines,' 
1864 ; and many other (chiefly historical) works. 

CAYIiEY, Arthur, English mathematician, b. at Richmond, 1821 ; educated at King's 
College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1842 ; called 
to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1849 ; correspondbg member of the French Institute, 
1863. 



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CECIL. lK>rd Eustace Henry BrownloiMr Gascoiffne, English politician, 
b. 1834 ; educated at Harrow, and Rojal Military College, Sandhurst ; is a magistrate for 
Middlesex ; lieutenant-colonel in the Guards ; M.P. for Essex, 1865. 

CECI !■!■£. Jean Baptiste Thonuui Medee, French naval officer, b. at Rouen, 
Oct. 16, 1787 ; entered the navy, 1804 ; lieutenant in the navy, July 31, 1816 ; captain 
of a frigate, Oct. 30, 1829 ; rear-admiral, June 2, 1844 ; vice-admiral, Dec. 23, 1847 ; 
appointed senator, Dec. 31, 1853. 

CERFBERE DE MEDEltSHEIM, MaximiUan Charles Alphonse, 

French writer, b. at Epinal, Vosges, July 20, ,1817. Author of ' Voyage de la Duchesse 
d'OrUans d'Allemagne en France,' 1837 ; ' Etat actuel de la Metallurgie en Europe,' 
1858 ; and other works. 

CERISE, laanrent Alexander Philibert, French phpician, b. at Aoste, Piedmont, 
1809; took the degree of M.D. at Turin, 1828. Author of 'Expose et Exam^ critique 
du Syst^me phr^nologique,' Paris, 1836 ; and several medical works. 

CESENA. Amedee Oayet de* French writer, b? at Cestri, Levant, 1810. Author 
of 'La Conquete d'Alger,' D\jon, 1830 ; ' L'Angleterre et la Russie,' 1858; *L'ltalie 
confM^r^e,' 1859-60 ; and several other works. 

CEY, Frangois Arsene. CHAISE DE CAHA6NE, French writer, b. at Thiers, 
March 2, 1806. Author of *La Fille du Cur6, 1832; *La Fianc6e du Pruice,' 1848; 
* Quand on n'a pas le Son,' 1854 ; and other romances. 

CHABANNE, IiA PAIiICE, Alfred Jean Egfinnard, Con&te de, French 
general ; b. near London, Jan. 13, 1799 ; entered the French army, 1814 ; captain, 1824 ; 
chief of a squadron, 1831 ; colonel, 1837 ; general of brigade, 1840. 

CHABANNE, CURTON IiA PALICE, French naval officer, b. at Paris, May 6, 
1803, brother of the preceding ; entered the navy, 1823 ; captain of a frigate, 1851 ; 
rear-admiral, Dec.|1854 ; commander of the maritime forces in the Mediterranean, 1855 ; 
vice-admiral, Dec. 24, 1861 ; maritime prefect at Toulon, April 19, 1864. 

CHABAUD IiATOUR. Frangols Ernest Henri, Baron de, French general, 
b. at Nimes, Jan. 25, 1805 ; entered the army ; captain, 1827 ; chief of battalion, 1837 ; 
colonel, 1845 ; general of brigade, April 30, 1858 ; general of division, Aug. 12, 1857 ; 
member of the imperial Council for Public Instruction, 1864. 

CHACATON, Jean Nicolas Henri de, French painter, b. at Ch^zy, July 30, 1813 ; 
studied in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and under MM. Hersent, Ingres, and Marilhat. 
Exhibited * The Prisoner of Chillon,' 1835 ; ♦ Christ in the Garden of Olives,' 1844 ; 
' Convent of the Capuchins at Syracuse,' 1857 ; and several other works, principally 
landscapes. 

CHADWICK, EdTirin, English social economist, b. 1801 ; called to the bar, 1830 ; 
commissioner of the General Board of Health, 1848 ; C.B. 1848. Author of several 
papers on sanitary matters and public education. 

CHAILLU, Paul du, French traveller, b. 1820; travelled in Western Africa, and 
brought several gorillas to Europe, 1855. Author of * Explorations and Adventures,' 
London, 1861. 

CHAIX D'EST AN6E, Victor Charles, French advocate, b. at Rheims, 
April 11, 1800 ; b&tonnier or chief of the Paris bar, 1842 ; procurator-general of the 
Imperial Court of Paris, 1857 ; senator, Nov. 2, 1862 ; vice-president of the Council of 
State, Oct. 18, 1863. Author of ' Annals of the French Bar.' 

CHAIiIiAMEL, Jean Baptiste Marie Auffustin, French writer, b. at Paris, 
March 18, 1818 ; studied at the College of Henry IV. ; called to the bar, 1838. Author 
of ' St. Vincent de Paul,' 1841 ; ' De la Revolution de Napoleon,' 1851. 

CHALLENGER, Richard, English colonial magistrate, b. 1805 ; appointed notary 
at St. Eitt's, 1830 ; justice of the peace, 1838 ; stipendiary magistrate, Anguilla, 1842 ; 
coroner, 1846 to present time ; member of Administrative Committee, Dec 1858 ; member 
of the Executive Council, 1858. 

CHALIjIS,' Rev. James, English astronomer, b. 1803 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge; graduated M. A. 1825; ordained, 1830; Plumian professor of astronomy, 
1836. Author of 'Creation in Plan and Progress,' 1861 ; and numerous astronomical 
works. 

CHAIaYB.ffiUS, Heinricli Morits, German philosophical writer, b. at Pfaffroda, 
Saxony, July 3, 1796 ; studied at the University of Leipsic ; degree of Ph,D. 1820 ; 

Erofessor of philosophy at Kiel, 1839. Author of • History of the Development of the 
peculative Philosophy of Kant and Hegel,' Dresden, 1836 ; and other philosophical 
works. 



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CHAMBARD, lK>Qis Leopold, French Bculptor, b. at St. Amour, 1812 ; studied 
under M. Ingres. Executed ' Marius k Carthage,' 1837 ; * L' Amour ofArant son Coeur k 
une jeune FUle/ 1864 ; and several busts, statues, and groups. 

CHAMBERIiAIN, Sir Neville Bowles, English general, b. at Rio, Jan. 18, 
1820 ; appointed to the Indian army, 1836 ; deputy-assistant quartermaster-general, 
1843 ; aide-de-camp to Tiord Dalhousie, 1848 ; C.B. 1857, and A.D.C. to her M^esty. 

CHAMBERS, Tlioxnas, English barrister, b. 1814 ; educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
and graduated B. A. 1840 ; LL.B. 1846; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1840; 
M.P. for Hertford, 1852-^7 ; returned for Marylebone, 1862. 

CHAMBERS, Robert, English author and publisher, b. at Peebles, 1802. Author of 
' Illustrations of the Author of Waverley,' 1823 ; ' Biographical Dictionary of Eminent 
Scotchmen,' 1835 ; and a great number of scientific and miscellaneous works. 

CHAMBERS, 'William, author and publ^her, brother of the preceding, b. at Peebles, 
1800. Author of the ' Book of Scotland,^ 1830 ; ' Sketches in America ;' and other works. 
Founder of ' Chambers' Edinburgh Journal,' 1832. 

CHAMBRUN, Aldebert Dominique Joseph, Comte de^ French politician, 
b. at Paris, Nov. 21, 1821 ; prefect of Toulon, 1850 ; of St Etienne, March 1851 ; 
member of the Generiil Council for the canton of VUlefort, and of the Corps Legislatif, 
1857. 

CHAMIER. Frederick, English author, b. in London, 1796 ; entered the navy, 1809 ; 
retired, 1833. Author of * The Life of a Sailor,' 1834 ; • Passion and Principle,' 1843 ; 
and other sea stories. 

CHAMPA6NY, Frangois Joseph Marie Therese Nompere, Comte de, 

French writer, b. at Vienna, Sept. 10, 1804. Author of * Un Mot d'une Catholique,' 
1844; *L'Histoire des Cesars/ 1841-43; ' De la Critique contemporaine,' 1864; and 
other works. 

CHAMFAONY, Napoleon Marie Nompere, Comte de, French writer, b. at 
Paris, Oct. 29, 1806. Author of 'Traite de la Police municipale, ou de I'Autoriw des 
Maires de 1' Administration et du GK)uvemement en Mati^es r^lemeutaires,' Paris, 
1844-47. 

CHAMPFIaEURY, Jules Flenry. French writer, b. at Laon, Sept. 10, 1821. 
Author of * Chien Caillon,' 1847; ' Les Aventures de Mariette,' 1853; *Histoire de la 
Caricature antique,' 1865 ; and many other works of general literature. 

CHAMPNEYS, Rev. IViUiam ^Veldon, English divine, b. in London, 1807 ; 
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. ; rector of St. Mary's, 
Whitechapel, 1837 ; canon of St. Paul's, 1851 ; vicar of St. Pancras. 

CHAMPOIalalON FI6EAC, Jean Jacques, French archseologist, b. at Figeae, 
1778. Author of ' Annales des Lagides, ou Chronologie des Rois grecs d'Egypt,* 1819 ; 
' Fourier et Napoleon,' 1844; 'Monugraphie du Palais de Fontainebleau,' 1864; and a 
great number of archseologic^ works. 

CHAN6ARNIER, Nicolas Anne Theodule, French general, b. at Anton, 
April 26, 1793; lieutenanl^ 1815 ; captain, Oct. 9, 1825; chief of a battalion, Dec. 31, 
1835 ; lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 25, 1837 ; general, Aug. 3, 1843 ; governor-general of 
Algiers, 1847. Imprisoned after Dec. 2, 1851 ; exiled ftom France, 1852. 

CHANNELS, Sir William Fry, EngUsh judge, b. 1804; called to the bar, 1827; 
became a serjeant, 1840 ; baron of the Exchequer and knighted, 1857. 

CHANNIN6, Walter; American physician, b. at Newport, JElhode Island, 1786 ; 
educated at Harvard College, and at the University of Pennsylvania, and graduated 
M.D. ; professor at the University of Cambridge, U.S. Author of * Professional Reminis- 
cences of Foreign Travel,' 1851 ; and numerous medical works. 

CHANNIN6, Rev. 'William Henry, American writer, b. in Massachusetts, 1810 ; 
entered Harvard College, 1829 ; took the degree of D.D. at Cambridge, U.S. 1833. 
Author of ' Memoiis of William Ellery Channing, with Extracts from his Correspondence 
and Manuscripts,' Boston, 1848. 

CHAPIN, Rev. Ed^rard, American writer, b. at Union Village, New York County, 
Dec. 29, 1814 ; minister of a church at Richmond, Virginia, 1838. Author of • Moral 
Aspects of City Life,' New York, 1853; 'Humanity in the City;' *True Manliness,' 
lb. 1854. 

CHAPMAN, Henry Samuel. English colonial judge, b. 1818 ; appointed judge of 
the Supreme Court of New Zealand, Jime 1843, colonial secretary of Van Diemen's 



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Land, 1852 ; member of the L^slative Council of Melbourne, 1855 ; attorney-general at 
St. Kilda, 1858 to 1859 ; equity Judge of the Supreme Court, 1862-63 ; law lecturer at the 
Melbourne University. 

CHAPMAN, Riffht Rer. James, English divine, b. 1799 ; educated at Eton, and 
King's College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1826 ; rector of Dunton Waylett, 
Essex, 1834 ; consecrated bishop of Colombo and received the degree of D.D. 1845; 
resigned his see, 1862. 

CHAPN Y. Nicolas Marie Joseph, French architect and lithographer, b. at Paris, 
1790. Published * Monuments of France,' 'Antiquities of Athens,' and 'Monuments of 
Pera,' 1820 to 1850. 

CHAPNYS MONTIiAVIIiIiE, Benoist Marie Irf>Tiis Alceste, Baron 

de. French writer, b. at Toumus, Sept 19, 1800. Author of * Lettres sur la Suisse et 
le Pays des Orisons,' Paris, 1826 ; ' l^tude sur Simon,' ib. 1838 ; ' Lamartine, Vie publique 
et priv6e,' ib. 1848. 

CH APUS, Euirene, French writer, b. at Paris, 1800. Author of ' Essai critique sur 
le Theatre fran^ais, public d'apr^s des Notes anglaises,' Paris, 1827; 'Le Roman des 
Duchesses,' 1844 ; ' Le Turf, ou les Courses de Chevaux en France et en Angleterre,' Paris, 
1853 ; and many other works. 

CHARLES, Kin^: of 'Wurtemberfr, b. March 6, 1823 ; ascended the throne at the 
death of his father, King William I. June 25, 1864. Married, July 13, 1846, to Orand- 
duchess Olga of Russia, daughter of Czar Nicholas I. 

CHARIaES XV., Kintr of SiMreden and Norway, b. May 3, 1826, the son of 
King Oscar I. Ascended the throne at the death of bis father, July 8, 1859 ; married, 
June 19, 1850, to Louise, eldest daughter of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. 

CHARIaES, Frederick Augustvis William, ex-duke of Brunswick, b. Oct 30, 
1804 ; succeeded his father, June 16, 1815 ; Hed the duchy, Sept. 8, 1830 ; declared unfit 
to govern by a resolution ot the German Diet, Dec. 2, 1830. 

CHARLES ALEXANDER. Grand^uke of Saxe-Weimar, b. June 24, 
1818, the son of Grand-duke Charles Frederick ; succeeded his father, July 8, 1853 ; 
married, Oct. 8, 1842, to Sophie, daughter of the late King William II. of the Nether- 
lands. 

CHARLEMONT, James Molyneux Caulfield, Earl, Irish magistrate, 
b. 1820 ; M P. for Armagh, 1847 to 1857 ; succeeded his uncle, Dec. 1863 ; lord-lieutenant 
of County Armagh ; lieutenant-colonel of Armagh militia. 

CHARIiESlVORTH, Maria lK>iiisa, English authoress, b. 1830. Published 
'Ministering Children;' 'The Sabbath Given; the Sabbath Lost,' 1856; *The Ministry 
of Life,' 1858 ; 'The Sailor's Choice,' 1863 ; and other worlcs for the young. 

CHARM A, Antoine, .French philosophical writer, b. at Charit^-sur-Loire, Jan. 15, 
1801; licentiate of the Ecole Normale, 1822; Ph.D. 1830. Author of ' Legons de 
Philosophic sociale et de Logique,' 1838-40 ; ' Du Sommeil,' 1851 ; and other philo- 
sophical works. 

CHARNER, laeonard Victor Joseph, French naval officer, b. at St. Briene, 
Feb. 13, 1797 ; ensign, 1820 ; lieutenant, 1828 ; captain of a corvette, 1837 ; of a frigate, 
1841 ; rear>admiral, Feb. 3, 1852 ; vice-admiral, June 7, 185.5 ; admiral, Nov. 15, 1864. 

CHARON, Viala, French general, b. at Paris, July 29, 1794 ; entered the army, 1813 ; 
captain, 1821 ; colonel, 1842 ; general and governor-general of Algiers, 1848 ; senator, 
Dec. 31, 1852 ; president of the Council of Algiers. 

CH ARPEN'TIER, Jean Pierre, French writer, b. at St. Priest, June 20. 1797. 
Author of 'Etudes morales et historiques sur la Litt^rature romaine,' 1829; 'Etudes 
. sur les P^res de I'Eglise,' 1853 ; and other works. 

CHARTON, Edward Thomas, French writer, b. at Sens, May 11, 1807 ; advocate 
at Paris, 1829. Author of ' Lettres sur Paris,' 1830 ; ' History of Paris,' 1863. Founded 
UIlltLstratioUy 1843 ; and Le Tour du MontUy 1860. 

CHASE, Salmon Portland, American statesman, b. in Corinth, New Hampshire, 
U.S. Jan. 13, 1808 ; graduated at Dartmouth College, 1826; admitted to the bar, 1830; 
governor of the state of Ohio, 1856 to 1860 ; secretary to the Treasury, 1861 to 1864 ; 
chief justice of the Supreme Court, 1864. Author of * Statutes of Ohio,' 1832-35. 

CHASSEIiOUP-IiAUBAT, Justin Napoleon San&nel Prosper, Con&te de. 

French statesman, b. at Alessandria, Piedmont, March 29, 1805 ; councillor of state, and 
member of the Legislative Assembly, 1849 ; member of tiie Corps L^;islatii^ 1857 ; 
minister of Algiers, 1858 ; senator. May 25, 1862. 



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CHASSIN; Cniarles Iioula, French writer, b. at Nantes, Feb. 11, 1831. Anthor 
of *La L^nde da petit Manteau bleu,' 1852; 'Le Qenie de la Rdvolation ftangaise,' 
1863 ; and many other works. 

CHASTEAUNEUF. Johm Anciuitiui, English colonial magistrate, b. 1805 : 
appointed clerk in lihe R^istratiou Office at Maoritins, Aug. 1840 ; examiner and 
comptroller of Revenue and Audit Office, July 1847 ; chief cle», June 1854 ; officer in 
chai^ of Audit Office, May 1861 ,* acting collector of bitemal Revenue Office, Oct 1861. 

CHATEIiAIN, Anatole Julien, French geographer, b. at Paris, July 4, 1817 ; 
minister of agriculture and commerce, 1846. Published ' Lea Porter d'Or,' 1853 ; 
' Chronol(^caI Atlas of the Railways of France,' 1855. 

CHAUVBAU; Adolphe, French barrister, b. May 29, 1802 ; professor of law, 1838. 
Author of 'Throne du Code p^nal,' 1834-48 ; ' Formulaire g^ndral et complet,' 1852-53. 

CHATJV£NET, 'WUliam, American astronomer, b. in Pennsylvania, 1810 ; graduated 
at Yale College, 1838; professor of mathematics in the naval coU^^ of Anapoli8,,184l. 
Anthor of a treatise on * Plane and Spherical Trigonometry,' 1853. 

CHATJVIN, Victor, French writer, b. at Argenton, Ome, Aug. 22, 1829. Author of 
'Les Romanciers grecs et latins,' 1861 ; * La Brochure d'un Paysan du Danube,' 1861 ; 
* Traits de Rh^torique,' 1865. 



John, English politician, b. 1802; mafistrate for county of Chester, 

.L. for county Lancaster ; M.P. for Souw Lancashire, 1852-59; and for 
Salford, 1865. 

CHEBVBR, Oeorfte Barrett, American author, b. at Hallowell, Maine, 1807; 
graduated at Bowdoin College, 1825, and at Andover, 1830 ; ordained, 1832. Author of 
"Commonplace Books,' 1828-29 ; * windings of the River of the Water of Life,' 1849 ; 

* God against Slavery,' 1857. 

CHEIiMSFORD, Frederick Thesiffer, Baron, Enslish statesman, b. July 14, 
1794 ; entered the royal navy, as midshipman, 1807 ; called to the bar of Gray's Inn, 
1818 ; Song's counsel, and leader of the Inner Temple, 1834 ; solicitor-general, April 
1844 to July 1845 ; attorney-general, July 1845 to July 1846, and again March 1852 to 
December 1852 ; sat as M.P. for Woodstock, 1840-44 ; M.P. for Abingdon, 1844-52 ; M.P. 
for Stamford, 1852-58 ; apx)ointed lord chancellor, with the title of Lord Chelmsford, 
February 26, 1858, and resigned June 18, 1859 ; appointed for the second time lord chan- 
cellor, July 6, 1866 ; resigned, Nov. 18C7. 

CHENU, Jean Charles, French naturalist, b. at Metz, Aug. 80, 1808. Author of 
' Rapport sur le Cholera Morbus,' 1835 ; ' LeQons ^lementaires d'Histoire naturelle, 1846 ; 

* Manuel conchyliologique et de Paltontologie,' 1806. 

CHERBONNEAUX, Jacques Anynste, French writer, b. at La Chapelle Blanche, 
Aug. 28, 1813. Author of 'Fables de Lokman,' 1846; 'Anecdotes musulmanes,' 1847; 
' Fourberies de Delilah,' 1856. 

CHERBUIiIEZ, Antolne EUsee, Swiss political economist, b. at Geneva, 1707 ; 
professor of political economy at Geneva, 1837. Author of * Th^orie des Garanties con- 
stitutionnelles,' 1838 ; ' Etude sur les Causes de la Mis^re tant morale que physique, et 
sur les Moyens d'y porter RemMe,' Paris, 1853. 

CHESNEY, Francis Ravrdon, English general, b. at Ballyrea, N. Ireland. 1787 ; 
second captain in the RoyaljArtillery, 1815 ; brigadier-generaL 1843 ; mi^or-general, 1855 ; 
honorary D.C. L. of Oxford, 1851. Author of * Survey of the Euphrates and Tigris,' 1850. 

CHEVAIalER, Michel, French political economist, b. at Limoges, Jan. 13, 1806 ; 
professor of political economy at uie Collie of France, 1840; senator, 1861. Author 
of 'Cours d'Economie politique,' 1842-50; 'Mexico, Ancient and Modem,' 1864; and 
numerous works on political economy. 

CHEVAIiIalER, Jean Baptlste Atohonse, French chemist, b. at Langres, July 
19, 1793 ; member of the Academy of Medicine, Paris, 1824. Author of ' Dictionnaire 
des Substances, medicamenteuses et commercial^,* 1850-52 ; and other works. 

CHEVAIalilER, Rer. Temple, English divine, b. 1794 ; educated at Pembroke 
CoU^e, Cambridge, and graduated, 1817 ; professor of mathematics and astronomy at the 
University of Durham, 1835. Author of ' Translations of the Epistles of Clement of 
Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius,' and a volume of sermons. 




and other chemical works. 



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CHEZY^ 'WUhelm von^ German writer, b. at Heidelberg, March 21, 1806. Author 
of 'Der fS&hrende Schliler,' Zurich, 1835 ; * Der Ehrenherold,' Stuttgart, 1848 ; and other 
works. 

CHICHESTER, Henry Thomas Pelham, Earl, English administrator, b. 1804 ; 
lieutenant in the army, 1820 ; succeeded his father, 1826 ; m^for, 1844 ; lord-lieutenant of 
the county of Sussex, 1860. 

CHIIiD. Iiydia Maria, American authoress, b. in Massachusetts, 1802 ; married Mr. 
David Lee Child, 1826. Author of * Hobomok,* 1824 ; « Pact and Fiction,' 1846 ; * The 
Progress of Religious Ideas through Successive Ages,' 1855. 

CHIIiDERS, Huirh Cnllinv Eardley, English politician, b. 1827 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; graduated B.A. 1850, M. A. 1857 ; magistrate for West Riding 
of Yorkshire ; lord of the Admiralty, 1864 ; financial secretary of the Treasury, 1865 ; 
M.P. for Pontefract since 1860. 

CHISHOIaM, Caroline, English authoress, b. at Hooton, Northamptonshire, 1810 ; 
married Capt Alexander Cliisholm, 1830. Established the ' Female Colonization Loan 
Society.' Published • Voluntary Information of the People of New South Wales.' 

CHODZKO, Jacob laeonard, Polish historian, b. at Oberek, Wilna, Nov. 6, 1800. 
Author of 'Memoirs of Oginski,' Paris, 1826 ; * Histoire de la Pologne,' ib. 1855 ; * His- 
toire de la Turquie,' 1855 ; and other historical works. 

CHOIaMEIaEY. Sir Montane John, Bart. English politician, b. 1802 ; deputy- 
lieutenant for Lincolnshire ; M.P. for N. Lincolnshire, 1847 to 1851, and from 1857 to 1866. 

CHOPART, Irf>uia Narcisse, French naval officer, b. May 6, 1806 ; entered the 
navy, 1825 ; ensign, Feb. 10, 1830 ; lieutenant, Jan. 6, 1834 ; captain of a frigate, Nov. 1, 
1843 ; captain of a ship of the line, Dec. 18, 1848 ; rear-admiral, Aug. 9, 1858 ; vice- 
admiral, Jan. 27, 1864. 

CHOPPIN, James Clement, English colonial administrator, b. 1817; called to the 
bar of the Middle Temple, 1843 ; appointed acting police and stipendiary magistrate at 
St. Vincent, 1846 ; solicitor-general, 1853 ; attorney-general of St. Vincent, 1863; appointed 
to the .Legislative Council, 1863. 

CHOUIiANT, laouia, German physician, b. at Dresden, 1791 ; diploma of M.D. at 
Leipsic, 1817. Author of * Tafehi zur Geschichte der Medicin,' Leipsic, 1822 ; ' Gteschichte 
una Bibliographic der anatomischen Ablrildungen,' ib. 1852 ; and other medical works. 

CHOUSKI, Henry de, Russian political economist, b. at Eremenetz, Poland, 1801. 
Author of 'Des Institutions de Credit foncier et agricole dans les divers £tats de 
I'Europe,' 1851 ; and other works on political economy. 

CHRISTIE, IVilUam, English colonial administrator, b. 1800 ; educated at Eton, 
at the Royal Militaiy Academy, Woolwich, and at the Hoyal Military Academy, Sand- 
hurst ; ensign, 1825 ; lieutenant, 1827 ; captain, 1833 ; mi^or, 1839 ; secretaiy to Board of 
Education, 1848 ; postmaster-general of New South Wales, 1852. 

CHRISTIAN IX., Kini: of Denmark, b. April 8, 1818 ; fourth son of the late 
Duke Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glttcksbui^ ; succeeded to the throne 
on the death of King Frederick VII., November 15, 1863 ; married, May 26, 1842, to 
Louise, daughter of the Landgrave William of Hesse-Cassel. 

CHRISTISON, Robert, Scotch physician, b. July 18, 1797 ; studied at the University 
of Edinburgh ; gpraduated M.D. 1819 ; professor of medical jurisprudence at University of 
Edinbui^h, 1822 ; of materia mediciL 1832 ; twice president of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians. Edinbui*gh ; ordinary physician to the Queen for Scotland. Author of ' iSreatise 
on Poisons,' and other medical works. 

CHURCHIIiIi, Francis Geortre Spencer, Baron, English administrator, b. at 
Blenheim, Oxford, 1802 ; attach^ at Vienna, 1823 ; at Lisbon, 1828 ; succeeded his father, 
1845 ; deputy-lieutenant of Oxfordshire. 

CHURSTON, John Yarde Bnller, Baron, English magistrate, b. at Dilhome, 

1799 ; graduated at Oriel College, Oxford, 1819 ; M.P. for South Devon lh)m 1835 to 1858 ; 

magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Devon ; lieut -colonel of the South Devon militia. 
CHURTON, Ven. Edinrard, English divine, b. 1800 ; educated at Charterhouse and 

Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1821 ; M. A. 1824 ; rector of Crayke, 1835 ; 

archdeacon of Cleveland, 1846. Author of 'Early English Church,' 1840; '^Vindiciae 

Ignatii,* Oxford, 1852 ; and other works. 

CIAIaDINI, Enrico, Italian general, b. at Modena, 1818 ; served under Qeneral Zucchi 
at Bologna, 1831 ; lieut. -colonel m the Spanish service, 1848 ; general in the Sardinian army 
in the Crimea, 1865 ; fought in Italy, 1859 ; took Gaeta, 1861 ; viceroy of Naples, 1861 ; 
senator of Italy, 1864. 



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CIBOT; Frangols Bartbftlemy Micbel Edouard, French painter, b. at Paris, Feb. 
11, 1799 ; studied at the Rchool of Fine Arts and under M. Gu^rin and M. Picot Exhibited 

* Une M^re blesste allaitant son En£ant^' 1827 ; ' Bords de la Sarthe,' 186S ; and many 
other works, principally landscape paintings. 

CIBR AJtlO^ Jeaa Antoine lK>ula CheTaller, Italian historian and politician, b. 
at Turin, Feb. 23, 1802 ; LL.D. 1824 ; minister of foreim aflfairs, 1856 ; senator of Italy. 
Author of * Notizie sulla Istoria dei Principi di Savoia/ Turin, 1826 ; * Libro di Novelle/ 
lb. 1834 ; and other works. 

CIRCOT7RT, Anne Marie Josepli Albert. Comte de, French writer, b. Jnne 
25, 1809. Author of ' La Bataille de Hastings,*^ 1868 ; and several novels in French 
I)eriodicals. 

CIiAIRVIIalaE, laoniv Frangois Nicolaie. French dramatic writer, b. at Lyons, 
Jan. 28, 1811. Author of ' Quatorze Ans, on la Vie de Napoleon,' 1830 ; ' Margot,' iai7 ; 

* Un Troupier qui suit les Bonnes,' 1860 ; * Une Semaine & Londres,' 1862 ; wiUi a great 
number of dramas, and a volume of poems. 

CIJ^NCARTY, William Thomas le Poer Trencb, Earl of, English ad- 
ministrator, b. at Castletown, Kildare, 1803 ; studied at St. John's College, Cambridge ; 
lieut. -colonel of the Gkdway militia ; succeeded his fother, 1837. 

CIJ^KRICARDE, Ulick John de Bnrfrh. Marquis of, English statesman, 
b. at Belmont, Hants, 1802, son of the 13th Earl ; obtained a marquisate formerly in 
the family, 1826 ; created a British peer by the title of Baron Somerhill in 1826 ; nnder- 
secretaiy of state for foreign affairs, 1825 to 1827 ; ambassador at St. Petersburg, 1838 
to 1841 ; postmaster-general, privy seal, 1867-68 ; lord-lieutenant of county Galway. 

CXJLNlXrilililAM, Richard Meade, Earl of, English diplomatist, b. 1796; 
studied at the University of Oxford, and took the degree of LLD. 1834; succeeded his 
father, 1806 ; under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, 1822 ; envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to the Court of Berlin, 1823 to 1827. 

CIiAPISSON, Antonie lK>ais, French musical composer, b. at Naples, - Sept. 16, 
1808 ; member of the Institute, and of the Academy of Fine Arts, 1864 ; composed *La 
Symphonie,' 1839 ; 'Dans les Vignes,' 1856 ; ' Madame Gregoire,' 1861 ; and many others. 

CIiARENDON, George IVilUam Frederick VilUers, Earl of. English 
statesman, b. Jan. 26, 1800 ; succeeded to the title, 1838 ; British minister plenipoten- 
tiary to the court of Madrid, 1833 to 1839 ; sworn in the privy council, 1840 ; lord privy 
seal and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1840-41 ; president of the Board of Trade, 
1846 ; lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1847 to 1862 ; secretanr of state for foreign affairs, 
Feb. 1863-66, and again 1866-66 ; chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1864-66 ; chancellor 
the Queen's University in Ireland. 

CIiARK, Sir Janies. English physician, b. 1788 ; studied at King's College, Aber- 
deen, and the University of Edinburgh, where he took the degree of M.D. ; physician to 
the Queen ; member of the senate of the. University of Londqn. Author of several works 
on climate and on consumption. 

CIiARKE, Rev. John Erskine, English divine, b. 1828 ; educated at Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1860 ; M.A. 1853 ; ordained, 1861 ; vicar of St. 
Michael's, Derby, 1868. Author of * Plain Papers on the Social Economy of the People.* 
Editor of the Fa/rish Magazine. 

CLARKE, Mary CoiMrden, English authoress, b. June 1809 ; married to Mr. C. Cowden 
Clarke, 1828. Author of 'The Adventures of Kit Bam, Mariner,' 1848 ; • Iron Cousin,' 
1854 ; ' The Complete Concordance of Shakespeare,' 1846 ; and other works. 

CIiARKE, Robert, colonial magistrate, b. 1801 ; appointed assistant colonial surgeon. 
Sierra Leone, 1837 ; sui^eon on the Gold Coast, Oct 1854 ; sub-collector of Customs, 
April 1866 ; acting judicial assessor, July 1867 to May 1868 ; member of executive and 
legislative councils of the Gold Coast. Author of 'Manners and Customs of Liberated 
Africans,' and several papers on the Qold Coast. 

CIiARKE, Sir Robert BoiMTCher, English colonial judge, b. 1800; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated LL.B. 1827 ; called to the bar of the 
Inner Temple, 1827 ; solicitor-general of Barbadoes, 1837 to 1842 ; chief justice of 
Barbadoes, 1842 ; chief judge of St. L^cia, 1848 to 1869 ; knighted, 1840. 

CLARY« Edmund Morits, Prince of, Austrian statesman, b. Feb. 3, 1813; 
succeeded his father in the signories of Treplitz, Granpen, and of Binsdorf in Bohemia, 
1831 ; appointed hereditary councillor of the empire, April 1861. 



Cla HANDBOOK OF CCM^TEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Cli 
[64] 



CIiARY, Justinlen Nicolas, Vicomte. French politician, b. at Puis, June 8, 
1816 ; educated at the military school of St. Cyr ; studied law and called to the bar at 
Paris, 1840 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Loire et Cher, 1852. 

CIiAUSEN. Hendiick Nicolas, Danish theologian and politician, b. at Maribo, on 
the isle of Laland, April 22, 1793 ; studied at the UniYersity of Copenhagen ; professor of 
theology at the University of Copenhagen, 1826 ; dean of the faculty of titieology, 1834 ; 
rector of the University, 1837. Author of "The Confession of Augsbuig explained 
historically and dogmatically,' 1851 ; and numerous theological, works. 

CIiAVAUD, Andre' Paul, French naval officer, b. Jan. 25, 1803 ; ensign. May 22, 
1825 ; lieutenant, Oct. 2, 1830 ; captain of a fiigate, Aug. 21, 1839 ; reai-admiral, Dec 2, 
1854 ; vice-admiral, March 2, 1864. 

CLAY. Cassias Marcellus, American statesman, b. in Madison County, Kentucky, 
Oct. 2, 1810 ; graduated at Yale College, 1832 ; American ambassador at St. Petersburg, 
1861. Author of some articles on the abolition of slavery, published 1848. 

CLAY, James, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at Winchester, and Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1827; M.P. for Hull, 1847 to 1852, and fh>m 1857 
to 1866. 

CIiAY, Rev. WlUiaui KeatiniTj English author, b. 1797; graduated at Jesus 
College, Cambridge ; ordained deacon, 1823 ; minor canon of Ely cathedral, 1837 ; per- 
petual curate of Holy Trinity in Ely. Author of 'History of the Scotch, Irish, and 
American Prayer-books,' 1846 ; and numerous works on the English liturgy. 

CItAY, Sir 'William, English political economist, b. in London, 1797; M.P. for the 
Tower Hamlets, 1832 ; secretary to the Board of Control, and created a baronet, 1841. 
Author of several works on currency questions, and joint-stock banks. 

CLEMENT, Jean Pierre. French historian, b. at Draguiguan, Var, June 2, 1809 ; 
member of the J^nch Institute. Author of 'Jacques Coeur et Charles VII., ou la 
France au XV. Si^cle,' 1853 ; ' Lettres, Instructions et M^moires de Colbert,' 1863 ; and 
seventl works on history and political economy. 

CLEMENT, Kunt Jnnirbolin. Danish historian and linguist, b. in the isle of 
Amram, Dec. 4, 1803 ; studied at tne Universities of Kiel and Heidelberg ; Ph.D. 1855. 
Author of * Ueber den Ursprung der Theudisken,' Altona, 1836 ; * Das wahre Ver- 
haltniss der stideijutischen NationaUtSt und Sprache,' Hambuig, 1849; and other 
historical works. 

CLEMENT, 'William James, English politician, b. 1804 ; educated at Shrewsbury 
and at Edinburgh University ; J.P. and D. jL. for county Merioneth ; a magistrate for 
Shrewsbury, and mayor of that borou^^, 1863 ; M.P. for Shrewsbury, 1865. 

CLERK, Sir Georg^e Russell, English colonial administrator, b. 1801 ; educated at 
Haileybury College, and entered the civil service of the East India Company, 1818 ; political 
agent on the Bengal frontier, 1830 ; governor of Bombay, 1840 ; (resigned, 1847 ; created 
K.C.B. 1848; imder-secretary tq the Indian Board, 1856 ; under-secretary of state for 
India, 1858 ; member of H.M. Indian CounciL 

CLE'SINGER, Jean Baptlste Auffuste, French sculptor, b. at Besancon, 1820. 
Executed ' La M^lancolie,' 1S47 ; * Diane au Bepos,' 1863 ; * Bords du Tibre,' 1864 ; and a 
great number of busts, statues, and groups. 

CLE'VELAND, Charles Dexter, American writer, b. at Salem, Massachusetts, 
Dec. 3, 1802 ; studied at Dartmouth College. Author of ' An Epitome of Grecian Anti- 
quities,' 1827; 'A Compendium of English Literature,' 1848 ; and other miscellaneous 
works. 

CLIFDEN, Henry AfTar Ellis, Visconnt, English administrator, b. 1825 ; suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in the peerage of Ireland, 1836 ; was lord of the bedchamber to 
the late Prince Consort. 

CLIFTON, Sir Robert Jnckes, Bart. English politician, b. 1826 ; a magistrate 
for Notts ; M.P. for Nottingham, 1861-65. 

CLINTON, Lord Arthur Pelham; English politician, b. 1840 ; educated at Eton ; 
a lieutenant R.N. ; returned M.P. for Newark, 1865. 

CLINTON, Cliarles Rodolph Trefasis, Baron, English administrator, 
b. 1791; studied at the University of Oxford; succeeded his brother, 1832; deputy-lieu- 
tenant for Devon. 

CLINTON, Rev. Charles John Fynes, English divine, b. 1799 ; educated at 
Westminster, and Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1821 ; rector of Crom- 
well, Notts, 1828. Author of 'Fasti Hellenici,' and other works. 



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CIiINTON, Iiord Edward William Pelham, English j>olitician, b. 1836 ; educa- 
ted at Eton ; entered the array as lieutenant of rifle brigade, 1854 ; captain, 1857 ; served 
in the Crimea, 1855-56 ; M.P. for Nottinghamshire, 1865. 

CLISSOIaD, Rev. Ansustus^ English writer, b. 1707 ; educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford, -where he graduated B.A. 1819, and M.A. ; ordained deacon and priest, 1821. 
Author of ' Swedenborg's Writings and Catholic Teaching,' and numerous theological 
works. 

CLIVE. Caroline, English authoress, b. 1801 ; married to the Rev. Archer Clive, 1840. 
Published ' Paul Ferrol ;' and a volume of poems under the signature * V.' 

ClilVISy Oeorg^e, English politician, b. 1806; educated at Harrow, and Brasenose 
College, Oxford ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1830 ; j>olice magistrate in London, 
and judge of the Southwark county court ; under-secretary for the Home Department, 
1859-62 ; M.P. for Hereford since 1857. 

CIiIVIS, Hon. Georg^e Herbert Windsor. English politician, b. 1835; educated 
at Eton; entered the army, 1852; lieutenant, 1854; captain, 1869; M.P. for Ludlow, 
1860. 

CItODT, Jur^ensbonr^ Pierrei Baron de, Russian sculptor, b. May 29, 1805 ; 
studied at the School of Fme Arts of St. Petersburg ; member of the Academy of Arts, 
Berlin, 1835 ; professor at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 1848. Executed several colossal 
groups for the public places at St. Petersburg. 

ClaOETEy Sir Abraham Josias, English general, b. 1794 ; entered the army, 1809 ; 
created K.C.B. 1836 ; C.B. 1848 ; knight-bachelor, 1854 ; major-general, 1855 ; commander 
of forces in the Windward and Leeward Islands with rank of lieutenant-general, 1855. 

CItONCURRY, Ed^rard Iia^rless^ Baron, English administrator, b. at Lyons 
Castle, Kildare, 1816 ; succeeded his father, 1853 ; deputy-lieutenant of the coimties of 
Kildare and Dublin. 

CIiOQUET, Germain Jules, French physician, b. at Paris, Dec. 18, 1790 ; took the 
degree of M.D. at Paris, 1817. Author of 'De I'lnfluence des Efforts sur les Organes 
renfermes dans la Cavity thoracique,' 1820 ; and numerous medical works. Member of 
the Academy of Medicine, 1851 ; and of the Academy of Sciences, 1855. 

CIiOSE, Very Rev. Francis. English divine, b. 1797 ; entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 1816, and graduated B.A. 1820; rector of Cheltenham, 1826; dean of Carlisle, 

1856. Published several sermons, and pamphlets on religious subjects. 

ClaOT, Antoine, French physician, b. at Marseilles, April 1795; studied medicine, and 
took the degree of M.D. at Montpellier, 1820 ; physician in the Turkish army, and raised 
to the rank of general, 1836. Author of ' Coup d'ceil sur la peste et les Quarantaines,' 
1851 ; and several works on Egypt. 

COBB, HO'well, American politician, b. at Cherry Hill, Georgia, U.S., Sept. 7, 1815; 
studiM law and admitted to the bar, 1836 ; solicitor-general, 1837 ; minister of finance, 

1857. Took part with the South in the civil war of 1861. 

COBBOIiD, John Chevallier, English politician, b. 1797 ; educated at Bury St. 
Edmund's : banker at Ipswich and Harwich ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
Suffolk ; M.P. for Ipswich since 1847. 

COBBOIiD^ Rev. Richard, English author, b. 1797; educated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1820; rector of Wortham, Suffolk, 1826. Author 
of • Margaret Catchpole,' 1845 ; ' The Young Man's Home,' 1849 ; and other works. 

COCHET, I'Abbe' Jean Benoit De'sire', French archeeologist, b. at Sauvie, near 
Havre, March 7, 1812 ; studied at the College of Havre, the Seminary of Rouen, and 
entered holy orders, 1836. Author of 'Nomiandie souterraine, ou Notices sur des 
Cimeti6res romains et franks explores en Normandie,' 1854 ; and other archaeological 
works. 

COCHIN, Pierre Suzamee Augnstin, French politician, b. at Paris, Dec. 12, 
1823 ; member of the Academy of Moral and Political Science, 1864. Author of * Rome ;' 
* Les Martyrs du Japon,' 1862 ; and several political and religious works. 

COCHRANE, Sir James, English colonial judge, b. 1794; admitted to the Inner 
Temple, 1818 ; called to the bar there, 1829 ; chief justice of Gibraltar, 1843 ; ^created 
knight-bachelor, 1845. 

COCHRANE, Sir Thomas John, English naval officer, b. at Edinburgh, 1789 ; 
knight-bachelor, 1825 ; governor of Newfoundland from 1825 to 1834 ; MiP. for Ipswich 
from 1837 to 1841 ; commander-in-chief on the East India station from 1842 to 1846 ; 
KC.B. 1847 ; admiral of the white, 1857 ; vice-admiral, 1863. 

~ F 



Coc HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Ool 

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COCHRANE, Alexander Dnndas Ross Wislisrt Balllie, English politician, 
b. 1814, son of the preceding ; M. P. for Bridport, 1841 to 1846, and for Honiton, 1847 
to 1862. Author of * The Morea ;' * Young Italy,' 1860 ; and several novels. 

COCKBURN, Rifflit Hon. Sir Alexander Janies Edmund, Bart., English 
jud^^'e, b. 1802 ; educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated LL.B. 1829 ; 
called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1829 ; Q.C. 1841 ; M.P. for Southampton, 1847 ; 
attomey-gener^ March 1861 ; recorder of Bristol^ 1864 ; succeeded his uncle in the 
baronetcy, 1868 ; chief justice of the Common Pleas, 1866; lord chief justice, 1869. 

COCKBURN, Sir Francis, English general, b. 1783 ; governor and commander-in- 
chief of the Bahama Islsmds, 1887 ; served in Canada, and was governor of Honduras ; 
created knight-bachelor by patent, 1841 ; colonel in the army, 1863 ; general, 1860. 

COCKBUR N, Samuel, English colonial magistrate, b. 1810 ; interpreter-general in 
Grenada, 1844 ; inspector of prisons, 1846 ; inspector-general of schools, 1863 ; provost 
marshal, 1864; stipendiary magistrate, 1866; immigration agent, 1866; president of 
Montserrat, 1860-62 ; police magistrate, British Honduras, June 1862. 

COD AZZI, Ai^nstino, Ttalian engineer, b. at Lugo, near Ferrara, 1792 ; entered the 
military service of France in an Italian regiment, 1813 ; colonel, 1838. Published * Resu- 
men de la Geografia de Venezuela,' 1841. 

CODRINOTON, Sir William John, English general, b. 1800 ; entered the anny, 
1821; lieut. -colonel, 1836; ms^or-general, 1864; commander-in-chief of British forces in 
the East with local rank of general, 1866 ; lieut. -general, 1866 ; made a R.C.B. 1866 ; grand 
cross of the Sardinian order of Savoy and commander of the Legion of Honour, 1866 ; 
M.P. for Greenwich, from Feb. 1867 to May 1869 ; appointed governor and commander- 
in-chief at Gibraltar, May 1869 ; general, 1863. 

COETLOG^N, lK>uis Charles Emmanuel, Comte de, French writer, b. at 
Paris, Aug. 10, 1814 ; studied at the Military School of St. Cyr, and entered the army, 
as second lieutenant, 1834 ; retired, 1840. Author of ' Voyage en Alg^rie,' 1848. 

C06AN, WUliani Henry Ford, English x>olitieian, b. 1823 ; educated at Trinity 
Colleee, Dublin ; graduated B. A. '1843 ; called to the Irish bar, 1846 ; high sheriff of County 
Wicklow, 1863 ; M.P. for Kildare since 1862. 

C06HETTI, Francois, Italian paintor, b. at Bei^me, Lombardy, Oct. 4, 1804; 
studied under MM Diotti and CamuccinL Executed ' ^e Battle of the Amazons,' 'The 
Fable of Prometheus,' and a great number of paintings, frescoes, and cartoons. 

COONIET, Leon, French painter, b. at Paris, Aug. 29, 1794. Executed * Marius sur 
les Ruines de Carthage,' 1824 ; *Tintoret peignant sa Fille morte,' 1846 ; and many others. 
Member of the sux>erior council of the School of Fine Arts, 1863. 

COHEN, Henri, French numismatist, b. 1810. Author of 'MMailles consulaires,' 
Paris, 1867 ; * M6daiUes imp6riales,' ib. 1869-^2. 

COKE, Hon. Henry John, English writer, b. 1827 ; educated at the Royal Naval 
College, Portemouth ; entered the navy, 1841 ; lieutenant, 1847 ; retired from the navy 
and became private secretary to the Right Hon. E. Horsman, M.P., while chief secretary 
for Ireland. Author of * Vienna in 1848 ; ' • A Will and a Way,' 1868. 

COIiANI, Tiniothe'e, French Protestant theologian, b. at Lem^, Aisne, 1824 ; studied 
at Strasbourg. Author of * Examen de la Vie de J^sus de M. Renan,' 1864 ; and various 
sermons translated into English, German, and Duteh. 

COLCHESTER, Rifrht Hon. Charles Abbot, Baron, English statesman, 
b. 1798 ; educated at Westminster, and at the Royal Naval College ; entered the navy, 1811 ; 
admiral on the reserved list, 1864 ; vice-president of the Board of Trade, and paymaster- 
general, 1862 ; postmaster-general, 1858-69. 

COLE, Henry, English author, b. at Bath, July 19, 1808 ; educated at Christ's Hospital ; 
assistant keeper of Public Records, 1824 ; one of the executive committee of the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1851 ; created C.B. 186L PubUshed 'Henry VIII. 's Scheme of 
Bishoprics ;' and other works. 

COLE, Hon. Henry Arthur, English politician, b. 1809 ; magistrate for Fermanagh ; 
high sheriff, 1854 ; M.P. for Enniskillen, 1844-51, and for Fermanagh, 1855. 

COLE, Hon. John Lovery, English politician, b. 181S ; educated at Winchester ; 
magistrate for County Fermanagh ; M.P. for Enniskillen, 1859. 

COLEBROOKE, Sir Thomas Ed^rard, English politician, b. 1813; deputy- 
lieutenant for County Lanark ; M.P. for Taunton, 1842-52 ; for Lanarkshire since 1857. 

COLBBROOKE, Sir William Macbean Oeorg^e, English general, b. 1787; 
lieutenant in the army, 1807 ; retired ftom service, 1856 ; lieut -general, 1859. 



Col HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Col 

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COIiERIDGE. Rev. Derwent, English author, b. at Keswick, Sept 14, 1800; 
studied at St. John's Collie, Cambridge ; principal of St Mark's College, Chelsea, 1841 
to 1864 ; prebendary of St Paul's cathedral, and rector of Hanwell, Middlesex. Author 
of ' Scriptural Character of the English Church,' 1839 ; and other works. 

COIiERIDGE. John Duke, English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Eton, and Balliol 
and Exeter Collies, Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1842, M. A. 1846 ; called to the bar of the 
Middle Temple, 1846 ; recorder of Portsmouth, 1866 ; Q.C. and a bencher of the Middle 
Temple, 1861 ; M.P. for Exeter, 1865. 

COIiERIDGE, Riffht Hon. Sir Jobn Taylor, English Judge, b. at Tiverton, 
Devon, 179U ; educated at Corpus Christi, Oxford ; called to the bar of the Middle Tenipln, 
1819 ; seijeant-at-law, 1&'{2 ; appointed one of the judges of the King's Bent^, and knightedi 
1835 ; sworn in the privy council, 1858 ; D.C.L. of Oxford, 1852. Published an edition of 
'Blackstone's Commentaries,' 1825. 

COLES, CoTvpci' PhippS; English naval officer, b, 1819; entered the navy, 1831; 
took an active part in the assault on Sebastopol, Oct. 1854 ; designed the principle of the 
shield iron-clad ships, and superintended the construction of the Royal Sovereign. 

COItET, Lonise ReVoil, French authoress, b. at Aix, Sept 15, 1810 ; married M. 
Hippolyte Colet, 1835, who died 1851. Author of *Le Mus^ de Versailles,' 1839; *La 
Keligieuse,' 1856 ; ' L'ltalie des Italiens,' 1862-04 ; and many other works. 

COIalalER, John Payne, English author, b. in London, 1789 ; called to the bar of the 
Middle Temple. Author of 'Poet's Pilgrimage,' 1822; 'History of Dramatic Poetry:' 
'Memoirs of the principal Actors in the Plays of Shakespeare,' 1846 ; and other works. 
Pension of 1001. per annum from the civil list. 

COIalalER, Sir Robert Porrett, English politician, b. 1817; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1848, and went on the western 
circuit; recorder of Penzance; M.P. for Plymouth since 1862; solicitor-general, Feb. 
1864. Author of * Law of Railways,' 1860. 

COIalaIN DC PIbANCY, Jacques Albin Simon Collin, French author, b. at 
Plancy, Jan. 28, 1793. Author of 'The Infernal Dictionary;' 'The Devil painted by 
Himself ;' ' Legends of the Commandments of Gk)d ; ' and numerous other works. 

COIalalNS, W^iULie, English novelist, b. in London, 1824. Author of 'Antonina,' 
1851 ; * The Dead Secret,' 1858 ; ' The Woman in White,' 1861 ; *No Name,' 1863 ; 'Arma- 
dale,' 1866 ; and numerous other works of fiction. 

COIalaOREDO MANSFEIaD, Joseph Francis Jerome, Prince of, Austrian 
statesman, b. Feb. 26, 1813 ; chamberlain, privy councillor, and hereditary councillor of 
the empire ; succeeded his cousin Prince Francis Guudacar, May 28, 1852. 

COIaOMBO, Risht Rev. Piers ClaTeley Clanirhton, English divine, and 
second bishop of Colombo, b. 1814 ; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he gra- 
duated B. A. 1835 ; rector of Elton, Hunts ; bishop of St Helena, 1859 to 1862 ; translated 
to Colombo, 1862. 

COIaONNA DB CASTIGLIONE, Adele d'Alfry, Dnchess of, Italian 
sculptor, b. July 6, 1837; married Duke Charles Colonna de Castiglione Aldoorandi, 
April 5, 1850. Executed a bust of Bianca Capella, Grand-duchess of Tuscany, 1863 ; 
and * The Gorgon,' 1865. 

COIaQUHOUN, Sir Patrick MacChombaich, English colonial judge, b. 1815 ; 
educated at Westminster, and St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1837, M.A. 1844 ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1838 ; chief justice of the loDian 
Islands, and knighted, 1851 ; member of the Supreme Council of Justice at Corfu, 
Dec. 1858. Author of 'A Summary of the Roman Civil Law,' 1849-60. 

COIaTHURST, Sir George Conway. English politician, b. 1824; educated 
at Harrow ; magistrate for Counties Cork aucl Kerry, and deputy-lieutenant for County 
Cork ; high sheriff, 1850 ; M.P. for Kinsale since 1863. 

COIaVIIaE, Charles Robert, English politician, b. 1816 ; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant for Derbyshire ; magistrate tor Derby, Leicester, 
and Stafford ; M.P. for South Derbyshire, 1841-59, and 1865. 

COIaVIIaE, Right Hon. Sir James IViUiain, English colonial judge, b. 1810; 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated ; called to the bar 
of the Inner Temple; advocate-general of the East India Company at Calcutta, 1845 ; 
puisne judge there, and knighted, 1848 ; chief justice fi:om 1865 to 1858. 

COIaVIIalaB OF CUIaROSS, Charles John Colville, Baron, English officer. 
b 1818 ; captain in the array ; chief equeny and clerk marshal to the Queen, 1852, and 
li-ora Feb. 1858 to June 1859 ; lieutenant-colonel Hon. Artillery Company, London. 

F 2 



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COMBERMERE, WelUnfrton Henry. Viscount, English administrator, 
b. 1819 ; entered the army ; <'oIonel/1862 ; M.P. for Carrickfergus, 1847 to 1857; deputy- 
lieutenant of Cheshire, 1852 ; succeeded his father, Feb. 1865. 

COMBES, Charles Pierre Matthieu, French engineer, b. Dec. 26, 1801 ; engineer 
of mines, 1820 ; member of the Institute and of the Academy of Sciences, 1847. Author 
of * 8ur la Th6orie du Ventilateur,* 1838 ; and numerous works on mining. 

COMBES. Edmond, French traveller, b. at Castelnandarg, Aude, June 8, 1812. 
Author of 'Voyage en Abyssinie,' 1837-38. 

COMTG, Acbille Joseph, Freni;h naturah'st, b. at Grenoble, Sept. 29, 1802. Author 
of * Le R6gne animal de Cuvier,' 1832-1841 ; * Musee d'Histoire naturelle,' 1864. 

CONCHA, Don Manuel. Marquis del Duero, Spanish general, b. at Madrid, 
1794 ; entered the army, 181tJ ; brigadier and field-marshal, 1824; captain-general of Cata- 
lonia, 1849 ; retired, 1856. 

CONCHA, Don Jose', Marquis de la Habana, Spanish statesman, b. at 
Buenos-Ayres, 1800, brother of the preceding ; lieutenant-general, 1839; captain -general, 
1842 ; commander-in-chief of Spanish cavalry, 1846 ; captain-general of the isle of Cuba, 
1849 to 1852 ; re-appointed, 1854 ; ambassador to France, July 1862 ; minister of war, 
1863 ; president of the Spanish senate, 1864. 

CONOREVE, Richard, English writer, b. Sept. 4, 1818 : educated at Rugby, and 
Wadham College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840. andM. A. Translator of 'Aris- 
totle's Politics,' 1855 ; and author of a small history of Rome. 

CONIN6TON, John, English author, b. at Boston, Lincolnshire, Aug. 10, 1825; 
educated at Rugby and Oxford ; professor at the University of Oxford. Translator of 
the •Agamemnon' of iEschylus, 1848; 'The Works of Virgil,' 1863; and numerous 
classical works. 

CONOIiLY, Thomas, English politician, b. 1823 ; educated at Harrow, and Christ 
Church, Oxford ; is deputy-lieutenant for County Donegal ; M.P. for Donegal, 1849. 

CONRAD, Timothy Ahhot, American conchologist, b. in New Jersey, 1803. Author 
of ' Fossil Shells of the Tertiary Formations of the United States,' 1832 ; ' Palaeontology 
of the Mexican Boundary Survey,' 1854; and other works. 

CONSCIENCE, Hendrick, Flemish novelist, b. at Antwerp, Dec. 3, 1812. Author of 
' The Year of Miracles,' 1837 ; * Aurelian,' 1859 ; and many other works of fiction. 

CONSIDERANT, Victor Prosper, French political economist, b. at Salins Jura, 
Oct. 12, 1808. Author of ' Destin^e sociale,' 1834-44 ; * Principes du Socialisme,' 1847 ; 
* La demi6re Guerre et la Paix definitive de 1' Europe,' Brussels, 1850. 

CONSTANTINE, Nicholeewitch, Grand-duke of Russia, b. Sept. 21, 1827, brother 
of the Emperor of Russia ; high admiral of the imperial fleet ; married Princess Alex- 
andra of Saxe Altenburg, 1848. 

CONYN6HAM, Francis Nathaniel Conynirham, Marquis and Earl, 

English statesman, b. at Dublin, 1797 ; under-secretary of state for foreign atlairs, 18'J3-26 ; 
succeeded his father, 1832 ; postmaster-general, 1834-35 ; lord chamberlain to the Queen ; 
member of the privy council. 

COOK, EUsa, English verse writer, b. 1818. Conducted the 'Journal ' bearing her 
name flrom 1849 to 1854 ; published 'New Echoes, and other Poems,' 1864; obtained a 
literary pension of 1001. per annum in 1864. 

COOKE, Edinrard ^Villiam, English painter, b. in London, 1811 ; studied architecture 
under Fugin. Executed a great number of paintings, principally of the sea-coast, and 
some scenes in Spain and Morocco.- Elected A.R.A. 1850 ; R. A. 1863. 

COOKE, Geortre ^Vinerove, English author, b. 1814 ; studied at London University, 
and Jesus College, Oxford, and graduated B. A. ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple. 
Author of 'History of Party,' 1837; 'Inside Sebastopol,' 1855; 'China and Lower 
Bengal,' 1858 ; and other works. 

COOKE, John Esten, American novelist, b. at Winchester, Virginia, Nov. 3, 1830. 
Author of 'Leather Stocking and Silk,' New York, 1854 ; 'The Virginia Comedians,' ib. 
185.5 ; and other works of fiction. 

COOKESLEY. Rev. William Gifford, English author, b. atBrasted, Kent, Dec. 19, 
1802 ; educated at Eton, and King's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1825, 
and M.A. ; incumbent of St. Peter's, Hammersmith, 186Q. Author of 'Account of the 
ancient City of Rome,' 1850 ; and other works. 

COOPER, Sir Charles, English colonial judge, b. 1801 ; senior judge of the supreme 
court of Australia ; created chief justice by the governor and legislative councU there. 
June 1856 ; knighted in 1857. 



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COOPER, Sir Daniel, English colonial administrator, b. 1807 ; elected to the Legisla- 
tive Council of New South Wales, 1849 ; chosen first speaker of the Legislative Assembly 
under the new constitution, 1856 ; member of the senate of Sydney University ; president 
of the bank of New South Wales ; knighted by patent, 1867 ; baronet, 1863. 

COOPER, Edward Henry, English politician, b. 1827 ; educated at Eton; magistrate 
for County Sligo ; lieutenant-colonel in the Grenadier Guards ; M.P. for Sligo, 1866. 

COOPER, Susan Fennimore, American authoress, b. in the county of New York, 
1815. Autlior of ' Rural Hours, by a Lady,' New York, 1850 ; * Rhyme and Reason of 
Country Life,* 1864 ; and other works. 

COOPER, Tbonuui, English writer, b. at Leicester, March 20, 1806. Author of * The 
Purgatory of Suicides,' 1845 ; * Baron's Yule Feast,' 1846 ; ' The Family Feud,' 1864. 

COOPER, Thomas Sidney, English painter, b. at Canterbury, Sept 26, 1803. Exe- 
cuted * G^ing to Pasture ;' ' Reposing ;' and a great number of paintings. Elected A R. A. 
1845. 

COPE, Clxarles IVest, English painter, b. at Leeds, 1811 ; studied at the Rojal 
Academy. Exhibited 'Hagar and Ishmael,' 1836 ; 'The Hemish Mother,' 1839 ; ' Edward 
the Black Prince receiving the Order of the Garter in Westminster Hall,' ' Scholar's Mate,' 
1862 ; and a great number of other works. Elected A. R. A 1844 ; R. A . 1848. 

COPIaAND, James, English physician, b. in the Orkney Isles, 1793 ; studied at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. 1815. Author of 'Dictionary of 
Practical Medicine and Pathology,' 

COPPING, Edward, English writer, b. in London, 1828. Author of * Alfieri and 
Goldoni, their Lives and Adventures,' 1856; 'Aspects of Paris,' 1858; 'The Home at 
Roscfteld,' 1861 ; and other works of general literature. 

GOQUEREIi, Atlxanase Iiaurent Charles, French Protestant theologian, b. at 
Paris, Aug. 27, 1795 ; Protestant minister, 1816. Author of * Meditations sur des Textes 
choisis de I'Ancien et du Nouveau Testament,' 1859 ; and several theological works. 

GORBAIiLY, Mattlxe^r Elias, English politician, b. 1797 ; educated at Oscoit ; 
magistrate and vice-lieutenant of Meath ; high sheritf, 1838 ; M.P. for Meath, 1840-41, and 
since 1842. 

CORBAUX. Fanny, Engli-sh artist, b. 1812 ; member of the Society of British Artists, 
1830. Exhibited ' Rachel,' at the Paris Exhibition, 1856. Author of several papers on 
the geography of the Exodus. 

CORBOUIaD, Edward Henry, English painter, b. in London, Dec. 5, 1815. Exe- 
cuted 'The Fall of Phaeton from the Chariot of the Sun,' 1834 ; ' Scene from the Proph^te,' 
painted for the Queen ; 'The Destruction of the Idols of Basle ;' and various others. 
Appointed instructor of historical painting to the royal family, 1861. 

CORDIER, Henri Joseph Charles, French sculptor, b. atCambrai, Oct. 19, 1827 ; 
studied in the School of Fine Arts, and under M. Fauginet. Exhibited ' Types n^gres et 
mongols,' 1853 ; ' Le Mar^chal Randon,' 1864 ; and several busts and groups in marble, 
bronze, onyx, and porphyry. 

CORDOUAN, Vincent Joseph Francois, French painter, b. at Toulon, 1816 ; 
studied under Paulin Guerin. Executed and exhibited * L'Embarquement des Zouaves 
partant d' Alger pour la Crimee,' 1855 ; * Environs de Nersi,' 1864. 

CORDOVA, Don Fernando Fernandez de, Spanish general, b. at Madrid, 
1792; entered the anny, 1810; captain-general of New Castile, March 8, 1850; captain- 
general of Cuba, 1853 ; minister of war, 1864. 

CORK and ORRERY, Richard Edmnnd Sir Lawrence Boyle, Earl of, 

English magistrate, b. at Dublin, April 19, 1822 ; educated at Eton; graduated B.A. at 
Christ Church, Oxford; a magistrate and deputy-Ueutenant of Somersetshire ; succeeded 
his grandfather, 1856. 
CORMON, Pierre Etienne Piestre, French dramatic writer, b. at Lyons, May 5. 
1811. Author of ' Les Faussnires anglais,' 1833; 'Don P6die,' 1867; *Le Docteur 
Magnus,' 1864 ; ' Lara,' 1864 ; and numerous other dramas. 

CORNE, Hyacinthe Marie Ausrustin, French writer, b. at Arras, Oct. 28, 1802. 

Author of ' Du Courage civil, et de I'Education propre a inspirer les Vei-tus publiques,' 

1828 ; * Lettres 4 Adrien,' 1856. 
CORNE lalUS, Peter von, German painter ,b. at Diisseldorf, Sept. 27, 1787 ; director 

of the Academy at Mnni(;h, 1825. Executed ' The Last Judgmt-nt,*^ 62 feet high by 38 

feet wide; 'The Four Horsemen,' from the Apocalypse; and a great number of other, 

chiefly historical, works. 



Cor HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Coix 
[ 70 i 



CORNER. Jvaia, English authoress, b. 1815. Author of 'The Baronet,' 1835; 'Girls 
in their Teens;* 'Pictorial History of China and India:' and several books for 
children. 

CORNEY, Bolton. En^ish writer, b. at Greenwich, 1784. Edited 'The Seasons* by 
Thomson ; 'Goldsmith's Poetical Works, ^ith a Memoir,' 1846 ; ' Of the Conduct of the 
Understanding,' by J. Locke, 1859. Contributor to Notes and Queries. 

CORNU, Sebastiea Meld&ior, French painter, b. at Lyons, 1804; studied under 
M M. Richard, Bonuefond, and Ingres. Executed ' Louis IX. fiusant ses Adieux 4 sa M6re,' - 
1838. 

CORONINI-CRONBERO, John Baptist Alexander^ Connt of, Austrian 
military commander, b. at Gaeta, -Nov. 16, 1794; entered the army, 1813; lieutenant, 
1814; major, 1837 ; commander-in-chief of the Austrian army on the Danube, 1854 ; ban 
of Croatia, July 28, 1859 : general commander-in-chief in Hungary, 1865. 

CORREARD. Frederic, French general, b. at Poyols, Dr6me, Sevt. 9, 1789 ; lieu- 
tenant iu the French army, 1813 ; captain, 1815 ; lieut. -colonel, 1830 ; colonel, 1835 ; statf 
mqjor-general in the reserve list, 1852. 

CORRYy Riffht Hon. Henry Thomas Lowry, English statesman, b, 1803, son 
of the secodd Earl of Belmore ; educated at Eto^^ and Christ Church, Oxfoi-d ; junior 
lord of the Admiralty, 1841-45 ; secretary to the Admiralty, 1845-46, and 1858-59 ; 
appointed first lord of the Admiralty, March 7, 1867. 

CORWIN, Thon&aSj American statesman, b. in Kentucky, July 1794; called to the 
bar, 1818 ; member of Congress, 1830 ; elected to the Senate, 1845 ; secretary to the 
Treasury, 1848. 

COSTA, Michael, English musical composer, b. in Naples, Feb. 1810 ; conductor at her 
Mi^esty's theatre; 1831 ; of the Philhammnic Coneei-ts, 1846 ; and of the Italian Opera, 
1847. Composer of ' Don Carlos,' 1844 ; ' Eli,* 1856 ; * Naaman,' 1864 ; and other operas, 
oratorios, and smaller miisical works. 

COSTA-CABRAL, Antonio Bernardo Da, Count of Thon&ar, Portuguese 
statesman, b. at Fomos, Algodres, May 9, 1803 ; member of the Chamber of Deputies, 
1835-50 ; prime minister of Portugal, 1839-46, and 1848-51. 

COSTE, Jean Jacques Marie Cyprien Victor, French naturalist, b. at Castres, 
May 10, 1807. AutKor of 'Cours dBrabryoginie compar^e,' 1837; 'Instructions pra- 
tiques sur la Pisciculture,' 1853 ; and other works on natural history. 

COSTEIaliO, laouisa Stuart, English authoress, b. 1815. Author of 'Specimens of 
the Early Poetry of France,* 1835; 'The Queen's Prisoner,' 1841 ; 'The Rose Garden of 
Persia^' 1845; 'Clara Fane,' 1848; 'The Lay of the Stork,' 1856; and other works of 
fiction. 

COTTA, Bemhard, German geologist, b. at Little Gillbach, Oct. 24, 1808 ; studied at 
the Academy of Mining at Freiberg, 1827 to 1831, where he was appointed professor, 
1842. Author of ♦ Tlie Dendroliths,' 1832 ; ' Geognostic Wanderings,' 183fr-38 ; ' Letters on 
Humboldt's Kosmos,' 1848-51. 

COTTON, Sir Arthur, English ofileer, b. 1803 ; educated at Addiscombe; entered the 
Madras army, 18J9 ; colonel of engineers, 1854 ; knighted, 1861. 

COTTON, Very Rev. Henry, English divine, b. 1790; educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1811 ; dean of Lismore ; archdeacon of Cashel. Author 
of ' Fasti Ecclesiai Hibemicse,' 1845-«2 ; ' Rheims andDouay,' 1855. 

COTTON, Sir Sidney, English general, b. 1792 ; entered the army, 1810 ; colonel, 
1854 ; served with the rank of major-genei-al in India during the mutiny of 1857-58 ; 
K.C.B. 1858. 

COUAIIaHAC, Jean Joseph Louis, French writer, b. at Lille, Nov. 28, 1810. 
Author of 'Les sept Contes en I'Air,' 1832 ; 'Les M^res d'Actrlces,' 1843 ; and contributor 
to Le Temps, Le Charivari, and other journals. 

COUDER, Louis Charles Auguste, French painter, b. at Paris, 1790 ; studitnl 
under Regnault and David. Executed ' La Mort da Peintre Massaccio,' 1817 ; ' BataiRe 
de Lanfeld,' 1836. Member of the Institute and of the Academy of Fine Arts, 1839. 

COUEDIC DE KEROOAIfER, laouis. Comte du, French politician, b. nt 
Quimperl6, Dec. 12, 1810; member of the Legislative Assembly for the canton of Quini 
perl6 ; member of the Corps L6gisLitif, 1852 ; for the department of Fiuist6re since 
1852. 

, 1819. Ex^utod 
Petit P6chi!ir en 




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COURCEIiIiE SENBUIIi; Jeaa OastaTe^ French political economist, b. at 
Seneuil, Dordogne, Dec. 22, 1813. Author of ' Lettres k Edouard sur le8 Revolutions,' 
1833 ; 'Etudes sur la Science sociale,' 1862 ; * Le^us ei^eutuires d'Economie politique,' 
1864. 

COURNOT. Antolne Ancustiny French mathematician, b. at Gray, Aug. 28, 1801 ; 
' professor of mathematics to the Faculty of Sciences at Lyons, 1834 ; rector of the Aca- 
demy of Grenoble, 1835. Author of ' Des Institutions d'lnstruction publique,' 1864 ; and 
several other works, principally on mathematics. 

COURSON , AnreUen de^ French historian, b. at Port Lonis, Isle of France, Dec. 25, 
181 1 ; studied at the College of St. Louis. Author of ' Essai sur I'Histoire de la Langue et 
des Institutions de la Bretagne armoiicaine,' 1840; ' Prolegomtoes,' 1868 ; and other his- 
torical woiics. 

COT7RTENAY, Edward Baldwin, Lord. English politiciaiLb. 1836; educated at 
Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford; J. P. and D.L. of Devon, and captain of 
South Devon yeomanry cavalry ; M.P. for Exeter, 1864. 

COURTOWN, James Oeorjre Henrj Stopford, Barl of, Irish magistrate, 
b. in Loudon, 1823 ; educated at Eton ; captain in the Guards, 1840 xat 1846 ; deputy -lieu- 
tenant and J.P. for County Wexford ; high sheriff of Wexford, 1848 ; succeeded his father, 
1858. . 

COUSIN-MONTAUBAN. Charles Gnillanme Marie Apollinalre, Comte 
'de Palikao, French general, b. June 24, 1796 ; chief of a squadron, 1836; lieut.-colonel, 
. May 7, 1843 ; colonel, Aug. 2, 1845 ; general of brigade, Sept. 21, 1851 ; general of division, 

. Dec. 28, 1855 ; senator, March 4, 1860 ; title of Count de Pallkao, Jan. 22, 1862. 

COUSINS, Samuel, English engraver, b. May 1801 ; studied under Mr. Samuel 
Reynolds. Executed ' Master Lambton,' after Sir T. Lawrence ; * Beauty's Bath,' after 
Landseer; and many others. Elected A. R. A. 1838; R.A. 1855. 

CO^VEN. Joseph, English politician, b. 1800 ; magistrate for Durham ; alderman of 
Newcastle, and M.P. for Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1865. 

CCWIE, Rer. Bex^amin Morgran, English mathematician, b. 1817; educated at 
St John's College, Cambridga, where he graduated B.A. 1839; principal of the College 
of Civil Engineers at Putney, 1844, and lecturer on geometry at Gresham College, 1854 ; 
minor canon of St. Paul's, 1858 ; government inspector of Training Schools, 1859. 

COlVIaEY; RifTht Hon. Henry Richard Charles IVellesley, Earl, 

English diplomatist, b. 1804 ; educated at Eton ; entered the diplomatic service, and 
secretary of legation, 1838 ; ambassador to the Ottoman Porte, 1845 ; minister plenipo- 
tentiary to the Swiss Cantons, 1848 ; at Frankfort, 1851 ; ambassador at Paris 1852 to 
1867 ; succeeded his father as Baron Cowley, 1847 ; raised to the earldom, 1857. 

COMTPER. Charles, English colonial administrator, b. 1825 ; secretary of state of 
New Sondi Wales, Aug. to Oct. 1856 ; and again ftrora Sept. 1857 to Oct. 1859 ; colonial 
secretary, and represented the government in the Ijegislative Council in the ministry 
of March 9, 1860 ; premier, Jan. 10, 1861. 

COWPER, Francis Thomas De Grey Cowper, Earl, English administra- 
tor, b. 1834; lord-lieutenant of Bedfordshire, and deputy-lieutenant of Kent; succeeded 
his &ther, sixth earl, April 1856. 

COWPER, Hon. Henry Frederick, English politician ; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ Church, Oxford; deputy-lieutenant of Kent and Herts ; M.P. for Hertfordshire, 
1865. 

COWPER, Risrht Hon. 'Williani Francis, English statesman, b. 1811 ; president 
of the Board of Health, Aug. 1855 ; vice-president of the Committee of Council on 
Education, Feb. 1857 ; first commissioner of Public Works, 1860 ; M.P. for Hertford 
since 1835. 

COX, Edv«rard William, English ban-ister and legal writer, b. 1809 ; called to the bar 
of the Middle Temple, 1843 ; recorder of Falmouth and Helston, 1857 ; magistrate and 
• deputy-lieutenant of Middlesex. Editor and proprietor of the Law Times. 

COX. Rev. George William « English writer, b. 1828 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he graduated S.C.L. in 1849; entered holy orders, 1850; curate of St. 
Paul's, Exeter, 1854 to 1859 ; assistant-master in Cheltenham College, 1859 to 1863. Author 
of ' Tales of ITiebes and Argos,' 1863. 

COX, Rer. John Edmund, English theological writer, b. at Norwich, 1812 ; studied 
at All Souls, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. ; perpetual cumte of Adeby, 1887 : vicar 
ot St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, 1849. Author of ♦Principles of the Reformation;' and 
numerous theological works. 



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COX 9 Rev. William Hayward, English divine, b. 1803; educated at Rugby, 
and at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1825 ; examining chaplain to 
the bishop of Hereford, 1848 ; rector of Eaton Bishop, 1854 ; prebendary of Hereford, 
and rural dean. Author of ' Concio ad Clerum ;' and other pamphlets. 

COX, 'William Sands, English surgeon, b. 1802 ; educated at Guy's and St. Thomas's, 
London, and in Paris ; member of the Royal College of Surgeons, 1824 ; founded 
Queen's College, 1830, and Queen's Hospital, 1841 ; magistrate and deputy-heutenant of 
Warwickshire. Author of 'A Synopsis of the Bones ;' and several anatomical works. 

COX, ^^illiam Thomas, English politician, b. 1808 ; magistrate for the borough and 
county of Derby; high sheriff, 1861 ; mayor of Derby, 1860; M.P. for Derby, 1865. 

OOXE, Rev. Arthur Clereland, American author, b. at Mendham, New Jersey, 
U.S., 1818, and graduated at the University of New York; rector of Grace Church, 
Baltimore, U.S. Author of 'Advent, a Mystery,' a dramatic iwem, 1837; and other 
works. 

COXE, Rev. Henry Octavius, English antiquarian, b. 1811 : educated at West- 
minster School, and Worcester College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1833, and M.A. ; 
chief librarian of the Bodleian, 1860. Edited the 'Chronicles of Roger of Wendover,' 
1841-44. Author of the * Catalogue of the MSS. belonging to the Colleges and Halls at 
Oxford,' 1852 ; and other works. 

COXE, Very Rev. Richard Charles, English divine, b. 1799 ; educated at Worcester 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1821, and M.A. ; archdeacon of Lindisfarne, 
and canon residentiary of Durham. Author of ' The Symmetry of Revelation,' and 
several theological works and sacred poems. 

COYNE, Joseph Stirlingr, English dramatic 'writer, b. atBirc, King's County, Ireland, 
1805. Author of 'The Phrenologist,' 1835 ; ' The Tipperary Legacy,' 1847 ; ' The Wpnian 
in Red ;' and a great number of dramas and works of fiction. Secretary to the Dramatic 
Authors' Society since 1856. 

CRAIG, Isa, English authoress, b. in Edinburgh, 1880. Author of ' Poems ' by ' Isa,' 1856 ; 
and an 'Ode,' which won the first prize at the Burns centenary festival, 1859. 

CRAIG, Rigrht Hon. Sir "Williani Gibson, English statesman, b. 1797 ; educated 
at Edinburgh, where he was called to the bar, 1820 ; M.P. for Midlothian, 1837 to 1841 ; 
for the city of Edinburgh, 1841 to 1852 ; one of the lords of the Treasury from 1846 to 
1852 ; lord clerk of her Majesty's Rolls and Registers in Scotland, 1862 ; member of the 
privy council, 1863. 

CRAIK, Mrs. George Lillie, English authoress, b. at Stoke-upon-Trent, 1826, 
daughter of Thomas Muloch, Esq. ; married to G. K Craik, Esq., publisher. Author of 
'The Ogilvies,' London, 1849; 'Olive,' ib. 1850; 'The Head of the Family,' ib. 1851 ; 
' John Halifax^ Gentleman,' ib. 1852 ; and numerous other works of fiction, poems, and 
essays. 

CRAMAGEIa, Rene' Elenthe're Fontaine, Marquis de, French officer 
and politician ; b. at Moissy, Cramagel, July 24, 1789 ; lieutenant in the anny, 1806 ; 
captain, 1813 ; colonel, 1831 ; staff-major, 1832 ; general, 1849 ; appointed senator, June 
1854. 

CRAUFURD, Edward Henry John, English politician, b. 1816 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge; graduated B.A. 1841 ; M.A. 1844; magistrate for Ayrshire 
and Bute; deputy-lieutenant of Bute; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1845 ; M.P. 
for Ayr since 1852. 

CRAVEN, William Craven, Earl, English administrator, b. in London, 1S09: 
studied at the University of Oxford ; succeeded his father, 1825 ; high steward of New- 
bury ; recorder of Coventry ; lord-lieutenant of the county of Warwick, 1854. 

CRAWFORP, Robert ^^itrram, English politician, b. 1813 ; partner in the firm 
of Crawford, Colvin, and Co. ; director of the Bank of England, and chairman of East 
India Railway Company; M.P. for Harwich, May to July 1851; and for London since 
1857. 

CREASE. Henry PelleTir, English colonial administrator, b. 1821 ; graduated at 
Clare College, Cambridge, B.A. 1847 ; called to the the bar of the Middle Temple, June 
1849 ; appointed attorney-general of British Columbia, July 1861. 

CREASY, Sir Ed^rard Shepherd, English judge and author, b. at Bexley, in Kent, 
1812; educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, where he graduated RA. 1835, M.A. 
1838 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1837 ; deputy assistant judge at the Middlesex 
sessions ; appointed chief justice of Ceylon, and knighted, 1860. Author of 'The Filteen 
Decisive Battles of the World,' 1851 ; and dther historical works. 



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CREDNER, Karl Ang^iBt, German theologian, b. at Walterhansen, near Gotlia, 
Jan. 10, 1797 ; studied at the Universities of Jena, Breslau, Halle, and G<)ttingen ; I), h. 
at Jena, 1828. Author of 'History of the New Testament,' Frankfort, 18o*J : and 
numerous theological works. 

CRB'MIEUX, Isaac Adolphe, French lawyer and author, b. at NIroes, of Jewixh 
parents, April 30, 1796 ; studied at the College of Louis-le-Grand ; called to the bar, 
1817 ; minister of justice, and member of the Provisional Government of the French 
' Republic, 1848. Author of * Codes des Codes,' 1835. 

CRESPIGNY, Claude, English colonial administrator, b. 1827 ; entered the royal 
navy as cadet, 1844 ; commanded the gim-boat 'Snap' in the Baltic, during the BusHian 
war ; appointed registrar of shipping in the colony of Labuan, Aug. 1862. 

CRESIVICK. Thomas, English painter, b. at SheffleM, 1811 ; exhibited, at the Royal 
Academy, 'Views in North Wales and Derbyshire,' 1828; 'Home by the Sands;' and 
many other paintings, principally landscapes. Elected A. R. A. 1842, and R.A. 1»61. 

CRETINEAU-JOLY, Jacques, French writer, b. at Fontenay, Vendue, Sept. 23, 
1803. Author of * Un Fils de Pair de France,' 1839 ; ' Cardinal Gonsalvi,' 1864 ; and 
various other works. 

OROFTON, Ed^rard Crofton, Baron, Irish magistrate, b. 1806 ; lord in waiting 
to the Queen from March to Dec. 1852, and from Feb. 1808 to June 1859; deputy- 
lieutenant of Roscommon. 

CROFTON, Sir Walter Frederick, English magistrate, b. 1815; educated at 
Woolwich Academy ; entered the army, 1833; captain, lti45 ; superintendent of conviiL 
prisons in Ireland, 1854 to 1862 ; knighted, 1862 ; magistrate for Wiltshire. 

CROIX D'HENCHIN, Ernest Ci&arles Eagre^ne MaHe, Marquis de, 

French politician, b. at Paris, Aug. 27, 1803 ; studied at the Military School of St. Cyr ; 
lieutenant, 1823 ; captain and retired, 1832 ; senator, Jan. 1852. 

CRONHOLM, Abraham, Swedish historian, b. at Landskrona, Oct. 22, 1809 ; studio^l 
at the University of Lund, 1825 to 1829, where he became professor of history, lH;rj. 
Author of ' Waringarae,' Lund, 1832; * History of Sweden under the Reign of Gustavus 
Adolphus II.' 1857 ; and other historical works. 

CROSBY, James, English colonial administrator, b. 1810 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple ; police magistrate at Kingstown, 
St. Vincent, West Indies, March 1844 to 1857; stipendiary justice of the peace for the 
colony of British Guiana, 1857 ; immigration agent-general for the colony, 18(>4. 

CROSItAND, Mrs. Camilla, English authoress, b. in London, June 9, 1812, the 
daughter of William Toulmin, Esq., solicitor. Author of ' Memorable Women ;' * Lijilit 
in the Valley : my Experiences of Spiritualism,' 1857 ; * Mrs. Blake,' a novel, 1862 ; and 
other works of hction. 

CROSIiAND, Thomas Pearson, English politician, b. 1800; magistrate for the 
West Riding of Yorkshire ; lieut. -colonel of the 6th West Riding volunteers; M.P. for 
Hudderslield, 1865. 

CROSSLEY, Sir Francis, English politician, b. 1817; presented a park and 
pleasure-grounds to the town of Halifax, 1857 ; M.P. for Halifax, 1852 to 1859 ; returned 
M.P. for the North- West Riding of Yorkshire, 1859 ; created a baronet, Jan. 1863. 

CROWE, Catherine, English authoress, b. at Borough Green, Kent, 1800, the 
daughter of S. Stevens, Esq. ; married Lieut. -colonel Crowe, 1822. Author of ' Aristo- 
demus,' 1838 ; * Lily Dawson,' 1847 ; ' The Night Side of Nature,' 1848 ; ' Light and 
Darkness,' 1852; and numerous other works of fiction. 

ORUIKSHANK, Georfire, English artist, b. in London, Sept. 27, 1792. Executed 
'The Queen's Matrimonial Ladder;' 'The Man in the Moon;' • Tarn O'Shanter;' 'Dis- 
turbing a Congregation ; ' ' The Woi-ship of Bacchus,' 1863 ; and a great number of oil 
paintings, and of drawings and illustrations for books and periodicsal publications. 

CRU VBILHIER, Jean, French physician, b. at Limoges, Feb. 9, 1791; studied 
medicine at Paris, and took the degree of M.D. 1816 ; member of the Academy of Medi- 
cine, 1835. Author of 'Trait6 d'Anatomie descriptive,' 1851 ; and other medical works. 

CSASZAR, Fran9ois, Hungarian poet, b, atZalangeraseg, near Pesth, 1807; professor 
of languages at the University of Fiume. Author of ' Magyar Valtojog,' Pesth, 1840-46 ; 
and other works. Founded the Journal of Pesth^ 1850. 

CSORICH DE MONTE CRETO, Antonio, Baron von, Austrian general and 
statesman, b. at Machichno, in Croatia, 1795 ; entered the army, 1809 ; major-geneml, 
1842 ; lieutenant field-marshal, 1848 ; minister of foreign affairs, 1850 to 1853. 



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CUBITT, Georcre. English politician, b. 1828 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
graduated B.A. 1851, M.A. 1854 ; magistrate for Surrey ; M.P. for Surrey since 1860. 

CUOHEVAL CItARIGNY. Athanase, French political writer, b. at Calais, Feb. 1, 
1821. Author of 'Le P. Lonquet, sa Vie et ses Bcrits,' 1847; 'Considerations surles 
Banques d'emission,' 1864 ; and a contributor to the Moniteur and other French journals. 

CUOIA, Effinio, Italian general and administrator, b. 1820 ; major, 1859 ; inajor- 
general, 1861; under-secretary of war after the death of Count Cavour; prefect of 
Palei-mo, 1862. 

CULLENi Rigrht Rev. Paul, Irish divine, and Roman Catholic archbishop of Dublin, 
b. in Ireland, 1800 ; consecrated archbishop of Annagh, and Roman Catholic primate 
of all Ireland, 1850 ; transferred to Dublin, 1851 ; elevated to the dignity of cardinal, 
Jan. 22, 1866. 

CUM MI NO, Rev. John, Scottish theologian, b. in Aberdeenshire, Nov. 10, 1810 ; 
minister of the Scotch Church, Crown Court, Covent Garden. Author of 'Apocalyptic 
Sketches: Lectures on the Book of Revelation;' Voices of the Night;' 'Redemption 
draweth nigh,' 1861 ; and numerous theological works. 

CUMMING, Rev. Joseph Georgrei English archaeological writer, b. at Matlock, 
Derbyshire, 1812; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 
1834, and M.A. ; warden of Queen's College, Birmingham, 1858. Author of ' The Runic 
and other Remains of the Isle of Man ;' and several archaeological works dnd papers. 

CUMMINS, Thomas, English colonial administrator, b. 1811; appointed receiver of 
Barbadoes, June 1836; member of the Executive and Legislative Council, 1840 to 1849 ; 
commissioner of probates, Marcn 1847 ; police magistrate for the city of Bridgetown, 
April 1849. 

CUNNINGHAM, WilUam, Scottish theologian, b. at Hamilton, Oct. 2, 1805 ; 
licentiate in theology of the University of Edinburgh, 1830 ; pastor of Greenock, 1833 ; 
joined the Independents, 1843; president of the New College at Edinburgh, 1847. 
Author of several theological works. I 

CURRIB, Sir Frederick, English diplomatist, b. 1799; educated at the Charter- ' 
houseand Haileybury; entered the Bengal service, 1817; successively British resident at ' 
Lahore, secretary to the government of India, an*^ member of the Supreme Council ; ! 
raised to the baronetcy, 1848 ; director of th6 East India Company, 1854 ; vice-president 
of her Majesty's Indian Council, 1868. 

CURTIS, Geors^e Ticknor, American author, b. at Watertown, Massachusetts, 1812; 
graduated at Harvard College, 1832 ; admitted to the bar, 1836. Author of 'Duties of 
Merchant Seamen,' 1844 ; ' History of the Origin, Foimation, and Adoption of the Con- 
stitution of the United States,' 1865-58. 

CURTIS, Georgre ^Villiam, American writer b. at Providence, Rhode Island, 
Feb. 24, 1824. Author of ' Nile Notes of a Howacy i,' 1850 ; * Howadji in Syria,' 1862 : Is a I 
c<mstant contributor to American periodical literature. i 

CURTIUS, Ernst, German philologist, b. at Lubeck, Sept. 2, 1814 ; studied at the I 
Universities of Bonn, Gottingen, and Berlin ; professor at Gottingen, 1856. Author of 
*Zur Geschichte des Wegbaus bei den Griechen,' Berlin, 1855; and other works. , 

CURTIUS, GeorfiT, German philologist, b. at Liibeck, April 16, 1820, brother of the ' 

preceding ; Ph.D. 1842 ; professor and director of the Philological Seminary at Prague, i 

1861. Author of *A Greek Grammar ' for the use of colleges ; and several philological I 
works. 

CURZON, George Augustus Frederick Iiouis, Viscount, English 
politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church Oxford ; graduated B.A. 1841 ; 
captain of t^e Leicestershire Yeomanry; M.P. for Leices ershire since 1857. . 

CURZON, Paul Alfred de, French painter, b. at Moulinet, near Poitiers, Sept 7, 
1820. Exhibited 'Petit Paysage,' 1843 ; 'L'Acropole d' Athens,' 1855 ; * Le Vesuve,' 1863 ; 
* Ruines d'un Pont ronmin sous les Murs de Nami,' 1864 ; and other works. 

CURZON, Hon. Robert j English diplomatist, b. 1810 ; educated at the Charterhouse, 
and Christ Chur<^b, Oxford ; entered the diplomatic service ; attach^ at the Ottoman 
Porte ; joint commissioner on the part of Great Britain at the conference of Erzerouui. 
Author of 'A Visit to the Monasteries of the Levant,' 1848. 

GUSHING, Caleb, American statesman, b. at Salisbury, Essex County, Massachusetts, 
1800 ; graduated at Harvard, 1817 ; member of Congress for Massachusetts, 1835 ; judge 
of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, 1852 ; attoniev-general, 1853. Author of ' Remini- 
scences of Spain ;' ' Review of the Revolution of Three Days in France,' 1833. 



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CT7SH1CAIT. Charlotte Saunders, American actress, b. at Boston, U.S., 1S18 ; 

made her d^but, April 1835 ; retired from the stage, 1849. 
GUST, Hon. Charles Henry. English politician, b. 1813; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford; graduated B. A. 1836, and M.A. 1866; a magistrate of Leicestershiro 
and Northamptonshire; high sheriff, 1859; M.P. for North Shropshire, 1866. 
GUST, Hon. Sir Ednrard, Enelish general and military writer, b. 1794 ; lieutenant- 
I general in the array, and colonel of the 16th Dragoons. Author of * Annals of the Wars 

of the Eighteeath Century;' and other works. 
; CUVILIilER FIiBURY, Alfred Animst. French writer, b. 1802 ; studied at the 
] College of Louis-le-Qrand. Author of • Portraits politiques et r^volutionaires,' 1851 ; 

I 'Historiens, Pontes, et Romanciers,' 1863. 

I CYBUIiSKI, Adalbert, German philologist, b. at Conin, Posen, Prussia, April 10, 
1812; Ph.D. at Berlin, 1838; professor of Slavonic literature and language at Berlin, 
1841 ; and at Prague, 1850. 
CZUCZOR, Georf^e, Hungarian author, b. at Andod, Neutra, Dec. 17, 1800. Author of 
* The Battle of Augsbourg,' 1824 ; ' John Huniade,' Pesth, second edition 1843 ; * Life of 
Washington,' lb. 1845 ; and other historical works. 



D. 

DAA, ItodTisr Kristensen, Noi-wegian politician, b. at Saltdalen, Norway, Aug. 10, 
1809; studied at the University of Christiana, 1834. Author of ' Svensk norsk Haand- 
ordboig,' Christiana, 1841; ' Udsigt over Ethnologien,' 1845; and several political 
memoirs. 

DAGRE; Thomas Brand Trevor, Baron. English politician, b. 1808 ; educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for Herts, 1847 to 1852 ; a deputy-lieutenant of Herts ; 
succeeded his father, 1853. 

DAGHUILHON PUGOL, Pierre Jean Marie Ghistave, French politician, 
b. Jan. 11, 1792 ; president of the chamber of the Imperial Court, of Toulouse, and 
member of the General Council for the canton of 8t. Paul ; member of the Corps L^jjis- 
latif for the department of Tarn, 1863.' 

DAONAN. Isidore, French painter, b. at Marseilles, 1794. Painted ' Jeunes Filles 
romaines econtant un Berger,' 1819; 'Marine k Marseille,' 1833 ; 'Route de Paris d, Fun- 
tainebleau,' 1864 ; and numerous other landscapes. 

DAHIa, 'Wladimir IrvanovTitschy Russian writer, b. at St. Petersburg, at the 
beginning of the present century ; studied in the naval school. Author, under the 
pseudonym of Kosak Luganskif of * Chraoel,' and numerous works in Russian provincial 
dialects. 

DAHIiGRENy John, American naval commander, b. in Pennsylvania, 1810; 
entered the navy, 1826; admiral, and commanded the fleet before Charleston and Foit 
Sumter, 1863 ; inventor of the Dahlgren shell gun. 

DAHIiORENy Karl Johan, Swedish poet, b. at Ouillinge, Ostrogothie, June 28, 
1791 ; studied at the University of Upsal ; minister of a parish at Stockholm, 1824-44. 
Author of ' Samlade Arbeten,' six volumes, Stockholm, 1847-49. 

DAHLMANN^ Friederich Christoph, German politician and historian, b. at 
Wismar, May 17, 1785; studied at Copenhagen and Halle; professor at Kiel, 181*3; and 
at the University of Bonn since 1850. Author of ' History of Denmark,' 1840-43 ; 
* History of the French Revolution,' 1845 ; and many other historical works. 

DAIdiAN, Pierre Jean Baptiste, French writer, b. at Grenoble, Dec. 14, 1784. 
Author of 'Les Fugitives,' 1807 ; 'Hercule au Mont (Eta,' 1852 ; 'Cyrus,' 1856 ; 'Ariarate,' 
1859 ; and other romances, poems, and dramas. 

D'AIiBERT, Charles, French mnsical composer, b. near Hamburg, 1815 ; studio<i 
under Kalkbrenner, and at the Academic Royale at Paris. Composed ' The Peri ; ' 
'Queen of the Ball ;* and a vast number of sm«dler pieces of music. 

DAIiE^ Rev. Thomas, English theological and verse writer, b. at Pentonville, London, 
Aug. 22, 1797 ; studied at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1817 ; ordained, 18l'2 ; 
canon of St. Paul's cathedral, 1843 ; vicar of St. Paucras. 1846 ; rector of TberHeld, Herts, 
1860. Author of 'Widow of Naiu,' 1818; 'The Golden Psalm,' 1847; and numerous 
other works. 



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DALOLISH, Robert, English politician, b. 1808 ; educated at Glasgow ; partner in the 
house of Dalglish, Falconer, and Co., Glasgow ; M.P. for Glasgow since 1857. 

DALHOUSIE, Right Hon. Fox Maole, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1801 ; 
educated at the Charterhouse ; entered the army ; resigned with the rank of captain, 
1831 ; M.P. for Perthshire, 1835 to 1837 ; for the Elgin burghs, 1838, and for Perth, 1841 ; 
secretary of state for war, Feb. 1855 to Feb. 1868 ; lord-lieutenant of Forfarshire ; suc- 
ceeded his cousin in the earldom of Dalhousie, Dec. 1860. 

DALKEITH, ^Villiam Henry Walter, Earl of, EngUsh politician, b. 1831 ; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant of Midlothian and 
county of Selkirk ; M.P. for Edinburghshire since 1853. 

DALLAS, Rev. Alexander Robert Cbarles. English writer, b. towards the 
close uf the last centuiy ; entered the army, and fought at the battle of Wa'^rloo ; 
ordained, 1844. Author of 'Lent Lectures on Christ's Temptation ; ' and other theolo- 
logical and religious works. 

DALLOZ, Victor Alexis De'sire% French advocate, b. at Septmoneel, Jura, 
Aug. 12, 1795 ; called to the bar at Paris, 1816> Author of 'Jurisprudence ; ou Repertoire 
m^thodique et alphab6tique de Jurisprudence g6n6rale,' 1824-30 ; and numerous legal 
works. 

DALM AS. Albert de, French politician, b. 1823 ; chief of the cabinet of the Emperor, 
and member of theGeneial Council of Morbihan for the canton of Baud ; member of the 
Corps Legislatif for the 3rd circonscription dlUe et Vilaine since 1859. 

DALTON. Alexander, Count, French general, b. at Brives, Corrfeze, April 20, 1776 ; 
entered the army, and lieutenant, 1X91 ; chief of a battalion, 1800 ; general of brigade, 
1809 ; lieutenant-general, 1821 ; entered the section of reserve, 1841. 

P'ALTON, John, Irish genealogist and antiquary, b. at Bessville, Westmeath, 1792; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin; called to the Irish bar, 1813 ; commissioner of the 
Loan Fund Board, Dublin. 1835* Author of * Dermid ; or Erin in the Days of Boroimhe,* 
1814 ; ' History of the County of Dublin ;' and numerous genealogical works. 

DALY, Ce'sar, French architect, b. at Verdun, 1809; studied under M. F^x Duban ; 
founded the Revue de f Architecture et des Travaux publics, 1840 ; diocesan architect of 
Tarn. 

DALY, Sir Dominic, English colonial magistrate, b. 1798; appointed governor of the 
island of Tobago, 1851 ; transferred to the government of Prince Edward's Island, 1854 to 
1859; appointed governor and commander-in-chief of South Australia, Nov. 1861. 

DAMAS-HINARD, Jean Josepb, French writer, b. at Madrid, Dec. 11, 1805; 
studied law at Paris, and c^lid to the bar. Author of 'Chants sur Lord Byron,' 
1824 ; • Po6me du Cid,' 1858 ; ' Buffon Ecrivain,' 1864 ; and other works. 

DAMBRY, Pierre Charles Andre', French politician, b. Dec. 20, 1796 ; mayor of 
the Isle- Adam, and member of the General Council for the same canton ; member of the 
Corps Legislatif since 1859. 

DAMINOIS, Angeliqne Adele Hwey, French authoress, b. at Clermont, 
Oise, Dec. 21, 1795. Author of ' La Chasse au Renard,' 1823 ; and a great number of 
romances. 

DANA, Richard Henrsr. American writer, b. at Cambridge, Massachusetts, Nov. 15, 
1787 ; studied at Harvard College ; admitted to the .bar of Baltimore, 1811. Author ot 
'Tlie Idle Man,' 1821; 'The Husband's and Wife's Grave;' 'The Buccaneer,' 1827 ; and 
other works. 

DANA, Richard Henry, American barrister, b.. at Cambridge, Massachusetts, Aug. 1, 
1815, son of the preceding; entered Harvard College. 1832; graduated, 1837; admitted 
to the Boston bar, 1840. Author of 'The Seaman's Friend,' 1841 ; 'To Cuba and Back : 
a Vacation Voyage,' London, 1859 ; and several biographical sketches. 

DANIEL, Henry Joseph, French sculptor, b. at Nantes, April 1804; studied under 
Bosio and Cortot. Executed ' Le Comte Simeon,' 1842 ; * C16opatre ' in marble, 1847, in 
bronze, 1855 ; and numerous statues and busts. 

DANIE'LO, Jnlien, French writer, b. in the department of Morbihan, 1800. Author 
of ' L'Histoire de la Province de Champagne,' 1833 ; ' Du Pantheisme, du Mosaisme, et du 
Christianisme,' 1848 ; ' Les Conversations de M. de Chateaubriand,' 1864 ; and other works. 

DANJOU, Lonis Felix, French writer and musician, b. at Paris, 1812. Author of 
' Archives curieuses de I'Histoire de France, ou Colle(;tion de Pieces rares,' 1834-40 ; ' Du 
Paganisnie dans I'Education: quatre Lettres,' 1851-52; published several musical 
compositions. 



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D ANTAN, Antoine laaurent. French scnlptor, b. at St. Cloud, Dec. 8. 1798 : sturlie<l 
under Bosio,"and at the School of Fine Arts. Executed 'The Death of Hen-ules,' 
1828 ; ' Young Bather playing with his Dog,' 1836 ; and a great number of busts and 
statues. 

DANTANy Jean Pierre^ French sculptor, b. in Paris, Dec. 28, 1800, brother of the 
preceding ; studied in Paris and Italy. Executed busts of Talleyrand, Wellington, 
D'Orsay, Costa, Lady Maria Hamilton, N^laton, Aubert, and numerous other wurku 
of art 

DANTIER, Henri Alphons^. French writer, b. at Noynn, 1810. Author of 

* Histoire du Moyen Age,' 1852 ; ' Etudes sur les B6n6dictin8,' 1864 ; and contributor to 
the Moniteur and other French periodicals. 

DANTON. Josepb Arse'ne, French writer, b. atPlancy, Aube, Jan. 1, 1814 ; studied 
at the College of Charlemagne ; secretary to the minister of public instruction, 1840 ; 
member of the Imperial Council of Education, July 2, 1804. Editor of * O^uvres philo- 
sophiques de Fenelon,' 1843 ; and other works. 

DARBOYj Rev. Georfirey French divine, and archbishop of Paris, b. at Fayl-Billot, 
Haute, Miime, Jan. 16, 1813 ; studied at the Seminary of Langres ; ordained, 1836 ; 
bishop of Nancy, 1859, and archbishop of Paris, Jan. 1863. Author of * Les Femmes 
de la Bible,' 1859 ; and other theological and religious works. 

D'ARCY. Colonel Georgre^ English colonial governor, b.l816; entered the army, 
1836, and became colonel, July 7, 1867 ; appointed governor of the Gambia, June lb5i». 
Author of a work on light infantry driU. 

DAREMBURGi Cbarles Victor, French physician and writer, b. at Di.jon, 
April 14, 1817. Translated 'OBuvres choisies d'Hippocrate,' 1843; 'CEuvres completes 
d'Oribase,' 1853-60. Author of ' L'Histoire de la Syphilis de I'Antiquite,' 1846. 

DARESTE DE ItA CHAVANNE, Antoine Cleophas, French political 
economist, b. at Paris, Oct. 25, 1820 ; professor to the Faculty of Letters at Grenoble, 
1847. Author of *Eloge de Turgot,' 1846; 'Histoire des Classes agricoles en PYance, 
depais Saint Louis jusqu' k Louis XVI.' 1853. 

DARESTE DE ItA CHAVANNE, Rodolphe Cleophas, French legal 
writer, b. at Paris, Oct. 26, 1824; obtained the degree of LL.D. 1847; advocate at 
the Court of Cassation, 1851. Published 'Essai sur Francois Hotman,' 1860 ; 'Code 
des Pensions civiles,' 1854 ; and other legal works. 

DARGAND^ Jean Marie^ French writer, b. at Paray-le-Monial, Sa6ne et Loire, 
Feb. 22, 1800 ; studied at the Lyc^es Charlemagne and Bonaparte, in Paris. Author of 

* La Solitude,' 1833 ; 'Histoire de Marie Stuart,' 1850 ; 'Histoire de Jane Grey,' 1862; and 
ot^er historical works. 

DARIMONy Alfred, French politician and journalist, b. at Lille, Dec. 17, 1819. Con- 
tributor to the Peuple, 1848 ; to the Presse, 1854 ; and other French journals. Author of 

* R^forme banqui^re,' 1857. Member of the Corps Legislatif for the 7th circonscription 
of Paris since 1857. 

DARISTEy Jean Baptiste An^mste, French politician, b. at Martinique, June 19, 

1807 ; member of the Council of State for War, Jan. 25, 1 852 ; created senator, March 4, 

1853. 
DARIaEY, Felix, American artist, b. at Philadelphia, June 23, 1822; illustrated 'Rip 

Van Winkle ; * * Legend of Sleepy Hollow ; ' Tx)ngfellow'8 ' Miles Standish ;' and numerous 

other works. 

DARIaING, Sir Charles Henry, English colonl^tl administrator, b. 1808 ; entered 
the army as ensip^i, Dec. 7, 1826 ; retired, 1841 ; appointed lieutenant-governor of the 
island of St. Lucia, 1847 ; lieutenant-governor of the Cape of Good Hope, 1851 ; received 
the order of K.C.B. and knighted, 1862; governor of Victoria, 1863-66. 

DARNAUD, Firmin, French magistrate, b. at Roquefixade, Ari^ge, March 12, 1796 ; 
was King's counsel, 1830 • councillor at the Royal Court of Toulouse, Feb. 2, 1835 ; presi- 
dent of the chamber of the Imx)erial Court of Toulouse. 

DARNIaEY, John Stuart Bligrh, Earl and Visconnt of. English adminis- 
trator, b. 1827 ; educated at Eton ; graduated at Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant of Kent 
and Meath ; hereditary high steward of Gravesend and Milton. 

DARRELIi, John, English colonial judge, b. 1794 ; studied at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn ; in the colonial service since 1819 ; 
attorney-general at Bermuda, 1834 to 1866 ; chief justice of Bermuda, 1856. Published 
an edition of the laws of Bermuda, 1861. 



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DAARIOAUy Daniel Charles Anffuste, Baron, French stateRman, b. at St. 
Denis, Seine, Sept. 24, 1808 ; entered the army, 1825 ; captain, 1836 ; titular councillor 
of state, 1852 ; minister of war, 18(J2-tf3. 

DARRICAUi Rodolvhe Ansuatin, Baron, French naval commander, brother 
of the precenin^, b. >farch 7, 1807 ; entered the naval school, 1827 ; captain, 1863 ; 
governor of the isle of Reunion, 1858 ; rear-admiral, Jan. 17, 1864. 

DARTMOUTH. William Walter Leyce^ Earl of, English administrator, b. at 
Sandwell Park, Birmingham, Aug. 12, 1823 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he graduated M. A. 1847 ; deputy-lieutenant of Staffordshire. 

DARTOIS, Frangois Victor Armand. French dramatic writer, b. at Beauvains, 
near Noyon, Oise, Oct 3, 1788. Author of 'Les Femmes Soldats,' 1809; 'Paris et 
Londres,* 1827 ; * Reculer pour mieux sauter,' 1854 ; and many others. 

DARU, Napoleon, Count, French politician, b. at Paris, June 11, 1807 ; studied at 
the Lyc6e of Louis-le-Qrand. and at the Polytechnic School, 1825 ; entered the army, 
but retired as a captain, 1847 ; member of the Academy of Sciences, 1860. 

DAR^VIN, Charles, English naturalist, b. at Shrewsbury, Feb. 12, 1809 ; educated 
at the Grammar School, Shrewsbury, at the University of Edinburgh, and Christ's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated In 1831. Author of * The Structure and Distri- 
bution of Coral Reefs,' 1842 ; * Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands ' 1844 • * Origin 
of Species by means of Natural Selection,' 1859 ; and other scientific works. 

DASENT, Georse Webbe, English author, b. 1818 ; educated at King's College, 
London, and Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840; called to the bEU* 
of the Middle Temple, 1852. Author and translator of * The Prose, or Younger, Edda,* 
1842 ; * Popular Tales trom the Norse, with an Introductory Essay,' 1859 ; and other 
works. 

DAUBIGNY, Charles Francois, French painter b. in Paris, Feb. 15, 1817; 
studied under MM. Paul Delaroche and Daubi^y. Executed *Vue de la Valine 
d'Oisanrt,' 1840; 'Soleil couch6,' 1851; 'Les Bords de la Cure,' 1864; and numerous 
other ]andscai>es. 

DAUBRE'B. Gabriel Auf^nste, French geologist, b. at Metz, June 25, 1S14; studied 
at the Polytechnic School, 1834 ; professor of mineralogy and geology at the Academy 
of Strasbourg, 1839 ; professor of geology at the Natural History Museum of Paris, 1861. 
Author of ' Description geologique du Bas-Rhin,' 1852 ; and other scientific works. 

DAUMAS, Melchior Joseph Engrene, French general and author, b. Sept 4, 
18U3; entiered the army, 1822; lieutenant, 1827; general, 1849; general of division, 
1853 ; senator, Aug. 12, 1857. Author of 'Le Sahara alg^en,' Paris, 1845 ; ' La Kabylie,' 
1857 ; and other works on Algeria. 

DAUM6R, Geors Friederich, German author, b. at Nuremberg, March 5, 1800 ; 
studied at the University of Eriangen. Author of 'Die Glorie dev heiligen . Jungfrau 
Maria,' Nurembei^g, 1841; 'Die Religion des neuen Weltalters,' Himbuig, 1850; and 
numerous philosophical and poetical works. I 

DAURIAC, Philippe Engrene Jean Marie, French writer, b. at Toulouse, 
Oct. 17, 1815. Published 'Louis Philippe, Prince et Roi,' 1843 ; * Essai historique sur la 
Boucherie de Paris,' 1861 ; * Nouveau Guide du Voyageur en Belgique et en Hollande,' 
1864 ; and other miscellaneous works. 

DAUTHEVIItLE. FrangoiSy French general, b. at Chalennon, Ard6che, May 8, i 
17M2 ; entered the Polytechnic School, 1811 ; entered the army, 1813 ; general of brigade, ' 
Feb. 13, 1852 ; member of the Corps L6gislatif for the department of Ard^che since , 
1854. 

DAUZ ATS, Adrien, French painter, b, at Bordeaux, 1808 ; studied under Julien 
Michel Gue. Executed 'Une Mosquee sur les Bords duNil,' 1835 ; ' Cathedrale de TolMe,' 
1855 ; ' Vue prise k Chateldon,' 1863 ; and numerous other landscapes. 

DAVELUY, Ame'de'e, French philologist, b. 1799; studied at Amiens; professor at 
the Royal College of Di,ion, 1830 ; appointed professor at School of Athens, 1846 ; 
inspector-general of schools, 1862. 



DAVENNE, Henri Jean Baptiste, French writer, b. at Paris, Jan. 12, 17.S9. 
Author of * Regime administratif et financier des Communes,' 1840 ; * Traite pratique 
de Voirie urbaine,' 1858; and other works. 

DAVEY, Richard, English politican, b. 1799 ; educated at Tiverton School and 
Edinburgh University; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Cornwall; M.P. of West 
Cornwall since 1857. 



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DAVIDy Christian Qtortge Natban, Danish politician, b. at Copenhagen, Jan. 10, 
1796 ; studied at the University of Copenhagen ; professor at the same university. 1834 ; 
member of the Diet, 1848 ; represented Denmark at the International Congress in France, 
1856. 

DAVID. Felicien Ce'sar^ French musical composer, b. at Cadenes, Vaucluse, April 3, 
1810 ; studied in Paris at the Conservatoire, under R6ber. Published * Melodies orientales,' 
1835 ; *The Desert.' played first at the Conservatoire, Dec. 1844; 'La Perle du, Brisll,' 
1851 ; ' Lalla Rookh,' 1862 ; and numerous other compositions. 

DAVID, Ferdinandy German musical composer, b. at Hamburg, Jan. 19, 1810; 
studied under Spohr ; played under Mendelssohn at Leipsic, 1836. Composed ' Concertos 
for the Violin ; ' and several romances and symphonies. 

DAVID, Jerome, Baron, French politician, b. in Rome, June SO, 1822; was 
captain in the army ; mayor of Langon, and member of the General Council for the canton 
of St. Symphorieu ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of the Giroude 
since 1859. 

DAVID, Maxime; French miniature painter, b. at ChAIons-sur-Mame, Aug. 24, 1798 ; 
studied at the Lyc6e of Rheims. Painted the portraits of Queen Ani^lie, King Louis 
Philipx)e, Prince Napoleon, and of a great number of other distinguished persons. 

DAVID DESCHAMPS, Iionis Charles, French politician, b. in Paris, Oct. 16, 
1802 ; advocate at the Imperial Court of Paris ; member of the General Council for the 
canton of Ecouch^ ; member of the Corps Li^gislatif for the 2nd circonscription of Ome 
since 1860. ^ 

DAVIE, Sir Henry Robert Fertrnson, English politician, b. 1798 ; magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant of Devon ; lieutenant-general unattached, and colonel of the 
73rd Foot ; M.P. for Haddington since 1847. 

DAVIS, Charles Henry, American naval officer, b. in Boston, Massachusetts, Jan. 16, 
1807; entered the U.S. navy, 1823 ; appointed commander and stationed in the Pacific, 
1856; had charge of the 'American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanack,' 1849. Pub- 
lished a translation of Gauss's 'Theoria Mottls CorponAn Ccelestium,' 1856. 

DAVIS, EdTvard Hamilton, American archaeologist, b. in Ross County, Ohio, Jan. 22, 
1811 ; graduated M.D. at Cincinnati, 1837 ; professor of materia niedica and therapeutics 
at the New York Medical College, 1850. * Author of ' Monuments of the Mississippi 
Valley.* 

DAVIS, Gatevrard Coleridipe, English colonial administrator, b. 1831 ; called to 
the bar of the Inner Temple, 1860 ; secretary of the executive and adminintrative com- 
mittee in Antigua, 1861 ; attorney-general of Antigua, and crown law officer, Mont- 
serrat, 1862. 

DAVIS, Jefferson, American politician, b. in Kentucky, June 3, 1808; educated at 
Transylvania College, and at West Point Military Academy, wliere he graduated in 1828 ; 
member of Congress for Mississippi, l^Ab ; senator for the same state, 1847 ; secretary of 
war, 1853 ;- re-elected to the Senate, 1857 ; president of the so-called Confederate States 
of North America, 1861-66. 

DAVIS. Sir John Francis, English diplomatist, b. in London, 1795 ; attach^ to 
Lord Amherst's embassy to Pekin, 1816 ; was British plenipotentiary and chief super- 
intendent of British trade in China ; governor and commander-in-chief of the colony of 
Hong Kong, 1843 to 1848 ; created a baronet forservices in China, 1845 ; and K.C.B. 1854. 
Author of • A Description of China and its Inhabitants ;' and other wt)rks on China. 

I DAVIS, Nathan, English traveller and writer, b. 1812 ; for some time editor of the 
Hebrew Christian Magazine. Author of * Tunis ; or Selections from a Journal kept in 

I that Regency,' 1841 ; 'Carthage and her Remains,' 1861 ; and other works. 

K DAIVSON, Oeorye, English lecturer, b. in London, 1821 ; studied at the University of 

J Glasgow, and graduated M.A. ; minister of Mount Zion Chapel, Birmingham, 1844; and 

of the church of the Saviour, 1847. 

DAIVSON, Robert Peel, English politician, b. 1818; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Londonderry ; 
high sheriff, 1850 ; M.P. for the county of Londonderry since 1859. 

DA'^VSON, Hon. Vesey, Engli.sh politician, b. 1842 ; educated at Eton ; magistrate 
of the county of Monaghan ; captain in the Coldstream Guards; M.P. for county of 
Monaghan, 1865. 

DAY, Georgre Edivard, English physician, b. 1815; educated at Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. 18.S7, M.A. 1840; licentiate in medicine, 1842; M.D. of the University 
of Giessen, and Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. Author of ' A Practical 



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Treatise on the Diseases of Advanced Life,' 1849 ; * Physiology and Medicine,' 1860 ; and ' 

other medical works. 
DE'ADDE'; Edonard, French dramatic writer, b. 1810. Author of * Odette,' 1832 ; 

' Les Femmes et le Secret/ 1843 ; 'Le Fils du Diable.' 1860 ; and numerous other works. 

For some time director of the theatre of Porte St. Antoihe. 
DEAR; Prancin, Hungarian statesman, b. at Keliida Zala, 1803 ; deputy to the Diet at ; 

Presburg, 1832, and has since taken an active part in the leadership of the Liberal party in \ 

Hungary. 
DEAN, Sir Thomas , Irish architect, b. at Cork, 1792; designed the Old and New 

Bank Buildings and Court House at Cork ; the City Gaol, Anglesey Bridge in that city, 

and several other buildings ; knighted by the Loi-d-lieutenant of Ireland, 1830. 
DEASY, Rigrht Hon. Richard, Irish politician, b. 1812; educated at Trinity College, 

Dublin, where he graduated, and was called to the Irish bar; made Q.C. 1H49 ; third 

serjeant-at-law, 1858; solicitor- general for Ireland, 1859; attorney-general, 1860; judge, 

1861 ; M.P. for Cork, 1855 to 1861. | 

DBBAY, Jean Baptiste Joseph, French sculptor, b. at Malines, Oct. 16, 1779. 

Executed 'Leonidas,' 1827 ; 'Charles Martel,' 1836 ; ' Le Choix difficile,' in marble, 1861 ; 

' Faustulus,' a group in bronze, 1863 ; and numerous other statues and groups. t 

DEBON, Hippolyte, French painter, b. at Paris, 1816 ; studied under Gros and M. 
Abel de Pujol. Exhibited ' Bataille d'Hastings,' 1845 ; * Fete de TAgriculture du temps 
des Gaulois, 1850 ; ' Entree de Guillaunie le Conquerant k Londres," 1855 ; 'Le Si^e dela i 
Rochelle,' 1863; and nuiuerous other, principally historical, paintings. l 

DE BOW, James Dnn'^oody Broinmson, American journalist, b. at Charleston, 
South Carolina, July 10, 1820 ; studied at Charleston College, and graduated in 1843 ; | 
called to the bar in the same town, 1844. Established De Bow's Covimercial Review, , 
1845 ; compiled * Industrial Resources of the South West,' 1858 ; and other statistical 
works. 

DEBREYNE, Pierre Jean OomeiUe, French physician, b. at Qusedypre, near 
Dunkerque, Nov. 7, 1786; studied medicine at Paris; degree of M.D. 1824. Author of 
' Precis sur la Physiologic humaine,' 1851 ; and a great number of medical works. 

DECAISNE, Joseph, French botanist, b. at Brussels, March 18, 1807. Author of 
• Annales des Sciences naturelles,' 1834 ; ' Essais sur une Classification des Algues et des 
Polypiers calcileres, suivis d'un M^moire siu* les Corallines,' 1843 ; ' Le Jardin fruitier 
du Museum,' 1859-65 ; and other botanical works. 

DECAISNE, Pierre, Belgian physician, b. at Brussels, May 11, 1809 ; studied medicine i 
and graduated M.D. at the University of Louvain ; entered the Bel^an army as surgeon, j 
1830; professor to the Faculty of Medicine at Gand. Author of 'Choix d'01)ser\'ations 
chirurgicales,' 1838 ; 'Des Plaies des Articulations et des Tendons,' 1851 ; and numerous 
medical works. 

DECANDOLLE, Alphonse Iionis Pierre Pyramns, Swiss botanist, b. at 
Paris, Oct. 27, 1806 ; studied at Geneva, and graduated LL.U. 1829. Author of 'Mono- 
graphic des Campanul6es,' 1830; ' Prodromus Systematis naturalis Regni vegetabilis,' 
1858-64 ; and other botanical works. 

DECHAMPS, Adolphe, Belgian statesman, b. at Melle, East Flanders, June 17, 1807 ; 
studied at the Museum of Brussels; appointed governor of Luxembourg, 1841; minister 
of foreign affairs, 1845. Published 'Le second Empire : Dialogues poJitiques,' Brussels, 
1859 ; ' L'Empire et I'Angleterre,' 1860. 

DECHAMPS, Victor, Belgian writer, b. at Melle, 1811, brother of the preceding. 
Author of ' Le Christ et les Antechrists dans les ;6critures, I'Histoire et la Conscience,' 
Toumai, 1858; 'Pie IX. et les Erreurs contemporaines,' 1864; and other theological 
works. 

DE CHARMS, Richard, American divine, b. Oct. 17, 1796; graduated at Yale Col- 
lege, 1826 ; was pastor of the Swedenborgian Churches in Cincinnati, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore. Established the New Jerusalem Magazine, in Boston. Author of the ' New 
Churchman.' 

DECHASTEZaUS, Clande Marie Jean Antoine, French politician, b. March 
28, 1798 ; judge, and member of the General Council of the Loire for the canton of St. 
Symphorien de Lay ; member of he Corps L6gislatif, 1863. 

DECKER, Pierre Pacqnes Frangois de, Belgian writer and politician, l>. at 
Zkle, Flanders, Jan. 25, 1812 ; studied at the College of Fribourg ; member of tlie 
Chamber of Representatives for Termonde, 1839. Author of ' Religion et Amour,' 1835 ; 
•De rinfluence du Clei^6 en Belgique,' 1843 ; and other works. 



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DECOURCBLIiE, Adrien. French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, 1824 ; studied at the 
College of Charlemagne. Autnor of ' Une 8oir6e k la Bastille,' 1845 ; * Les Dragons de )a 
Reine,' 1841 ; and a great number of other dramas. 

DISFA9OZ, Etigrene^ Belgian lawyer and politician, b. at Ath, 1797 ; was an advocate, 
and took part in the Revolution of 1830 ; counciHor at the Court of Cassation ; jiresident 
of the Congress, 1847. Author of * Ancien Droit Belgique: Pr6cis de Lois et Coutumes 
observees en Belgique avant le Code Civil,' Brussels, 1846. 

DEFAUCONPRBT^ Charles Augruste, French writer, b. at St. Denis, Seine, 
Dec. 19, 1797 ; studied at the Lycee Napoleon ; translated Washington Irving's ' Travels 
of Christopher Columbus.' 

DBFFGS, Pierre IiOuis^ French musical composer, b. at Toulouse, July 24, 1819; 
admitted to the Conservatoire, and studied under MM. Berton and Hal^vy. Composed 
* Broskovano,* 1858 ; * Le Caf6 du Roi,' 1861 ; and other comic ox)eras. 

DEFOR6ES; Philippe Augr^ste Pittand^ French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, 
April 5, 1805 ; studied at the Bourbon College ; appointed chief secretary to the minister 
of war, 1830. Author of ' Henri IV. en Famille,' 1828 ; ' Les Fables de La Fontaine,' 1842 ; 
'Bijou Perdu,' 1855 ; and numerous other dramas. 

DEFREMERY; Charles, French philologist, b. at Cambrai, Dec. 8, 1822 ; studied at 
the College of France. Translated from the Persian of Mirkhond 'L'Histoire des 
Sultans du Kharezm,' 1842 ; from the same author ' Histoire des Seldjoukides et des 
Ismaeliens, ou Assassins de I'lran,' 1849 ; and numerous other translations. 

DE FREYNEy Charles French, Baron, Irish magistrate, b. 1792 ; magistrate 
for Roscommon, Sligo, and Mayo ; succeeded to the title Sept 1863. 

DE GREY AND RIPON, Georgre Frederick Samuel Robinson, Earl, 

English statesman, b. in London, Oct. 24, 1827 ; eldest aon of the first earl ; M.P. for 
Huddersfield, 1853 to 1857 ; for the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1867 to 1869 ; under- 
secretary of state for war, June 1859 ; under-secretary of state for India, Jan. to Aug. 
1861 ; secretary of state for war, 1863-66 ; succeeded his father as 2d Earl Ripon, Jan. 
1859 ; lord president of the council, Dec. 1868. 

DEGUERRY. I'Abbe' Gaspard, French author, b. at Lyons, 1797; studied at 
the College or VUlefranche ; ordained to the priesthood, 1820 ; canon of Notre Dame, 
1844 ; archbishop of Marseilles, 1861. Author of * Bloge de Jeanne d'Arc,* 1828 ; 
' Notice sur le Comte de ClocheviUe,' 1853 ; and other biographical works. 



QUE, Felix De'sire', French writer, b. in Paris, Oct 9, 1794 ; studied at the 
Paris Ecole Normale, 1813 : elected member of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles 
Lettres, Nov. 1859. Author of ' La Cbarte constitutionnelle traduite en Grec moderne,' 
1822 ; translator of the Ludwig * Poesies Cypriques d'Andreadis,' 1837 ; and other works. 

DEINHARDSTEIN, Johann, German dramatic writer, b. at Vienna, June 21, 
1794 ; professor of classic literature at the University of Vienna, 1827. Author of ' Dra- 
matische Dichtungen,' Vienna, 1816; 'Kiinstlerdramen,' Leipsic, 1845; and numerous 
other works. Edited the Jahrhucher der LUeratur from 1830 to 1851. 

DEIiABARRE DUPARCQ, Nicolas Edouard, French military writer, b. at 
St Cloud, April 1, 1819 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1836-39 ; lieutenant, 1841 ; 
captain, Jan. 1844 ; professor of history at the School of Sr,. Cyr. Author of ' Biographic 
et Maximes de Maurice de Saxe/ 1851 ; * L'Art militaire pendant les Guerres de Religion,' 
1864 ; and other works. 

DEIiACOUR, Alfred Charlemagne IiartignCj French physician and writer, 
b. 1815 ; graduated M.D. at Paris, 1841. Author of ' L'Hospitalit^ d'une Grisette,' 1847 ; 
* Le Premier Pas,' 1862 ; * C^limare le bien-aim6,* 1863 ; and numerous other dramas. 

DEIiACOUR, Edmond, French diplomatist, b. at Paris, near 1805 ; secretary of em- 
ba«8y at Vienna, 1833 to 1836 ; and at Stockholm, 1839-47 ; envoy extraordinary and 
minister-plenipotentiary to Vienna, 1848 ; ambassador to Constantinople, 1858 ; ambas- 
sador to Naples, 1854-56. 

DEIiAFOSSE, Oabriel, French mineralogist, b. 1795 ; studied at the Paris Ecole 
Normale ; professor of mineralogy to the Faculty of Sciences at Paris, and at the ^cole 
Normale, 1813. Author of 'Precis ^Umentaire d'Histoire naturelle.* 1857; and 
numerous other scientific works. 



EIiAGE, Marie Henri, French writer, b. at Paris, 1825. Author of *Le Sangdu 
Christ,* 1849; 'L'Etemit6 Devoil6e,' 1854; *Le Monde Occulte,' 1859; and several 
religions works. 



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DELAHUNTYy James, English politician, b. 1808; a merchant in Waterford; 
elected M.P. for that to?m, 1868. 

DELALIiEy Iiouis Augiutey French theological writer, b. at Revin, Ardennes, 
Oct. 9, 1800 ; appointed vicar-general of Nancy, Aug. 30, 1855. Author of * Cours de 
Controverse Caiholique ;* and other theological works. 

DELAMARRE, Edouard Frangois De'sire'. French politician, b. at Ouerba- 
ville, Dec. 16, 1797 ; member oi the Corps L^gislatif for Gu6ret since 1852. 

DELAMARRE, GuiUaame, French political economist, b. 1799 ; elected member of 
the Corps L^gislatif for the Sonime, 1852. Author of ' La Vie 4 bon Marche,' 1854^-56 ; 
*Le8 Eaux de Paris.' 1861. 

DELAMERE, Htigrh Cholmondeley, Baron, English politician, b. 1812; M.P. 
for Derbyshire, 1840-41 ; succeeded his father, 1855. 

DEIi ANEy John Thaddens, English journalist, b. Oct. 1817 ; educated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 18.S9; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 
1847 ; assistant editor of the Times, 1839-41 ; editor of the Times since 1841. 

DELANOLE, Clande Alphonse, French statesman, b. at Varzy, Ni^vre, April 6, 
1797 ; called to the bar of Paris, 1818 ; advocate-general at the Court of Cassation, 1840 ; 
first president of the Imperial Court of Paris, 1852 ; minister of the interior, 1858-59 ; 
vice-president of the Senate, 1859-61 ; member of the Academy of Sciences. 

DELAPALME, Eniile^ French magistrate, b. at Paris, Nov. 14, 1793 ; magistrate at 
the Royal Court of Paris, 1815 ; advocate-general, 1831 ; advocate-general at the Court of 
Cassation, 1841 ; counsellor in the same court, 1847. Author of * Premier Livre du 
Citoyen,' 1864 ; and othsr works. 

DEL APORTE, Michel, French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, 1802. Author of ' Le 
Parisien,' 1838 ; ' Le Masque de Velours,' 1860 ; * Ah ! que I'Amour est agr^ble !' 1862 ; 
and numerous other dramas. 

DELARUE, Joseph Ame de'e, French architect, b. at Lille, 1790 ; studied at Paris 

under Huyot, Alavoine, and Gu^n^pin. Designed THdtel de Ville and le Palais de 

Justice at M^zi^res ; and numerous churches and chai>els. 
DE LA RUEy Warren, English astronomer, b. 1815; educated at the College of 

St. Barbe, Paris ; acted as juror and reporter in the Great Exhibition of 1851 ; president 

of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
DELARUE BEAUM ARCHAISy Edouard Charles, French general, b. Oct. 9, 

1799 ; entered the army, 1814, and became a colonel, 1847 ; general of brigade, 1852 ; 

commander of the Legion d'honneur, 1858. j 

DELASIAUVEy Lonis Jean Frangois^ French physician, b. at Garennes, Eure, 
1804; graduated M.D. at Paris, 1830. Author of 'Examen de diverses Critiques de la 
Phr6nologie,' 1844 ; * Des Pseudomanies,* 1859 ; and other medical works. i 

DELATRE, Lonis Michel James Laconr. French writer, b. at Paris. May 9. 
1815. Author of ' Chants de VExH,* 1843 ; * Marathon ; Promenade k Cheval,' 1853 ; and ; 
numerous other works. { 

DELAUNAY, Charles Engrene^ French mathematician, b. at Lusigny, Aube, i 

April 9, 1816 ; entered the Bcole Polyxechnique, 1834 ; elected member of the Institute, | 

1855 ; and member of the Bureau of Longitudes, 1862. Author of * Cours ^l^mentaire de ; 

M^canique,' 1854 ; and other scientific works. j 

DELAVALy Pierre Lonis^ French painter, b. in Paris, April 27, 1790; studied i 
under Girodet. Exhibited 'Sainte Clotilde exhortant Clovis 4 embrasser la Religion 
chr6tieune,' 1817 ; ' St. Louis portant rOriflamme,' 1841 ; and other paintings. 

DELAVIONE. Germain. French dramatic writer, b. at Givemy, Eure, Feb. 1, 1790 ; 
studied at the College of St. Barbe. Author of * La Somnambule,* 1819 ; *Le Diplomate,* 
1S27 ; ' La Nonne Sanglante,' 1854 ; and other dramas and comedies. 

DELAWARR, Georgro John Sackville West, Earl of, English administrator, 
b. in London, 1791; educated at Harrow and Oxford; graduated D.C.L. 1834; high 
steward of Stratford-on-Avon ; was lord chamberlain to the Queen, 1841-46 ; reappoint^ 
Feb. 1858 ; resigned, 1859. 

DELEHAYEy Josse, Belgian politician, b. at Gand, 1800; elected representative of 
his native town in Cong»ess, 1831 ; king's counsel to the tribunal of Gand, 1839 ; vice- 
president of the Chamber of Representatives, 1849 ; buigomaster of Gand, 1858. 

DELEPIERRE, Octave, Belgian writer, b. at Bruges, 1804; studied Uw at the 
University of Gand ; appointed secretary of legation, and consul-general of Belgium ia 
London, 1849. Author of ' Precis des Annales de Bruges/ 1835 ; and numerous other, 
chiefly antiquarian and bibliographical, works. 



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I DEIaESSERT; Alexandre Henri Edonard. French writer, b. in Paris, Dec. 15, i 
1828. Author of ' Voyage aux Villas maudites,' 1863 ; * Le Chemin de Rome, s'il voos I 
plait?* 1860 ; ' Toiyours tout droit,' 18«2 ; and other works. 

DELHASSE; Felix Joseph^ Belgian writer, b. at Spa, Feb. 5, 1809. Author of 

* Lea Bords de I'Ambl^ve,' Liege, 1853 ; contributor to the Libiralf Radical, Dibat Social, 
And the Nation. ' 

DEIalONY^ Edouard Jean Etienne, French militaiy commander, b. 1812 ; second i 
lieutenant, 1835; first lieutenant, 1840; captain, 1844; lieutenant-colonel, May 1862; i 
colonel, Dec. 1852 ; general of brigade, July 1855 ; general of division, Dec. 1859. 

DEIiISIaEy IieopQld Victor, French historian, b. at Valognes, Manche, Oct. 24, 
1826 ; entered the Ecole des Chartes, 1847 ; member of the Institute and of the Academy | 
of Inscriptions, 1857. Author of * Recherches sur la Condition de la Classe agricole en 
Normandie au Moyen Age,' 1846. | 

DE Ii'ISLE AND DUDLEY, Philip Sidney, Baron. English magistrate, 
b. 1828 ; educated at Eton ; deputy-lieutenant of Kent ; magistrate for the North Riding 
I of Yorkshire. 

j DEIalTZSCH, Franc, German Protestant theologian, b. at Leipsic, Feb. 23, 1813 ; 
appointed professor of theology at the University of Erlangen. 1850. Author of 
, * Qeschichte der judisch^n Poesie,' Leipsic, 1836 ; * Vom Hause Goties oder der Kirche,* 

) ib. 1848 ; and numerous theological worlcs. 

DEIaOCHE, Jules Edouard Maximin, French writer, b. at Tulle, Correze, 
Oct. 27, 1817. Author of *6tienne Baluze, sa Vie et ses (Buvres,* Limoges, 1868; ' 

* Description des Monnaies M^rovingiennes du Limousin,' 1863 ; and other works. 

DEIaORD, Taxile, French writer, b. at Avignon, Nov. 25, 1815 ; studied at Marseilles 
firom 1830 to 1834 ; was long one of the chief contributors to the Charivari. Author of 

* Physiologic de la Parisienne,' 1851 ; * Les Troisieme Pages du Journal le Si^ole,' 1861 ; 
and" of numerous contributions to BSrench joUmals. 

DEIaPIT, Martial, French writer, b. at Cahuzac, Lot-et-Garrfinne, Feb. 25, 1813: 
studied at the Ecole des Chartes. Author of 'Notice sur le Manusorit intitule 
Recognitiones feudorum,' 1841 ; and other works. 

DEIiTHEIIa, Jean, French politician, b. Sept. 2, 1795 ; member of the Chamber of 
Deputies, 1836-42 ; and of the Legislative Assembly, 1849 ; member of the Corps L6gis- 
latLf for the department of Lot since 1852. 

DELTUF, Paul, French writer, b. at Paris, 1825. Author of * Idylles Antiques,' 1851 ; 

* Les Pigeons de la Course,' 1857 ; ' La Comtesse de Silva,* 1864 ; and numerous other 
works of fiction. 

DEIaVAN, Alftred, French writer, b. at Paris, 1825; secretary to M. Ledru Rollin; 
minister of the interior, 1848. Author of * Le Rou6 Innocent,' 1850 ; * Les Barri6res de 
Paris,' 1857 ; ' Bibliotbfeque Bleue,' 1859-60 ; and many other novels. 

DEMANGE AT, Joseph Charles. French lawyer, b. at Nantes, Sept. 2, 1820; 
studied law at Paris ; called to the bar, 1841 ; obtained the degree of LL.D. 1843 ; 
appointed supplementary professor to the faculty of law at Paris, 1851 ; professor, 1862. 
Author of * Cours E16mentaire de Droit Romain,' 1864 ; and other legal works. 

DEMANTE, Augruste Gabriel, French lawyer, b. at Paris, March 3, 1821; 
appointed supplementary professor to the faculty of law at Toiilouse, 1850; and 
professor, 1856. Author of ' De la Loi et de la Jurisprudence en Mati6re de Donations 
deguis^es,' 1865 ; and other legal works. 

DE MAUIiEY, Charles Frederick Ashley Cooper Ponsonby, Baron, 

English magistrate, b. 1815 ; M.P. for Poole, 1837 to 1847 ; for Dungarvan, 1851 to 1852 ; 
deputy-lieutenant and mt^strate of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire. 

DEMESM AY, Camille, French sculptor, b. at Besanyon, Aug. 23, 1816 ; licentiate 
in law at Paris, 1839. Executed * La Vierge et I'Enfant J6sus,' 1859 ; * Nais,' 1863 ; and a 
great number of statues. 

DEMETZ, Frederic Auguste, French social reformer, b. May 12, 1796 ; studied 

law at Paris ; appointed court counsel, 1832 ; founded the agricultural colony and 

penitentiary of Mettray, near Tours, 1840. 
DEMOGEOT, Jacques Claude. French writer, b. at Paris, July 5, 1808; studied 

at the Seminary of St. Nicolas of Chardonnet, and professor there from 1826 to 1828 ; 

appointed professor of rhetoric at the I^yc6e de St. Louis of Paris, 1843. Author of 

* Histoire du College de Lyon,' 1840 ; 'Contes et Nouvelles,' 1862 ; and other works. 

n O 



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DEMOIiICREy Hiiypolyte Jules, French dramatic writer, b. at Nantes, Aug. 3, 
1802 ; studied law at Rennes, and medicine at Paris. Author of 'La Famille Renneville,* 
1843; *De Paris k Corbellet k Orl6an8,' 1854; 'Le Revers de la Medaille,' 1861 ; and 
many other works. 

DEMOLOMBE. Jean Charles Florent, French legal writer, b. at F^re, Aisne, 
July 22, 1804; studied law at Paris, and received the degree of LL.D. 1826 ; appointed 
professor of civil law to the faculty of Caen, 1831, and dean of the faculty, 1853, 
Published * Cours de Code Napoleon,* 1845-63. 

DE MORGAN, Ani^stuSy English mathematician, b. at Madura, Southern India, 
1806 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1827 ; appointed 
professor of mathematics at the University of London, 1828. Author of the ' Book of 
Almanacs ;* and numerous mathematical and other scientific works. 

DENIS, Jean Ferdfnaad, French traveller, b. at Paris, Aug. 13, 1798. Author of 
' Buenos-Ayres et le Paraguay,* 1823; 'Luiz de Souza,' 1835; ' Une Fete Br^ilienne/ 
1850 ; and numerous romances and works of travel 

DENISONy Ed^eardy English politician, b. 1840; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, 
Oxford ; called to the bar of Lincoln*s Inn, 1867 ; returned M.P. for Newark, 1868. 

DENISON, Ven. George Antbony^ English theological writer, b. 1805 ; educated 
at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1826 ; curate of Cuddesden, 
Oxfordshire, 1832 to 1838 ; vicar of EJast Brent, Somerset, 1845 ; archdeacon of Taunton. 
Editor of the Church and State Review ; and author of several sermons. 

DENISON. Riirlit Hon. John Evelyn, English statesman, b. 1800 ; educated at 
Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1823; M.P. for Newcastle- 
nnder-Lyne, 1824 ; for Hastings, 1850 ; for Notts, 1831 ; for South Notts, 1833 to 1837 ; 
for Malton, 1841-57; for North Nottinghamshire since 1857; elected speaker of the House 
of Commons, 1857 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Notts. 

DENJOY. Jean FrangoiS Polynice, French politician, b. at Lectoure. Gers, 
June 6, 1809 ; studied law at Paris, and was called to the French bar ; member of the 
Council of State for the Interior, 1851. 

DENMANf Hon. Oeorgre, English politician, b. 1819; educated at Repton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1842 ; called to the bar of the 
Inner Temple, 1846 ; made Q.C. 1860 ; M.P. for Tiverton since 1859. 

DENMAN, Joseph, English naval officer, b. in London, 1810, brother of the preceding ; 
entered the royal navy, 1823, and capta.in, 1841 ; lord-chamberlain to the Queen, 1848 
to 1852 ; commodore, 1853 ; vice-admiral, 1863. 

DENMAN, Thomas Denman, Baron, English magistrate, b. in London, 1805, 
brother of the two preceding; called to the bar, 1827 ; a magistrate for Derbyshire ; suc- 
ceeded his father, 1854. 

DENNERYy or D'ENNERY, Adolphe PhiUppe, French dramatist, b. in 
Paris, Jmie 17, 1811 ; director of the Theatre Historique, 1850. Author of * Le Change- 
ment d*Uniforme,* 1836 ; * L'lle du Prince Touton,' 1854 ; • Le Sacrifice d'Ephig6nie,* 1861 ; 
and numerous other dramas. 

DENOIX DES VERGUES, Marie Frangois Descampeanz, laady, French 
authoress, b. at Beauvais, Olse, May 7, 1798 ; married to M. Laverguat, 1818. Authoress, 
under the name of Fanny Denoix, of • Heures de Solitude,' 1837 ; * j^pitre k M. Proudhon,* 
1858 ; and a great number of poems. 

DENOUVIIiIiIERS, Charles Pierre, French physician, b. Feb. 4, 1808 ; studied 
at Paris, and received the degree of M.D. 1837 ; appointed professor of anatomy at the 
Fcole de Medicine, 1846 ; surgeon to the Hospital of St. Louis. Author of • Des Cas 
dans lesquels le Trypan est applicable aux Os du Crtoe,* 1836 ; and other works. 

DENT, John, English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where ne graduated B. A. 1848 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1861 ; M. P. for 
Knaresborough, 1862-67 ; M.P. for Scarborough since 1857. 

DEPE'RY, Jean Ire'ne'e, French writer, b. at Chellex, Ain, March 16, 1796 ; studied 
at the College of Geneva, and at the Seminary of St. Sulpice ; Cflnon and grand vicar of 
Belley, 1827 ; bishop of Gap, 1844. Author of ' Biographic du D6partement de I'Ain,* 
1835 ; and other works. 

DE'PRET Irt>nis, French writer, b. at Lille, Oct. 9, 1837 ; studied at the Lyc^e of the 
same town. Author of * Cloche,* 1854 ; ' Rosine Passmore,* 1861 ; * Windsor, le Ch&teau 
son Histoire, lUcits et Souvenirs,' 1868 ; and many other works. 



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DERBY. EdTtrard Geoffrey Smith Stanley. Earl ofy English statesman, 
b, Marcn 29, 1799 ; eldest son of the thirteenth Earl of Derby ; educated at Eton, and at 
Christ Church, Oxford ; sat as M.P. for Stockbridge, 1820-2tf ; for Preston, 1826-80 : for 
Windsor, 1830-32 ; for North Lancashire, 1832-46 ; summoned to the Upper House as Lord 
Stanley of Bickerstaffe, 1846 ; chief secretary for Ireland, 1830-33 ; secretary of state for 
the colonies, 1833-34, and again 1841-46 ; succeeded to the earldom, 1851 ; first lord of 
the Treasury from March to December 1852, and again from Feb. 26, 1858, to June 18, 
1859 ; for the third time first lord of the Treasury, July 6, 1866, to Feb. 25, 1868. Author 
of a translation of Homer. 

DERGER, Emst^ German painter, b. at Bockenheim, near Frankfort, April 15, 1809 ; 
studied at the Academy of Dusseldorf, and under Schadow ; professor at the School of 
Fine Arts, Munich. Executed ' The Saviour carrying His Cross ;' the 'Garden of Olives ;' 
the 'Infant Jesus,' 1857; and numerous other paintings. 

DERING^ Sir EdTvard Cholmeley, English politician, b. 1807 ; magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of Kent; M.P. for Komney, 1831-32; M.P. for East Kent, 1852-57, 
and 1863-68. 

3 ROS, William Iiennoz Lascelles Fitx-Gerald De Ros, Baron, 

English military commander, b. at Thames Ditton, 1797 ; educated at Westminster Col- 
lege, and graduated at Christ Church, Oxford ; lieutenant-general in the army; deputy- 
lieutenant, and lieutenant-governor of the Tower ; magistrate for the Tower Liberties, 
and for the county of Down ; quartermaster-general of the army, 1856. 

DERRYy Right Rev. William Higrfirin, Lord Bishop of, English divine, 
b. 1793 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., and at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he took the degrees of M.A. and D.D. ; consecrated bishop of 
Limerick, 1849 ; translated to the see of Derry, 1853. 

DERVICH, Pasha, Turkish statesman and diplomatist, b. at Eyonb, Constantinople, 
1815 ; director of the Military School of Constantinople, with the grade of brigadier- 
general, 1841 ; general of division, 1849 ; ambassador at the Congress at Paris, 1856 ; 
chief of the administration of mines and forests, 1861. 

DESARBRES, Nere'e. French dramatic writer, b. at Villefranche, ^eb. IS, 1822. 
Author of 'Madame DiogSne, deux Femmes en Gage,' 1854 ; 'Deux Hommes pour un 
Placard,' 1860 ; ' Sept Aus k I'Opera : Souvenirs anecdotiques,' 1864. 

DESCAT, Louis Theodore Joseph, French politician, b. at Roubalx, Nord, 
Jan. 18, 1800; representative of the department of Nord, 1848 ; deputy to the Legislative 
Assembly after Dec. 10, 1851, and to the Corps L6gislatif, 1852-57. 

DESCH AMEL, Emile Augustin Etienne Martin, French writer, b. in Paris, 
Nov. 14, 1819 ; studied at the College of Lonis-le-Grand, 1839-42. Author of ' Les 
Courtisanes de la Gr^ce,' 1854 ; ' Causeries de Quinzaine,' 1861 ; and niunerous other 
works. Contributor to the Remie des Leva Mondas and the Journal des Dibats. 

DESCHAMPS, Antoine, French WTiter, b. in Paris, March 12, 1800, brother of the 
following ; studied at Orleans. Author of ' Trois Satires politiques,' 1881 ; * Resignation,' 
1839; 'Etudes sur I'ltalie,' 1832 ; and other works. 

DESCHAMPS, Emile, French author, b. at Bourges, Feb. 20, 1791 ; studied at Paris. 
Author of 'Le Tour de Faveur,' 1818 ; * iStudes FranQaises et ]6trang6res,* 1829 ; ' Poesies 
des Cr^hes,' 1852 ; and numerous translations trom Sir Walter Scott, Shakespeare, and 
other English authors. 

DESCHAMPS, Pre'de'riCi French writer, b. at Rouen, 1806 ; caUed to the bar in the 
same town, 1829. Author of 'Boh6me en Normandie,' Rouen, 1854; 'La Vendeenne,' 
ib. 1859 ; and other works. 

DESCOURS, Laurent, French politician, b. at Lyons, Jan. 20, 1814 ; member of the 
General Council for the canton of Mornant ; member of tiie Corps L6gislatif for tiie 4th 
circonscription of the Rhone since 1857. 

DESESSARTS, AlAred Stanislas Lan^lois, French writer, b. at Passy, Seine, 
Aug. 9, 1814; studied at the College of Henri IV. Author of 'Donjon de Vincennes,' 
1830 ; 'Une Perle dans la Mer,' 1841 ; 'Valentin, ou la Fenune de Mousse,' 1863; and 
numerous other works. 

DESESSERT, De la Manche, French magistrate, b. at Contances, May 4, 1802 ; 
studied law, was procureur du roi in his native town, the same at Bayeux, and at the 
royal court of Caen ; elected to represent the department of Manshe, 1848. 



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DESOOFFEy Alexandre, French painter, b. at Paris, March 2(1, 1805; studied 
under M. Ingres. Exhibited 'Site pr^s d'Arbonne,' 1834; 'Cheinin k Montmorency,' 
1861 ; 'R^urreetion de J^us-Christ,' 1856; and numerous other paintings. 

DESHAYE8, Oerard Paul. French naturalist, b. at Nancy, May 13, 1795 ; studied 
at Stxasbuig. Author of 'Descriptions des Coquillages fossiles des Environs de 
Paris,* 1824-37; 'L'Histoire des Animaux sans Vertobres,' 1836-46 ; and other works on 
natund history. 

DESJARDINS, Abel, French histoi-ian, b. at Paris, 1814 ; obtained the degree of 
doctor, 1844 ; appointed professor of history to the faculty of Dijon, 1847 ;• at Caen, 
1856 ; at Douai, 1857. Author of ' Etudes sur Saint Bernard,* 1859 ; ' L'Esclavage dans 
I'Antiquit^,' 1857 ; and other works. 

DESJARDINS, Ernest, French professor and historian, b. at Noisy-sur-Oise, 
Sept. 30, 1823 ; brother of the preceding ; appointed lecturer on geography at the Ecole 
Normale, 1861. Author of * Le Grand Corneille, Historien,' 1861 ; and numerous-historical 
and geographical works. 

DESLANDESy Rayuiond, French dramatic writer, b. at Yvetot, July 12. 1825 ; 
studied at the College of Rouen. Author of ' M^ridien,' 1852 ; * Une Chasse k Saint 
Germain,' 1860 ; ' Un Mari qui lance sa Femme,* 1864 ; and numerous other dramas. 

DESLYS, Charles, French writer, b. at Pans, 1820 ; studied at the College of Charle- 
magne. Author of ' Les Bottes vemies de Cendrillon,' 1846 ; * La Mere Rainette,* 1851 ; 

* L'H^ritage de Charlemagne,' 1864 ; and many other works. 

DESMAREST, Ernest Leon Joseph, French writer, b. in Paris, May 17, 1815 ; 
called to the bar, 1837. Author of ' ConsKintine, et de la Domination Frangaise en 
Afrique,' 1837 ; and, with M. H. Rodrigues, of ' Les Principes et les Hommes : Esquisses 
retrospectives,' 1840. 

DESMAROUX DE 6UALMIN, Gilbert Desirat, French politician, b. at 
Montmarault, Allier, Feb. 11, 1815 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique ; member of the 
Corps Legislatif for the 2d clrconscription of Allier since 1852. 

DESNOIRESTERRES, Gnstave le Brisoys, French writer, b. at Bayeux, 
Calvados, June 2, 1817. Author of 'La Pensionnaire et I'Artiste,' 1839 ; 'LaChambre 
Noire,' 1843 ; ' Les Cours Galautes,' 1859-64 ; and numerous other romances. 

DESNOYERS, Jnles Pierre Frangois Stanislas, French geologist, b. at 
Nogent le Rotron, Oct. 8, 1800 ; member of the Institute ; secretary to the Society of 
Natural History of Paris, 1825, and to the Society of (Jeology of France, 1830. Author 
of *Recherches geologiques et historiques sur les Cavernes a Ossenients,' 1845; and 
numerous historical and geological works. 

DESNOYERS, Iionis Claude Joseph Florence, French writer, b. at Replonges, 
Ain, 1805. Founded, with M. Charles Philipon, Le Ckarivari^ Dec. 1, 1832. Author of 

• Les Aventures de Jean Paul Choppart,' 1836 ; ' De I'Opera en 1847,' 1847 ; and of many 
dramas. 

DESOLME. Laurent Pierre Charles, French journalist, b. in Paris, Dec. 15, 
1817; studied at the Bourbon College. Established U Esprit du Peuple, 1848; the 
Courrier de V Industrie, 1853 ; and several other French periodicals. Author of * Un Mari 
dans les Nuages,' 1855 ; ' Pongo,' 1859. 

DESPREZ> Louis, French sculptor, b. at Paris, July 7, 1799 ; studied under Bosio, 
and at the ^cole des Betuix Arts. Executed 'L'Innocence,' 1831 ; * Diane an Bain,' in 
bronze, for the Champs Elys^es ; 'Jacques Desbrosses,' 1852 ; and numerous busts and 
statues. 

DESSALLES, Jean Leon, French philologist, b. at Bugue, Dordogne, May 18, 1803 ; 
studied at Perigeaux. Author of ' Etudes sur TOrigine et la Formation du Roman et 
de I'ancien Frangais,' 1854 ; ' Rapport sur I'Etat present des Archives de Sarlat,' 1855 ; 
and other works. 

DESVAUX, Nicolas Gilles Toussaint, French general, b. Nov. 1, 1810; 
second lieutenant, 1880 ; captain, 1840 ; colonel, Dec. 1851 ; brigadier-general, March 17, 
1866 ; general of division, March 12, 1869. 

DE TABLEY, Georee Warren, Baron, English magistrate, b. at Tabley House, 
Cheshire, 1811 ; studied at Oxford ; was lord-in -waiting to the Queen ; is a deputy-lieu- 
tenant of Cheshire. 

DEVAUX. Paul Louis Isidore, Belgian politician, b. at Bruges, April 10, 1801 ; 
called to the bar at Liege ; elected deputy to the National Congress, 1830 ; member of the 
Chamber of Representatives since 1831. 



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VERB, Aubrey Thomas^ English writer, b. 1814 ; eUncated at the University 
of Dublin. Published * The Waldensea and other Poems,' 184*2 ; ' Poems Miscellaneous 
and Sacred,' 1856 ; 'Wanderings in Greece and Turkey,' 1850 ; and other works. 

DEVEREUX, Richard Joseph, English politician, b. 1829 ; educated at Oscott ; 
a merchant in Wexford; M.P. for Wexford since 1865. 

DE VESCI, Thomas Vesey. Visconnt, English politician, b. in Dublin, Sept. 21, 
i 1803 ; graduated at Christ Church, Oxford ; M.P. for Queen's County, 1835 to 1852 ; 

^ succeeded his father, 1855 ; elected a representative peer of Ireland, 1856. 

, DEVIENNE, lK>uis, FrencJi magistrate, b. 1800 ; appointed procureur-g^n^ral at 
I Lyons, 1858 ; first president of the Imperial Court of Paris, 1858 ; created senator, 

i March 15, 1865. 

DEVOIIiIiE. I'Abbe' Achille, French poet, b. at Besangon, 1815. Author of « Voix 
• de la Solitude,' 1839 ; ' Andreas, ou le Pr6tre-8oldat,' 1843 ; * La Cloche de Louville,* * Les 

Echos de ma Lyre,' 1859 ; and other poems. 

DEVON, William RegriAA^d Conrtenay, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1807 ; 
eldest son of the tenth Earl of Devon ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; sat as M. P. 
for South Devonshire, 1841-48; secretary to the Poor Law Board, 1850-59; succeeded 
to the earldom, 1859 ; chancellor of the Duuhy of Lancaster, July 6, 1866, to May 17, 
1867 ; president of the Poor Law Board, May 1867 to Dec. 1868. 

DEVONSHIRE. William Cavendish, Duke of, English statesman, b. 1808 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1829; M.P. for the 
University of Cambridge, 1829-30; M.P. for Malton, 183P ; and for North Derbyshire, 
1832-34 ; succeeded to the peerage, Jan. 1858 ; is lord-lieutenant of Derbyshire ; chan- 
cellor of the London University, 1836 to 1856 ; chancellor of the Universtty of Cambridge. 

DE'WEY, Rev. Chester, American writer, b. at Sheffield, Massachusetts, Oct 25, 
1784; graduated at William's College, 1806; appointed professor of chemistry and 
natural philosophy in the University of Rochester, 1850. Author of * History of the Her- 
baceous Plants of Massachusetts ;' contributor to the American Journal of Science and Art. 



wjiww*MMf Rev. Orvllle* D.D., American writer, b. at Sheffield, Massachusetts, 
March 28, 1794 ; graduatea at William's College, 1814 ; studied at Andover Theological 
Seminary, 1816 to 1819. Author of 'The Old World and the New,' 1836; 'On the 
Education of the Human Race,' 1855 ; and other works. 

DIAS^ Goncalvex, Brazilian poet, b. at Cachias, province of MaranhtL Aug. 10, 1823 ; 
studied at the University of Coimbra. Author of ' Primeiros Cantos,' Rio de Janeiro, 
1846 ; * Leonor de MendouQa,' 1847 ; and other poems. 

DICEY, EdTtrard Stephen, English writer, b. 1829 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1864. Author of 'Memoir of Cavour;' 'Rome in 
1860 ;' and other works : contributor to Fraser's and Macmillan's Magazines. 

DICK, William Wentworth Fitxwilliam, English politician, b. 1805 ; justice 
of the peace and deputy-lieutenant of Wicklow ; high sheriff 1844 ; assumed the name 
of Dick in 1865; M.P. for Wicklow since 1852. 

DICKENS, Charles, English novelist, b. at Portsmouth, Feb. 7, 1812. Author of 
'Sketches by Boz,' 1836-37; 'Posthumous Memoirs of the Pickwick Club,' 1837-38; 
•OUver Twist,' 1838; 'Martin Chuzzlewit,' 1844; 'Bleak House,' 1853; 'Our Mutual 
Friend,' 1864; and numerous other works of fiction. Editor of All the Year Round. 

DICKENSON, Daniel Stevens, American politician, b. at Goshen, Connecticut, 
U.S. Sept. 11, 1800 ; called to the New York bar, 1823 ; elected to the State Senate, 1836 ; 
lieutenant-governor and president of the State Senate ; member of the Federal Senate, 
1844 to 1851. 

DICKENSON, Samnel Henry, American physician, b. at Charleston, South 
Carolina, Sept. 1798 ; graduated at Yale College, 1814, and at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1818-19 ; professor of medicine at the College of Charleston, 1824-32 ; appointed 
to the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 1850. Author of ' Elements of Medicine,' 
and numerous medical works. 

DICKSON, Alexander Oeorgre, English politician, b. 1834; educated at Rugby; 
formerly m^or in the army ; M.P. for Dover, 1865. 

DIDAY, Francis, Swiss painter, b. at Geneva, 1812 ; studied painting in Prance. Exe- 
cuted • Un Chalet dans les Hautes Alpes ;' * Le Soir dans la Valine ;' ' Un Torrent dans 
les Alpes ; ' the ' Glacier de Rosenheim ;* and other paintings, principally landscapes, 

DIDIER, Henry, French politician, b. Jan. 1, 1823 ; is an advocate and member of the 
General Council for the canton of Aix ; member of the Corps L6gislatif for Ariege since 
1857. 



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DIDIOT; Cbarles Nicolas Pierre, French theologian, b. at the village of Esnet*, 
Meuse, 1797 ; appointed professor at Verdun, 1822 ; grand vicar of the diocese, 1837 ; 
bishop of Bayeux, 1856. 

DIESTBRIVEG, Friedericb Adolph Wilhelm, German educational writer, 
b. at Sieger, Westphalia, Oct. 29, 1790 ; studied at the Universities of Herbom and 
Tubingen ; teacher at the Beniinary of Berlm, 1832 to 1850. Author of ' Lehrbuch 
der mathenL geogr. und popuL Himmelskunde,' Berlin, 1840; and other scholastic 
works. 

DIETRICH, DaTid Nathaniel Friedericb, German botanist, b. at Ziegenhain, 
near Jena, 1800. Author of ' Deutschlauds Giftplanzen,' Jena, 1826 ; ' Encyclopadie der 
Pflanzen,* ib. 1841-51 ; and other botanical works. 

DIEZ; Friedericb Christian, German philologist, b. at Giessen, March 15, 1794 ; 
studied at the College and University of his native town ; graduated Ph.D. at Giessen, 
1821 ; appointed professor at Bonn, 1830. Author of ' Altspanische Romanzen,' Berlin, 
1821 ; * Etymologische Worterbuch der romanischen Sprachen,' Bonn, 1853 ; and nume- 
rous other works. 

DIGBY. KeneUn Henry, English writer, b. 1800: educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1823. Author of ' The Broad Stone of Honour ; or. 
Rules for the Gentlemen of England,' 1829 ; ' Compitum, or the Meeting of Ways in the 
Catholic Church ;' and other works. 

DIGBY, KeneUn Thonuui, English politician, b. 1843, son of the preceding; 
returned MP. for Queen's County, 1868. 

DIIfKE, Sir Charles Wentworth, English x>olitician, b. in London, 1810 ; educated 
at Westminster, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; graduated LL.B. 1834; M.L. 1860 ; magis- 
trate of Middlesex and Westminster, and one of the royal commissioners for the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862 ; created a baronet, Jan. 1862 ; M.P. for Wallingford, 1865-68. 

DIIiKG, Christopher Went^rorth. English politician, b. 1843 ; educated at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1866; returned M.P. for 
Chelsea, 1868. Author of ' Greater Britain,' 1868. 

DIIiIiON, John Blake, English politician, b. 1814; educated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin ; graduated B. A. 1841 ; called to the Irish bar, 1842 ; alderman of the city of Dublin ; 
M.P. for Tipperary, 1865-68. 

DIItli^KTYN, liOnis Iilemrelyn, English politician, b. 1814 ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of Glamorgan ; M.P. for Swansea since 1855. 

DINDORF, WilheUn, German philologist, b. at Leipsic, 1804; educated at the 
University of his native town ; professor of literary history at Leipsic, 1828-33. Edited 
critical editions of Demosthenes, Aristotle, Atheneeus, and many other classical works. 

DINGEIfSTEDT, Franx, German poet, b. at Halsdorf, Hesse, 1814; appointed 
professor at Cassel, 1836 ; councillor to the Royal Court of Wurtemberg, 1841. Author 
of ' Gedichte,' Cassel and Leipsic, 1848 ; ' Wanderbuch,' ib. 1839-43 ; and numerous other 
poems. 

DIRCKINCK HOLMFELD, Constant Peter Walpnrfris, Baron, Danish 
writer, b. at Bochold, 1799 ; studied at Copenhagen, 1813 to 1819 ; took the degree 
of LL.D. 1840. Author of *0m den aandelige Sandheds Anerkjendelse,' Copenhagen, 
1827; 'Tanker som Bidrag til et monarkisk Reaerings-Program,' &c., 1853; and other 
works. 

DISRAEIiI, Riflrbt Hon. Benjamin, English author and statesman, b. Dec. 31, 
1805, eldest son of Isaac Disraeli, author ; articled as a solicitor's clerk, and subsequently 
devoted himself to literature ; sat as M.P. for Maidstone, 1837-41, and for Shrewsbury, 
1841-47 ; returned for Buckinghamshire at the elections from 1847 to 1868 ; chancellor of 
the Exchequer from February to December 1852, and from February 1858 to June 1859 ; 
for the third time chancellor of the Exchequer, July 1866 to Feb. 1868 ; first lord of the 
Treasury, Feb. 25 to Dec. 8, 1868. Author of numerous works of fiction, and several 
political essays. 

DIX, John Adams, American general, b. atBoscawen, New Hampshire, 1798 ; entered 
the army, 1812 ; acyutant-general of the State of New York, 1830 ; member of the 
State Assembly, 1842 ; elected to tbe Senate at Washington, 1845 ; military commandant 
of New York, 1863. 

DIXON, William Hepworth, English author, b. June 30, 1821 ; called to the bar 
of the Inner Temple. Author of 'John Howard, a Memoir,' 1849; 'Life of William 
Penn,' 1851 ; ' Robert Blake, Admiral and General at Sea,' 1852 ; 'New America,' 1867 ; 
' Spiritual Wives,' 1868 ; and numerous other works. Editor of the AthencBum since 
1854. 



Dob HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. DOP 

[ 89 ] 



DOBBIN^ Rev. OrlandOy English phUol<^t, b. in the county of Armagh, 1816 ; 
graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, 1837 ; took the degrees of LL.D. and B.D. ; incum- 
bent of Ballivor, in the diocese of Meath. Published Diodati's ' De Christo Grsece 
loquente,' with a translation; 'Codex Montfortianus ;' and numerous sermons: also 
contributed to the London Quarterly, and other periodicals. 

DOBEItIa, Sydney. English writer, known by the pseudonjrm of 'Sydney Yendvs,' 
b. at Peckham Rye, 1824. Author of 'The Roman,' 1850; 'Balder,' first part published 
in 1854 ; * England in time of War,' and other poems. 

DODDS, Joseph, English politician, b. 1819; a solicitor, and mayor of Stockton, 
in 1857-58 ; returned M.P. for Stockton, 1868. 

DODSON9 Jobn Georgre, English politician, b. 1821; educated at Eton, and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1847 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1851 ; 
1 magistrate of Sussex ; M. P. for East Sussex since 1857. 

, DOEIalalNGER, Johann Joseph Igrnas^ German theological writer, b. at 

I Bamberg, Bavaria, Feb. 28, 1799 ; apjwinted chaplain of the diocese of Ban>berg, 1822 ; 

I represented the University of Munich in the Bavarian Parliament, 1845 ; delegate to the 

! Parliament of Frankfort, 1851. Author of 'Die Reformation,' 1846-48; and other 

I theological works. 

' DOENHOFF, AugTUSt Herman, Count "Von, Prussian statesman, b. at Potsdam, 

Oct. 10, 1797 ; studied at Konigsberg, Gottingen, and Heidelberg, 1816 to 1819 ; attaclie 

to the Prussian embassy at Paris, 1823 ; secretary of legation in London, 1828 ; ambassador 

; at Munich, 1833 ; elected meml>er of the Diet of Frankfort, 1842 ; minister of foreign 

I affairs, 1848-49 ; member of the Upper Chamber of Prussia since 1849. 

DOENNIGES, Wilhelm, German writer, b. near Stettin, 1814 ; studied at the Univer- 
sities of Bonn and Berlin ; appointed professor to the University of Berlin, 1841 ; teacher 
of political economy to the Prince Maximilian, afterwards King of Bavaria, 1842 to 
1845 ; represented Bavaria at the Parliament of Frankfort, 1848 ; ambassador and pleni- 
potentiary to the conferences of Dresden, 1851. Author of 'Altschott, und altengl. 
Volksballaden,' Munich, 1852; and other philological works. 

DONALDSON, Thomas Iieverton, English architect, b. in London, 1795 ; pro- 
fessor of architecture in the London University. Author of ' Pompeii Illustrated,' 1837 ; 
'Architectural Maxims and Theories,' 1847; ' Architectura Numismatica,' 1859; and 
other works on architecture. Elected president of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects, 1864. 

DONEGAIfIa, Georire Hamilton Chichester. Marquis of, Irish magistrate, 
b. 1798 ; studied at the University of Oxford ; M. P. for Carrickfei^s, Belfast, and 
Antrim, 1818 to 1837 ; lord-lieutenant of Antrim ; vice-chamberlain from 1830 to 1834. 

DONERAIIaE. Hayes St. laeyer, Visconnt, Irish magistrate, b. 1818 ; educated 
at Eton and Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant of the county of Cork, of which he was hijih 
sheriff in 1845 ; succeeded his father, 1854 ; elected a representative peer of Ireland in 
1855. 

DON NET, Ferdinand Francois Augrustef French prelate, b. at Bourg-Argental. 
! Loire, Nov. 16, 1795 ; studied at the Seminary of St. Iren6e ; ordained, 1819 ; appointed 

cur6 of YiUefranche, 1827 ; created a cardinal, 1852, and senator, 1853. 

DONOUGHMORE, Richard John Hely Hutchinson. Earl of, English 
Rtatesman, b. in Dublin, 1823 ; educated at Harrow ; succeeded his father, 1851 ; vice- 
president of the Board of Trade, Feb. 1858 to 1850 ; president, Feb. to June, 1859 ; 
f deputy-lieutenant of Tipperary. 

DOO, Georgre Thonuui, English engraver, b. 1807. Engraved ' The Duke of York ' 
after Sir Thomas Lawrence,' 1823 ; appointed historical engraver in ordinary to William 1 v. 

' 1836; to Queen Victoria, 1842; elected A.R.A. 1866, and RA. 1856. Exhibited 'The 

Raising of Lazarus,' after Sebastian del Piombo, in the Royal Academy, 1864 ; and pub- 

j lished numerous engravings of celebrated paintings. 

DORA D'ISTRIA, Helena Ghika^ Princess KOLTZOFF MASSALSKY. 

Wallachian authoress, b. at Bucharest, Jan. 22, 1829 ; daughter of the Grand Ban Michel 
I Qhika ; married to the Prince Koltzoff Massalsky, 1849. Author of ' Monastic Life in an 

Eastern Church/ Paris and Geneva, 1855; * Women, by a Woman,' 1864 ; and numerous 
I other works. 

DORANy John, English author, b. 1807. Published ' History and Antiquities of the 
; Town and Borough of Reading, in Berkshire,' 1835 ; ' Lives of the Queens of the House of 

Hanover,' ia'>5 ; 'Lives of the Princes of Wales,' 1860 ; * Their Majesties' Servants,' 1864 ; 
and many other, chiefly historical, works. 



Dor HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Dra 

[ 90 ] 



DORE'; Paol GnstaTei French artist, b. at Strasbur^, Jan. 1833; studied at the 
Lyc6e Charlemagne, Paris, in 1845 Exhibited ' La Bataille d'AUna,' 1855 ; * LaBataille 
d'lnkemian/ 1857; illustrated the Bible, 'The Wandering Jew,' 'The Divine Comedy* 
of Dante in 1861, ' Don Quixote,' 1863, the poems of Alfred Tennyson, and many other 
works. 

DORIA.N, Pierre Frederic, French politician, b. Jan. 24, 1814 ; mayor of Enieux ; 
elected member of the Corps Legislatif for the department of Loire, 1863. 

DORMER, Josepb Thaddens, Baron, English magtstrate, b. at Gran, Hungary, 
1790 ; served in the Austrian army ; succeeded his cousin, 1820 ; deputy-lieutenant of 
the county of Warwick. 

DORN, Heinrlcb IiudTvigr Bsrmont, German musical composer, b. at Eonigsberg, 
Nov. 14, 1804; appointed professor to the School of Music of Frankfort on the Maine, 
1827. Composed * Artaxerxes,' 1831 ; and other operas. 

DORN, Johann Albert Bernard, German writer, b. at Schenerfeld, Coburg, May 11, 
1805 : studied at Halle and Leipsic ; appointed professor of history and geography at 
St. Petersburg, 1836, Author of 'Grammat. Bemerk. ungen liber die Sprache der 
Afghanen,' St Petersburg, 1840; 'Geschichte Tabaristans,' ib. 1850; and numerous 
other works. 

DORNER, Jobann Anrost, German Protentant theologian, b. at Neuhausen-ob-Eck, 
Wurtemberg, June 20, 1809; studied at Tubingen, and obtained the degree of D.D. 
1836 ; appointed professor of theology at Tubingen, 1838 ; at Kiel, 1889 ; at Konigsberg, 
1840-49 ; professor in ordinary to the faculty of theology at Bonn. Author of 'Darstellung 
der Lehre von Christus,' 1845-46; and numerous theological works. 

DOUCET, Cbarles CamlUe, French dramatic writer, b. in Paris, May 16, 1812 ; 
studied law, and was called to the bar ; appointed director of the administration of Paris 
theatres, 1863. Author of * Un Jeune Homme,' 1841 ; ' La Consideration,' 1860 ; and 
many other works of fiction. 

DOUGIaASS, Frederick Bailey, American writer, b. in Talbot, Maryland, 1816, of 
slave parents ; obtained his freedom, 1838. Lectured in England and America in support 
of the abolition of slavery; published 'Memoirs of Douglass,' Boston, 1846, 

DOULTON, Frederick, English politician, b. 1824; member of the Metropolitan 
Board of Works ; formerly a manufacturer in London and Liverpool ; M.P. for Lambeth, 
1862-68. 

DOVE, Heinrlcb Wllbelm, German writer, b. at Liegnitz, Silesia, 1803 ; studied at 
Breslau and Berlin, and M.D. 1826; professor of natural philosophy at Berlin. Author 
of * Ueber die nicht periodischen Aenderungen der Temperaturvertheilimg,' Berlin, 
1840-47 ; 'Tafeln der Temperatur,' ib. 1848 ; and other meteorological works. 

DOWDESWEItla, WUllam Edward, Engli.sh politician, b. 1841 ; educated at 
Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate for the county of Worcester ; 
M.P. for Tewkesbury, 1865-68. 

DOW^N, CONNOR, and DROMORE, Rlfbt Rev. Bent Knox, Lord 
Blsbop of. Irish divine, b. 1808 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; formerly pre- 
bendary of Lmierick, and chancellor of Ardfert and Agheidoe ; bishop of Down, Connor, 
and Dromore, 1849. 

DOWSE, Rlcbard, English politician, b. 1818 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; 
called to the Irish bar, 1852 ; returned M.P. for Londonderry, 1868. 

DOYIiE. Rlcbard, English artist, b. in London, 1826. Contributed to Punch until 
1850; illustrated the 'Fairy Ring,' Leigh Hunt's 'Jar of Honey.' 'The Continental 
Tour of Messrs. Brown, Jones, and Robinson,' 1854 ; contributor of illustrations to the 
Comhill Magazine, and other works. 

DRAEXIiER-MANFRED, Carl Ferdinand, German writer, b. at Lemberg, 
in Galicia, June 17, 1806; studied law at Vienna and Leipsic. Author of 'Romanzen 
und Lieder,' Leipsic, 1826-28 ; and numerous novels and poems. 

DRAKE, Frlederlcb, German sculptor, b. at Pyrmont, June 23, 1805 ; professor of 
sculpture to the Academy of Fine Arts of Berlin. Executed * Madomia with the Infant ;' 
' Warrior crowned by Victory,' 1850 ; and numerous busts, groups, and statues. 

DRAKE, Samuel, American writer, b. at Pittsfleld, Now Hampshire, Oct. 10, 1798. 
Author of 'The Book of the Indians,' 1833; 'History of Boston,' 1852. Commenced 
the New York Register, 1847. 



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I SBTiiimir Hoore, Maranls of, Irish msgin- 
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Beaux Arts; appoinl«iJ arthit^ct lo the Louvre, 1854 ; 

eirtx Tyvnch, Archbishop of, English sutlior 
ited at Trinity College, Cambridge, ui 1828 ; appolu ttd 
U. King's CoUege, Lnndou. 1847 ; d^n of Westmin- 
at Dulilin, Jan. 1. 1S«4. AulhoT of 'Babhatinii, 
; "rheEpiatlestotheaeveuChurchesofAsinHiDor;' 

I Eagene, Comte,, French administrator, b. at 
alytcehniuue, sndtheEcoie deStCyr; called t« tiie 

ch writer, b. at Hennes, Ille-et-Villalne. June 2, ITPS ; 
bered the Ecole Normale, 1812 ;, appointed professor 
einegne, 1820 ; director of the Ecole Normi^e, IMO ; 
French pspere. 

administrator, b. 1825 ; edncaled at Charterhouse, 
: he giadoated B.A, 1847 ; manisfrata and deputy- 
h ESMX, 1857-68 ; appointed governor of Tasmania, 

xrt, Bktoq, French military writer, h. 1815; 

Jerome, 18M. Author of ' Rieit ^Is'loriqnedes Operations de I' Armie de Lyon en 1814.' 
1848 ; and other woi*H on inilitary tactics. 
DDOHATEIa, Ohiulea HaiU TumeKiV, OomM, French statesniao. b. in 
Paris, Feb, 19, 1603 ; one of the editora and pruprietore of the Globi. J827 ; apjflinted 
councillor of state, 1880, and elected deputy, 183K ; minister of oommBree, ie34-a« ; 
minister of the interior, 1838-4S ; retired from public service, 1861. 



Due HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. 

92 ] 



DUCIB, Henry John Moretoni Earl ofi English administrator, b. at Sherborne, 
Gloucester, June 25, 1827 ; lord-lieutenant of Gloucestershire and a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of Oxfordshire ; appointed captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, June 
1859 ; succeeded to the peerage, 1853. 

DUCKETT| Sir Georg^e Floyd, English writer, b. 1811 ; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; served tn the navy ; succeeded his father in the baronetcy, 1856. 
Author of * Technological Militaiy Dictionary,' in German, English, and French. 

DUDEVA.NT, Madame Armantine Lncile Anrore, French authoress writing 
under the nom dts plvme of George Sand, b. in Paris, July 6, 1804. Author of 'Indiana,* 
1832; *La Mare au Diable;' 'La Famille de Gerraaiidre,' 1861; 'Tamaris,' 1862; and 
numerous other works of fiction, dramas, essays, and political pamphlets. 

DUDIfEYy William Ward, Earl of, English administrator, b. 1817 ; educated at 
Triuity College, Oxford ; is deputy-lieutenant of Stafibrdshire and Worcestershire ; colonel 
of the Worcestershire Yeomanry Cavalry. 

DUFAURE. Jules Annand Stanislas. French statesman, b. at Soiyon, Charente 
Inf6rieur, Dec. 4, 1798 ; studied law, and called to the bar ; councillor of state, 1834 ; 
minister of public works, 1839-40 ; minister of the interior, 1849 ; elected member of the 
French Academy, 1863. 

DUFF, Rev- Alexander. Scottish missionary, b. near Pitlochry, Perthshire, 1806 ; 
studied at the University or St. Andrew ; first missionary to India from the Established 
Church of Scotland, 1829 ; quitted India, July 1863. Author of * India and Indian 
Missions,' 1839 ; * Letters on the Indian Rebellion,' 1858 ; and other works. 

DUFF, Monntstuart Elphinstone Grant, English statesman, b. 1829 ; educated 
at Edinburgh, and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1850 ; called to the 
bar of the Inner Temple, 1853 ; deputy-lieutenant of Elgin, 1858 ; appointed under- 
secretary of state for India, Dec. 1868; M.P. for Elgin since 1857. Author of * A Few 
Words on France, by a Scottish M.P.' 

DUFF, Robert William, English politician, b. 1835 ; is deputy-lieutenant of the 
county of BanflF, and lieutenant R.N. ; M.P. for Banffshire since 1861. 

DUFFERIN, Frederick Temple Blackmrood, Baron, English statesman, 
b. at Florence, June 21, 1826 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; was a 
lord-in-waiting to the Queen, and resigned, 1858 ; commissioner on a mission to Syria, 
1860-61 ; appointed chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Dec. 1868. Author of 
' Letters from High Latitudes,' 1860. 

DUFFY, Charles Gavan, Irish politician, b. 1816; founded TTie Nation, 1842; 
imprisoned with O'Connell for sedition, 1844 ; M.P. for the borough of New Ross, 1852-56 ; 
subsequently minister in Victoria. 

DUFOUR, Guillaume Renri, Swiss general, b. 1787 ; ofiicer in the Swiss army, 
1809 ; staff major, 1831 ; quartermaster-general ; president of the war administration, 
1864. Author of several military works. 

DURAMEIf, Jean Marie Constant, French mathematician, b. at St. Malo, 1797 ; 
appointed professor to the F^'ulty of Sciences, 1851 ; member of the Institute. Author 
of ' Cours de M^canique de I'Ecole Poly technique,' 1845-46 ; and other works, 

DUKE, Sir James, English politician, b. 1792 ; sheriff of London and Middlesex, 
1836; alderman of London, 1840; lord mayor, 1848-49; created a baronet, 1849; M.P. 
for Boston, 1837 to 1849 ; M.P. for the city of London, 1849 to 1865. 

DUIiAURIER, Jean Paul Lonis Francois Edonard, French writer, b. at 
Toulouse, Jan. 25, 1807 ; appointed professor of Armenian to the Paris Ecole des Langues 
Orientales vivantes, 1862 ; elected member of the French Academy, 1864. Author of 
' Histoire, Dogmes, Traditions et Liturgie de I'Eglise Annenienne Orientale,' 1859 ; and 
other works. 

DUMANOIR, Philippe Frangois Pinel, French dramatic writer, b. at Guadaloupe, 
July 31, 1806 ; studied at the Bourbon College, Paris. Author of ' Les Vieux P6ches,* 
1833 ; * Les Femmes Terribles,' 1858 ; * Les Drames du Cabaret,' 1864 ; and numerous other 
dramas. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, French dramatist and novelist, b. at Yillers Cotterets, July 24, 
1803. Author of * Monte Cristo ;' ' Les Trois Mousquetaires ; * ' Les Memoires de Garibaldi,* 
1860 ; * La San Felice,' 1863-64 ; and a vast number of novels, dramas, and romances. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, French author, b. in Paris, July 28, 1824, son of the preceding ; 
studied at the Bourbon College. Author of ' Les Aventures de quatre Femmes et d'un 
Perroquet,' 1846-47; 'La Dame aux Camillas,' 1848; 'La Boite d'Argent,' 1855; and 
numerous other dramas and romances. 



Dnm HANDBOOK OP CONTBMPORART BIOGRAPHY. Dun 

[ 93 1 



DUMAS, Jean Baptistei French statesman, b. at Alois, Gard, July 1800 ; studied at 
Geneva ; appointed teacher of chemistry to the JBcole Polytechnique, Paris, 1823 ; elected 
to the National ^Assembly, 1849 ; minister of agriculture and commerce, Oct 31, 1850, to 
Jan. 9, 1851 ; vice-president of the Council of Education, 1861 to 1863. Author of 'Traits 
de Chiniie appliqu^e aux Arts,' 1828-43 ; and other worb) on chemistry. 

DUMIRAIiy Francisque Rndely French politician, b. 1812 ; advocate at the Imperial 
Court of Paris ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Puy de l)drae 
since 1852. 

DUMONy Pierre SylTain, French statesman, b. at Agen, Lot-et-Garonne, 1797; 
studied at the Lyc6e Napoleon, and called to the bar at Paris, 1820 ; appointed councillor 
of state, 1832 ; vice-president of the Committee of Legislation, 1840 ; minister of finance, 
1847 ; elected member of the French Academy, 1869. 

DUMONT. Ausmstin Alexandre, French sculptor, b. in Paris, Aug. 14, 1801 ; 
studied at St. Barbe. Executed * Nicolas Poussin ' for the hall of the Institute ; 

* Van Praef for the Royal Biblioth6gue, 1854 ; 'La Prudence et la Verite,' 1865; and 
numerous busts, statues, and groups. Elected member of the Institute, 1838. 

DUNBARy Sir William, English statesman, b. 1812 ; educated at the University of 
Edinbui^gh ; called to the Scottish bar, 1835 ; succeeded to the baronetcy at the death of 
his uncle, 1841 ; M.P. for Wigton Burghs, 1857 to 1865 ; one of the lords of the Treasury, 
1859-65 ; keeper of the great seal of the Princ* of Wales, 1863. 

DUNCKER, Maximilian ^CTolffrangrf German historian, b. at Berlin, 1812 ; 
studied at the College of Frederick William at Berlin, 1825 to 1830, and at the Universities 
of Berlin and Bonn, 1834. Author of 'Die Krisis der Reformation,' Lcipsic, 1846; 
' Geschiehte des Alterthums,' Berlin, 1852-53 ; and other historical works. 

DUNCOMBE, Hon. Arthur, English politician, b. 1806; rear-admiral in the 
British navy; J. P. for Middlesex and Westminster; J. P. [and deputy-lieutenant of the 
East Riding of Yorkshire ; has been a lord of the Admiralty and a groom-in-waiting ; 
M.P. for Retford, 1830-31, and 1835-61 ; M.P. for the East Riding of Yorkshire, 1851-«6. 

DUNCOMBEy Hon. ^Villiam Ernest, English politician, b. 1829 ; deputy-lieute- 
nant of the North Riding of Yorkshire; M.P. for Bast Retford, 1852-67, and for the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, 1859-68. 

DUNDAS, RiKbt Hon. Sir David, English politician, b. 1799 ; educated at West- 
minster, and Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1820 ; M. A. 1822 ; called to the 
bar of the Inner Temple, 1823 ; has been solicitor-general and judge advocate-general ; 
M.P. for the county of Sutherhind, 1840-62, and 1861-66. 

DUNDAS. Frederick, English politician, b. 1802; lord-lieutenant of the Isle of 
Orkney ; M.P. for the county, 1837-47 ; and for Orkney and Shetland since 1852. 

DUNFERMLINE, Rigbt Hon. Ralpb Abercromby, Baron, English 
diplomatist, b. 1803 ; educated at Eton, and Peterhouse College, Cambridge ; entered the 
diplomatic service ; secretary of legation to Brazil, 1828 ; to Brussels, 1830 ; and to 
Berlin, 1831 ; minister at Florence, 1835-39 ; to the Germanic Confederation, 1839-40 ; at 
Turin, 1840 ; and at the Hague, 1851 ; retired, 1858. 

DUNGIalSON. Robley, American author, b. at Keswick, Cumberland, 1798 ; 
appointed professor of medicine to the University of Virginia, 1824 to 1833 ; and to 
Jefferson College, Philadelphia, since 1836. Author of * Dictionary of Medical Science,' 
1833 ; 'New Remedies,' 1839 ; and other medical works. 

DUNIaOP, Alexander Murray, English legal writer, b. at Greenock, 1798 ; educated 
at Greenock, and the University of Edinburgh; called to the Scottish bar, 1820; M.P. 
for Greenock, 1852-68. Author of 'Scottish Poor Law,' and other legal works. 

DUNIaOP, Madeline, English authoress, b. in India, 1835. Author of ' The Timely 
Reti-eat ;' * What we saw in Brittany;' and other works. 

DUNNE, Francis Plnnliett, English politician, b. 1802 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. 1827 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
Qneen's County'; and a colonel in the ai-my ; was clerk of the Ordnance, 1852 ; M.P. for 
Portarhngton, 1847-^7 ; and for Queen's County, 1859-68. 

DUNTZER, Joban Heinricb Josepb, German writer, b. at Cologne, July 11, 
1813; studied at Bonn and Berlin, and obtamed the degree of PIlD. 1836. Author of 

• Die Sage vom Doctor Joh. Faust.' Tjeipsic, 1848 ; and other works. 



Dup HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORABY BIOGRAPHY. Dnv 

[04 1 



DUPANIaOUP, Felix Antoine Phllibert, French predate, b. at St. Felix, Jan. 3, 
1802 ; studied in Paris ; ordained, 1825 ; appointed profe-ssor of theology at Sorbonne, 
1841 ; bishop of Orleans, April 1849. Author of several theological and scholastic works, 

DUPENTY, De'sire' Charles, French dramatic writer, b. at Paris, Feb. 6, 1798. 
Author of * Le Hussard de Feltheim,' 1827 ; ' La Vie de Caf6,' 1850 ; * Le Marquis 
d'Argencourt,' 1857 ; and numerous other dramas. 

DUPIN, Frangois Pierre Charles, Baron, French writer, b. at Varzy, Oct 6, 

1784, brother of the preceding ; appointed professor of mechanics to the Conservatoire 

I des Arts et Metiers, 1819 ; councillor of state, 1831 ; peer of France, Oct. 3, 1837 ; senator, 

, Jan. 25, 1852. Author of ' Force commerciale de la Grande Bretagne,* 1826 ; * Industries 

compar^es de Paris et de Londres,' 1862 ; and numerous other works. 

I DUPIaAN, Joseph, French politician, b. at Paris, March 17, 1791; studied at the 
Bcole Polytechuique ; member of the General Council for the canton of Aspet ; member 
: of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Haute Garonne since 1852. 

I DUPONT, Pierre, French song writer, b. at Lyons, April 23, 1821. Author of * The 
Two Angels,' 1844 ; 'The Oxen,' 1846 ; 'Song of Bread,' 1847; 'Song of the Workers,* 
1847 ; ' Dix j^glogues,' 1864 ; and numerous other poems. 

DU PRB', Caledon Qeorge, EngUsh politician, b. 1803; a magistrate and deputy- 
1 lieutenant of Bucks ; M.P. for Bucks since 1839. 

DURANDO, Giacomo. Italian statesman, b. at Mondovi, 1807 ; studied law at Turin, 
i 1831 ; entered the Spanish army, and made colonel in 1845 ; minister of war under Count 

I Cavour, 1856 ; envoy to Constantinople, 1860 ; minister of foreign affairs, 1862. 

DURANDO, Giovanni, Italian general, b. at Mondovi, 1809, brother of the preceding ; 
I entered the Spanish army, and became general, 1845 ; took part in the Italian war of 

independence, 1848 ; commander of a division, 1859 ; governor of Naples, 1861 ; military 
I commander of Milan, 1862. 

I DURBIN, John, American writer, b. in Bourbon County, Kentucky, 1800 ; studied at 

I the College of Cincinnati, 1824 ; graduated in 1825 ; elected president of Dickinson 

j College, Carlisle, 1834. Author of * Observations in Europe, princii)ally in France and 

I Great Britain,' 1845 ; and other works. 

DURHAM, Right Rev. Charles Baring, Lord Bishop of, English divine, 
b. 1807 ; graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, 1829 ; consecrated Bishop of Gloucester 
and Bristol, 1856 ; translated to the see of Durham, 1861. 

DURHAM, Joseph, English sculptor, b. in liondon, 1821 ; studied under E. H. Bailey, I 

I R. A. Executed a bust of Jenny Lind, 1848 ; of Queen Victoria, 1856 ; statue of the late > 

Prince Consort in the gardens of the Horticultural Society, in memory of the Great ' 
Exhibition, 1863 ; and a great number of other statues, groups, and busts. 

DURUY, Victor, French statesman and author, b. at Paris, 1811 ; studied at the 
' College of St. Barbe, 1823 ; and at the Paris ^cole Normale, 1830, and took the degree of 

I D.C.L. 1853 ; inspector of the Academy of Paris, 1861 to 1862 ; appointed minister of 

i public instruction, June 23, 1863. Author of 'Geographic politique de la Republique 

\ Romaine et de I'Empire,' 1838; ' Introduction g^n^rede i I'Histoire de France,' 1865 ; and 

other works. ♦ 

DUSEIGNEUR, Bernard Jean, French sculptor, b. at Paris, June 23, 1808; 
studied in the Paris Ecole des Beaux Arts, 1822 to 1826 ; and under Bosio, Duparty, and 
Cortot. Executed * Saint Michel, Vainqueur de Satan, annongant le R^gne de Dieu,' 1834 ; 
• La Crucifiement de N.S. J^sus-t'hrist,' for the Church of St. Roch, Paris, 1863 ; and 
numerous colossal groups and statues. 

DUTTON, Hon. Ralph Henea«re, English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; graduated M. A. 1842 ; is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
Hants ; M.P. for South Hants, 1857-65 ; and for Cirencester, 186&-68. 

DUVAIf, Jnles, French writer, b. at Rodez, Aveyron, 1813 ; studied law, and called to 
the bar of his native town, 1836. Author of ' Les Colonies, et la Politique coloniale de la 
France,' 1864 ; and numerous other works : also contributor to the Journal des DibatSf 
the Revus des Deux Mondes, and other French periodicals. 

DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE, Prosper, French statesman and historian, 
b. at Rouen, Aug. 3, 1798 ; elected to the Constituent Assembly after Feb. 24 ; and to the 
Legislative Assembly in 1850. Author of * Des Principes du Gouvemement representatif, 
et de leur Application,' 1838 ; * Histoire du Gouvemement parlementaire en R^nce,' 
1857-62. 



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DUVBYRIER, Charles. French novelist, b. at Paris, April 12, 1803 ; studied at the 
Lyc6e of Henri IV., and called to the bar at Paris. Author of ' Michel Perrin,' 1834 ; 
'Oscar, ou le Mari qui trompe sa Femme,' 1842; 'Pourquoi des Proprietaires k Paris?'* 
1867 ; and numerous other works of fiction. 

DYCE. Rev. Alexander. English writer, b. in Edinbur^^h, 1798 ; educated at Exeter 
College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1821. Author of • Recollections of the Table Talk of 
Samuel Rogers ;* edited * Shakspeare, Beaumont, and Fletcher ;' and many other works. 

DYCEy Nicbol, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at the University of Glasgow ; 
resided for many years in Bombay; a county magistrate of Kincardine ; M.P. for Kin- 
cardineshire, 1865-68. 

DYHRN, Conrad Adolph^ Count von, Prussian politician, b. at Reesewitz, 
Nov. 21, 1803 ; studied at the University of Berlin '; elected member of the Diet 
of Silesia, 1845 ; member of the Second Prussian Chamber, 1850-62. Published ' Con- 
radin's Tod,* and other dramas. 



fKE. William Hart, English politician, b. 1837 ; educated at Harrow, and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1861, M.A. 1863; J.P. and deputy-lieutenant 

I of Kent ; M.P. for West and Mid-Kent since 1865. 

t 

DYNEVOR. Georgre Rice Rice Trevor, Baron, English politician, b. 1796 ; 
I studied at tne University of Oxford ; received the degree of LL.D. 1830 ; sat in the 

House of Commons, 1820 to 1831, and ftom 1832 to May 1862, when he succeeded his 
I father, third baron. 

I DYOTHP, Richard, English politician, b. 1808 ; educated at Westminster, and Trinity 
I College, Cambridge ; J.P. and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Stafford ; high sherilf, 

I 1856 ; M.P. for Lichfield since 1865. 



E, 

EADIE, Rev. John, English theological writer, b. in Stirlingshire, 1813 ; educated at 
the University of Glasgow. Edited the * Biblical Cyclopaedia ;' author of ' Commentaries 
on St. Paul's Epistles,*^ 'Life of Dr. Kitto,' and other biographical and theological works. 

EARIaE, Ralph Anstmther, English politician, b. 1835 ; educated at Harrow ; was 
attach^ to the embassy at Paris, 1854-58 ; at Vienna, 1859 ; private secretary to the 
Right Hon. B. Disraeli, 1858-69 ; M.P. for Berwick, May to August 1859, and for Maldon, 
1866-68. 

EASTBURN, Manton, American divine, b. in England, 1801 ; studied at Columbia 
College, New York, where he graduated B.A. 1817, M.A. 1820 ; ordained deacon, 1822 ; 
rector of the Church of the Ascension, New York, and graduated D.D. 1836 ; consecrated 
bishop of Massachusetts, 1842. Author of * Lectures on the Epistle to the Ephesians,* 
1833 ; and other works. 



EASTIaAKF, Elizabeth Rigrby, loidy, English authoress, b. 1816 ; married to 
the late Sir Charles Eastlake in 1849. Author of • Letters from the Shores of the Baltic,* 
1841 ; ' Livonian Tales,' 1846 ; and other works. 

EASTMAN, Mrs. Mary, American authoress, b. 1814 ; married to Captain S. East- 
man, 1835. Author of 'Dacotah, or Life and Legends of the Sioux,' 1849 ; 'Romance of 
Indian Life,' * Aunt Phillis' Cabin,' 1852 ; and other works. 

EASTl^ICK, EdT^ard Blackhonse, English author, b. at Warfield, Berkshire, 
1814 ; studied at the Charterhouse, and University of Oxford ; appointed interpreter of 
Hindostanee at Bombay, 1S36 ; professor of Hindostanee to the Company's College at 
Haileybury, 1846. Author of * Dry Leaves from Young Egypt,' 1849 ; and numerous 
works on the East. 

EATON, Henry William, English politician, b. 1816; educated at Enfield, and 
College RoUin, Paris ; feUow of the geographical, horticultural, and botanical societies ; 
a merchant in London ; M.P. for Coventry since 1865. 



ilfE, Charges, French general, b. 1799 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1818, 
and at the Ecole d' Application of Metz, 1820 ; entered the army, 1838 ; chief of a 
gquadron, 1843; colonel and director of artilleiy at Metz; brigadier-general, 1864; 
nominated general of division, Aug. 1860. 



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EBORAIiIi; Cornelius Willes^ English railway manager, b. at Enowle, WanHck- 
shire, Sept. 16, li-SO, the son of Lieut. Sara.Eborall, R.N. ; goods manager of Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, 1847-49; manager of East Lancashire Railway, 
1849-55 ; appointed general manager of South Eastern Railway, 1855 ; lieutenant-colonel 
of the railway volunteer staff corps. 

EBRARD. Joban Heinricb Anfmsti German Protestant theologian, b. at Erlangen, 
Jan. 18, 1818 ; studied at Berlin ; professor at the University of Erlangen, 1842 ; professor 
of theology at Zurich, 1844 ; and counsellor of the Consistory of Spire. Author of 
* Kritikder evangelischen Geschichte,' Frankfort, 1842 ; 'Die Zukunft der Kirche,' 1845-47 ; 
and other theological works. 

EBURY. Rig:bt Hon. Robert Grosrenor, Baron, English statesman, b. 
April 24, 1801 ; educated at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.P. for Shanes- 
bury, 1822 to 1826 ; for Cheater, 1826 to Jan. 1847 ; for Middlesex, 1847 to 1857, when he 
was elevated to the peerage ; was comptroller of the household, Nov. 1830 to Nov. 1834 ; 
groom of the stole to Prince Albert, Feb. 1840 to Aug. 1841 ; treasurer of the household, 
July 1846 to July 1847 ; president of the Sanitary Commission, 1847-48 ; deputy- 
lieutenant of Cheshire and Middlesex. 

EDEN, Rev. Robert, English theological writer, b. at Whitehall, near Bristol, 1803 ; 
studied at Corpus Christi College. Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1825, M. A. 1827; 
examiner for Haileybury College, 18f;9-56 ; vicar of North Walsham, 1851-54 ; vicar of 
Wymondham, 18.')4. Author of ' Some Thoughts on the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures,* 
1864 ; and other theological works. 

EDHEM, Pasha, Turkish statesman, b. 1823 ; studied in France ; entered the Turkish 
army ; was colonel and aide-de-camp to the Sultan, 1849 ; general of division. 1850 ; 
minister of foreign affairs, 1866 ; minister of public instruction, 1863-65. 

EDMONDS, Jobn Worth. American jurist, b. at Hudson, New York, March 13, 
1799 ; graduated at Union College, 1816 ; called to the bar, 1819 ; appointed inspector of 
prisons in the State of New York, 1843 ; state judge, 1845 ; judge of the Supreme Court 
of the U.S. 1847; retired from the bench, 1853. Published a work on 'Spiritualism,' 
1853. 

EDMONDBTONE, Sir Archibald, English writer, b. 1795 ; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he gi-adnated B.A. 1816. Author of *A Journey to the Oasis 
of Upper Egypt ;' * The Christian (Gentleman's DaUy Walk ;* and other works. 

EDVITARDES, Hon. Williani, English politician, b. 1835 ; captain and lieutenant- 
colonel Coldstream Guards; deputy-lieutenant of Pembrokeshire; elected M.P. for 
Haverfordwest, 1868. 

EDIVARDS, Amelia Blandford, English authoress, b. 1831. Author of 'My 
Brother's Wife,' 1855; 'Barbara's History,' 1864; 'Half a MiUion of Money,' 1866; and 
other novels. 

EDVITARDS, EdTeard, English writer, b. in London, 1812 ; was' principal librarian of 
the Free Library of the City of Manchester, 1851 to 1858. Author of ' Economy of the 
Fine Arts in England,' 1840 ; ' Life of Sir Walter Ralegh,' 1868 ; and many other works. ■ 

EDWARDS, Henri Milne, French writer, b. at Bruges, Oct. 23, 1800 ; studied 
medicine at Paris, and graduated M.D. 1823 ; appointed dean to the Museum and Faculty 
of Sciences, 1841 ; professor of zoology to the Museum, 1862; admitted to the Academy 
of Sciences, as successor of Cuvier, 1838. Author of ' Recherches anatomiques sur lea 
Crustac6s,* 1828 ; and numerous works on zoology and natural history. 

EDVITARDSi Sir Henry, English politician, b. 1812 ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant or the West Riding of Yorkshire, and lieutenajit-colonel commandant 2d West 
York Yeomanry Cavalry; MP. for Halifax, 1847-52 ; and fbr Beverley since 1857. 

EFFINGHAM, Henry Howard, Earl of, English administrator, b. at South- 
ampton, 1806; deputy-lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; was M.P. for 
Shaftesbury, 1841 to 1845, when he succeeded his father in the earldom. 

EGAN, Pierce, English novelist, b. in London, 1815 ; entered as a student at the Royal 
Academy. Author of * Robin Hood ;' 'The Black Prince;* ' Clifton Grey ;' and numerous 
otiier works of fiction. Editor of the Lcmdon Journal. 

EGERTON, Hon. Algrernon Fnlke, English politician, b. 1825; educated at 
Harrow ; M.P. for South Lanciishire since 1869. 



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EGERTONy Edward Christopber^ English politician, b. 1816; educated at 
Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1837 ; fellow of All Souls 
College ; barrister-at-law, called in 1840 ; M.P. for Macclesfield, 1852-68. 

EGERTONy Sir Philip de Malpas Grey^ English politician, b. 1806 ; educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1828 ; deputy-lieutenant of Cheshire ; 
M.P. for Chester, 1830-31 ; and for South Cheshire since 1835. 

EGERTON, Hon. IVilbraliainy English politician, b. 1SS2, son of the following; 
educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A, 1853 ; magistrate 
of Cheshire ; M.P. for North Cheshire since 1858. 

EGERTON OF TATTON, W^illiam Tatton Efferton, Baron, English 
politician, b. 1806; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Cheshire; M.P. for Ljrmington, 
1850-52, and for North Cheshire, 1852-58. 

EGGERy En&ile^ French writer, b. at Paris, July 18, 1813 ; elected member of the 
French Academy, 1845. Author of ' Latini Sermonis vetustioris Reliquite selectae,* Paris. 
1843 ; *M6moires d'Histoire ancienne et de Philologie,' 1863 ; and numerous other critical 
works. 

EGIiINTON and W^INTON, Archibald ^ViUiam Montgromery, Earl of, 

b. 1841 ; educated at Eton ; served in the royal navy ; succeeded his father, Oct. 1861 ; 
deputy-lieutenant of Ayrshire. 

EGMONT, Georg:e James Perceval. Earl of, English naval commander, 
b. 1794; M.P. for Surrey, 1837 to 1840; admiral, 1863; succeeded his cousin in the 
•peerage, 1841. 

EHNINGER, John 'Whetton, American artist^ b. in New York, July 20, 1827; 
graduated at Cfolumbia College, 1847 ; studied under Couture, in Paris, and at Dusseldorf. 
Painted 'Peter Stuyvesant,' 1850; 'Lady Jane Grey;' 'Christ healing the Sick,' in 
pencil, 1857 ; and numerous other pictures. 

EHRENBERG, Christian Gottfried, German naturalist, b. at Delitzsch, in 
Prussia, April 19, 1795 ; studied at the University of Leipsic. Author of ' Naturgeschicht- 
liche Reise durch Nordafrika und Westasien,' 1820-25; 'Passat Staub und Blntregen,' 
1849 ; and numerous other works. Principal secretary to the Berlin Academy of Sciences 
since 1842. 

EI CHENS, Friedrich Ednard, Prussian engraver, b. at Berlin, May 27, 1804 ; 
studied under M. Buchhom. Exhibited an engraving of the 'Vision of Ezekiel,' 1842 ; 

* Macbeth and the Witches,' 1865 ; and many others. 

EICHHOFF, Frederic Gustave^ French philologist, b. at Havre, Aug. 17, 1799; 
studied at Paris, and obtained the degree of LL.D. 1826 ; appointed professor of litera- 
ture at Lyons, 1842. Author of 'Etudes Grecques sur VirgQe,* 18*J5 ; 'Po^sie h^roique 
des Indiens comparde k r6pop6e Grecque et Romaine,' 1860; and other philological 
works. 

EICH'WALD, Ednard, Russian naturalist, b. at Mitau, in Courland, July 4, 1795 ; 
studied at Berlin ; was private tutor in the University of Dorpat, 1821 ; professor of 
zoology and mineralogy at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 1838-51. Author of 'A 
Journey to the Caspian and the Caucasus,' 1834-37 ; 'Palaeontology of Russia,' 1851. 

EIiCHG, Rierht Hon. Francis Wemyss Charteris, Lord, English politician, 
b. 1818 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1841 ; 
M.P. for East Gloucestershire, 1841-46 ; and for Haddingtonshire, 18.47-68; was a lord 
of the Treasury, 1852-65 ; deputy-lieutenant of Haddingtonshire. 

E'liIE DE BEAUMONT, Jean Baptiste Armand Lonis Leone, French 
geologist, b. at Cannon, Calvados, Sept. 25, 1798; studied at the College of Henri IV., 
at the Ecole Polytechnique, and entered the Ecole des Mines, 1819 ; elected member of 
the French Academy, Dec. 31, 1835, and perpetual secretary to the same. Author of 

* Sur la Formation du Cone du Vesuve,' 1837 ; and a great number of scientific works. 

EIiIOT, Samnel, American writer, b. at Boston, U.S. Dec. 22, 1821 ; graduated in 
Harvard College, 1839 ; professor of history and political science in Trinity College, 
Hartford, 1864. Author of 'The Liberty of Rome,' 1849; 'A Manual of the United 
States' History between the Years 1492 and 1856,' 1856. 

EIiLENBOROUGH, EdTeard Law, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1790; edu- 
cated at Eton and the University of Cambridge; M.P. for St. Michael's, 1814 to 1818; 
has been first lord of the Admiralty ; president of the Board of Control, and governor- 
general of India; reappointed president of the Board of Control, Feb. 1858; resigned, 
June 1858. 



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EIiLET, Elisabeth IiiiininiSy American authoress, b. at Sodas Point, Lake Ontario, 
1818. Author of *The Women of the American Revolution,' New York, 1848; *The 
Pioneer Women of the West ;' * Watching Spirits ;' and other works. 

ElaLICE, Edward. English politician, b. 1810; educated at Eton ; M.P. for Hudders- 
fleld, May to July 1^7 ; and for St. Andrew's since 1837. 

ElalalOT, Sir Charles, English diplomatist, b. 1810; was chief snperintendent of 
trade and her Majesty's plenipotentiary in China, 1830 to 1841, and subsequently chai^ 
d'affaires in Texas, and governor of Bermuda and Trinidad ; (abated K.C.B. 1856. 

ELLIOT, Very Rev. Gilbert, English divine, b. 1800; educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1822, and M.A. 1824 ; appointed dean of 
Bristol, 1850 ; prolocutor in the Lower House of Convocation, 1857 to 1864. Author of 
some volumes of sermons. 

EltltlOT, Hon. Henry Georgre, English diplomatist, b. 1817; educated at Eton; 
appointed clerk in the foreign office, 1840 ; attache at St Petersbuig, 1841 ; secretary of 
legation at the Hague, 1848 ; at Vienna, 1853 ; minister at Denmark, 1858 ; sent on a 
special mission to the King of the Two Sicilies, 1859 ; to the King of Greece, 1862 ; envoy 
to the King of Italy, 1863. 

ELLIOTT, Rev. Charles, American writer, b. in Killybergs, Donegal, Ireland, May 16, 
1792 ; appointed professor of languages in Madison CoU^, Union-town, Pennsylvania, 
1827. Author of 'Treatise on Baptism,' 1834 ;• 'History of the great Secession from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church,* 1855 ; and other works. 

ELLIOTT, Charles "Wyllys, American writer, b. at Guildford, Connecticut, May 27, 
1817 ; one of the founders of the Children's Aid Society, 1853. Author of * Mysteries, 
or Glimpses of the Supernatural,' 1852 ; *The New England History, from the Discovery 
of the Country by the Northmen, a.d. 986, to 1776,* 1857 ; and other works. 

ELLIOTT, Rev. Edmrard Bishop, English divine, b. 1795 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1816, and M.A. ; appointed vicar of Tuxford, 
Notts, 1824-40 ; prebendary of Heytesbury, 1826 ; incumbent of St Mark's Chapel, 
Brighton, 1853. Author of * The Warburtouian Lectures,* 1849-52. 

ELLIOTT, William, American author and politician, b. in Beaufort, South CaroL'na, 
April 27, 1788 ; entered Harvard College, 1806 ; was senator in the Upper House ; resigned, 
1832. Author of ' Carolina Sports by Land and Water,* 1856 ; * Fiesco : a Tragedy,* 1850 ; 
and numerous other works. 

ELLIS, Georg^e Edinrard, American divine, b. at Boston, 1815 ; graduated at Harvard 
College, 1833 ; studied at Cambridge Divinity School until 1836 ; ordained pastor of 
Harvard Church, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1840. Author of * Half a Century of the 
Unitarian Controversy,' 1857 ; and numerous theological works. 

ELLIS, Hon. Leopold Georg^e Frederick A^rar, Engli.sh politician, b. 1829 ; 
captain of the Kilkenny Militia ; M.P. for Kilkenny smce 1857. 

ELLIS, Sir Samuel Burden, English military commander, b. 1787; entered the 
royal marine forces, 1804 ; served at Trafalgar, 1805 ; at the taking of the island of 
Guadaloupe, 1810 ; actively employed in Lidia, 1839-40 ; in the China war of 1840-41 ; 
became a lieutenant-general, 1857. 

ELLIS, ^Villiam, English writer, b. in London, 1800. Author of 'Outlines of the 
History and Formation of the Understanding ;' ' Education as a Means of preventing 
Destitution :' contributed to the Westminster Review and other periodicals. 

ELLIS, Rev. \(rillian&, English writer, b. in London towards the end of the last 
century ; was missionary to the islands of the Southern Ocean. Author of * Polynesian 
Researches,' 1829 ; 'Vindication of the South Sea Missions,' 1831 ; and other works. 

ELLIS, Sarah Stickney, English authoress, b. 1812 ; wife of the preceding, married 
in 1837. Author of 'Pictures of Private Life ;' * The Women of England ;' * Social Dis- 
tinction,* and other works. 

ELLISSIBN, Adolph, German novelist, b. at Cartow, duchy of Ltineburg, March 14, 
1815 ; studied at the University of Gottingen. Author of ' Thee und Asphodelosbliiten,* 
Gottingen, 1840 ; * Der alte Bitter,' Lcipsic, 1846 ; and numerous other works of fiction. 

ELMORE, Alfred, Irish painter, b. at Clonakilty, county of Cork, 1815 ; first exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, 1834. Painted 'The Crucifixion,' 1838; 'The Martyrdom of 4 
Becket,' 1839 ; ' Rienzi in the Forum,' 1844 ; 'Hotspur and the Fop,' 1851 ; andnumerous 
other paintings, chiefly historical. Elected A.R.A. 1845. 

ELPH IN STONE. Sir Howard, English politician, b. in the county of Devon, 
1804; studied at the University of Cambridge; received the degree of D.C.L. fh)ni 
Oxford ; called to the bar, 1840; M.P. for Hastings, 1836-37; for Lewes, 1841-47 ; suc- 
ceeded his father, 1846 ; deputy-lieutenant of Sussex. 



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BIiSHOIaTZy Franz Ton^ German author, b. at Berlin, Oct I, 1791 ; appointed 
secretary of administration at Cologne, 1815 ; secretary of legation IVom the duchy of 
Saxe-Coburg Gotha to the court of Munich, 1840-^51. Author of 'Wanderungen durch 
Koln,' 1820 ; and many dramas. 

SlaSNER; Joliaii Gottfried. German political economist, b. at Gottesberg, Silesia, 
Jan. 14, 1784 ; studied at the Universities of Halle and Konig8bei*g, and received the 
degree of D.D. at Breslau, 1807. Author of 'Der angehende rationelle Landwirth,' 
Prague, 1852 ; and a great number of works on political economy. 

ElfTON. Sir Artbar Hallam^ Bart., English writer, b. 1818 ; educated at the 
Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and served in the army ; M.P. for Bath, 1857 to 1859 ; 
a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Somersetshire. Author of ' Below the Snrfkce : 
a Story of English Country Life.' 

SIiVBNICH. Peter Joaephy German Catholic theologian, b. at Embken, near Aix- 
la-Chapelle. Jan. 29, 1796 ; studied at the University of Bonn, 1820 ; appointed director 
of the College of Leopold, 1830; conservator of the royal library, 1838. Author of 

* Actenstitcke zur geheimen Greschichte des Hermesianismus,' Breslau,, 1845. 

EIilVART, Antoine Amable XSlie^ French musical composer^ b. at Paris, Nov. 18. 
1808. Composed 'Les Ttois Jerusalem ;* 'La Naissance d*Eve ;* 'Ruth et Booz ;* and 
other operas and oratorios. Published ' Petit Traits d'Instrumentation,' 1864 ; and other 
works. 

TmImWIN, Rev. Wliit^vell, Engli^ clergyman, b. Feb. 26, 1816 ; educated at Caius 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated RA. 1839 ; ordained deacon, 1839, and priest, 
1840 : appointed rector of Boston, Norfolk, 1849. Editor of the Quarterly Review, 1853 
to 1860. 

BIiWYN, Rev. Richard. English clergyman, b. 1827 ; educated at the Charterhouse, 
and at Trinity College, Camoridge, where he graduated, 1849 ; appointed second master 
> of the Charterhouse, 1855, and head master, 1858 ; resigned, 1863. 

EIiYy Rigrht Rev. Edward Harold Bronmey Bisbop of, English divine, 
educated at Eton, and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1832 ; 
appointed canon residentiary of Exeter Cathedral, 1857 ; consecrated bishop of Ely, 
March 1864. Author of two volumes of sermons, and ' The Pentateuch and Elohistic 
Psalms, in reply to Bishop Colenso,* 1863. 

EMBURY, ExQina Catberine Manleyy American authoress, b. at New York, 1808 ; 
married to Mr. D. Embury, 1828. Author of *Guido, and other Poems.' New York, 1828 ; 

* Constance Latimer, or the Blind Girl ; * and many other works of fiction. 

EMERSON, Ralpb Waldo, American author, b. at Boston, 1803 ; graduated at 
Harvard College, 1821. Author of * Literary Ethics : an Oration,* 1838 ; * Man the 
Keformer ' 1841 ; * Representative Men ;' * English Traits,* 1856 ; • The Conduct of Life,' 
1860 ; and numerous other works. 

EMPIS. Adolpbe Dominique Florent, Freoch writer, b. at Paris, March 29, 1795 ; 
elected member of the French Academy, 1847; director of the Com6die Pran^aise, 
1856. Author of 'Romulus,' 1822; 'Bothwell,' 1824; 'Les Femmes de Henri YIII. : 
Scenes historiques,* 1854. 

ENAUIaT. Iiouia, French writer, b. at Isiguy, Calvados, 1824 ; studied in Paris, and 
called to the bar. Author of • Promenade en Belgique et sur les Bords du Rhin,' 1852 ; 
*La Norv6ge,' 1857; *La Mediterran^e, ses lies et ses Bords,* 1862; and numerous 
romances and works of travel. 

ENCKE, Jobann Frans, German astronomer, b. in Hamburg, Sept 28, 1791 ; studied 
at Grottmgen under (Jauss ; appointed director of the Observatory at Berlin, and secretary 
to the mathematical class in the Royal Academy, 1825. Published 'Concerning the 
Comet of Pons,' 1831-32 ; ' The Distance of the Sun,' 1822-24 ; 'A New Method for dis- 
covering the Movements of the Planets ;' and other astronomical works. 

ENFIEIaD, Georg:e Henry Cbarles, Viscount. English politician, b. 1830 ; 

educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; a deputy-lieutenant of Middlesex ; M.P. 

for Tavistock, 1852-57, and for Middlesex since 1857 ; secretary to the Poor Law Board, 

1865-66. 
ENGEIf, Iiudi^e, composer, and harmonium-player, b. at Vienna, Jan. 9, 1828; 

studied music at the Conservatoire of Pesth ; gave concerts at Paris, 18-53-65 ; came to 

England to popularize the harmonium, 1856. Author of 'Piano-Harmonium School;' 

* Studies for the Harmonium ;* ' Harmonium Album ;' and numerous other compositions. 

ENGEIiSTOFT, Cbriatiem Tboming:, Danish theologian, b. at Neesberg, Aug. 8, 
1805 ; appointed lecturer on theology to the University of Copenhagen, 1835 ; rector of 

flf«U;!XllA . 



Enff HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Err 
[ 100 ] 



the University, 1847-48 ; elected member of the Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen, 
1847 ; of the Royal Academy of History, 1860. Author of ♦ Taler ved forskjellige Leilig- 
heder,' Odense, 1853 ; and other works. 

ENGIiANDy Sir Richard. English military commander, b. in Canada, 1793 ; entered 
the army, 1809 ; held the chief military command in Caffraria, 1832-33 ; served in India, 
1836, and was nominated K.C.B. ; served in the Crimea ; general in the army, and colonel 
of 41st Foot. 

ENGSTROEM, John. Swedish writer, b. at Rsemebo, Calmar, April 7, 1794 ; graduated 
licentiate in medicine, 1817. Author of 'Resa genom Norrland och Lappland kr 1834,' 
Stockholm, 1834 ; * Fiirbundsbrodema,' ib. 1833-34 ; and other works. 

ENNIS^ Sir John, English politician, b. 1809; educated at Stonyhurst College ; a deputy- 
lieutenant and county magistrate, and a governor of the Bank of Ireland ; M.P. for Atldone, 
1857-65 ; re-elected, 1868. 

ENNISKILIiEPT. WlUiam IXmionyhby Cole, Earl of, b. 1807; educated at 
Harrow and Oxfora ; is deputy-lieutenant for the county of Fermanagh ; trustee of the 
Hunterian Museum, Royal College of Surgeons; M.P. for Fermanagh, 1831-40. 

EOTVOS, Joseph. Baron, Hungarian statesman and author, b. at Buda, in Hungary, 
Sept. 3, 1813 ; studied jurisprudence at the University of Pesth ; minister of public 
instruction of the Republic of Hungary, 1848-49 ; appointed a second time minister of 
education by royal rescript, Feb. 24, 1867. Author of the * Village Notary,* 1844 ; 
' Hungary in 1514,* 1847 ; ' The Influence of the Leading Ideas of the Nmeteenth Century 
upon Government and Society,' 1851 ; and other dramas, romances, and political essays. 

ERBGN, Carl Jaromir, Bohemian historian, b. at Miletin, Bohemia, 1811 ; appointed 
archivist of the town of Prague, 1851. Author of * Pisne Narodin,* 1842-45 ; * Bartosova 
Kronika Praska,* 1851 ; and other works. 

ERDGIiYI, Johann, Hungarian writer and poet, b. at Kazos, 1814 ; studied at the 
University of Pesth. Author of 'Nepdalok Esmoudak,* Pesth, 1845-48; and othei 
works. 

ERDMANN, Johan Ednard, German writer, b. at Molmar, Livonia, June 13, 1805 ; 
8tudie<l at the University of Dorpat, 1823-26, and at Berlin ; appointed professor of 
philosophy to the University of Halle, 1836. Author of * Ueber Glauben und Wissen,* 
Berlin, 1837 ; * Ueber den poetischen Reiz des Aberglaubens,' Halle, 1851 ; and niimerous 
philosophical works. 

ERDMANN, Otto Iiinne', German chemist, b. at Dresden, April 11, 1804; studied 
at Dresden and Leipsic, where he graduated licentiate in chemistry and PIlD. ; appointed 
supplementary professor of chemistry to the University of Leipsic, 1827 ; and professor, 
1830. Author of 'Ueber den Nickel,* Leipsic, 1827 ; * Waarenlexicon,' Leipsic, 1833-35 ; 
and other scientific works. 

ERICSSON, John, Ameiican engineer, b. in the province of Vermeland, Sweden, 
1803 ; entered the Swedish army, and became a lieutenant ; emigrated to the United 
States, 1831; constructed the ship Ericsson^ fitted with a 'caloric' engine, 1849; built 
the first Monitor for the United States, May 1862. , 

ERIiE, Right Hon. Sir William. English judge, b. at Fifehead, Dorset, 1793 ; 
educated at Winchester, and New College, Oxford, where he graduated B.C.L. 1818; 
called to the bar, 1819 ; was made king's counsel, 1834 ; M.P. for Oxford, 1837 to 1841 ; 
appointed one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 1844 ; of the Court of 
Queen's Bench, 1846 ; chief justice of the Common Pleas, 1859 ; retired 1866. 

ERNE. John Crichton, Earl of, b. at Dublin, 1802 ; succeeded his uncle, 1842 ; 
lord-lieutenant of the county of Fermanagh. 

ERNEST I., Dnke of Saxe-Altenbnrg;, b. Sept. 16, 1826, the son of Duke Georg 
of Saxe-Altenburg and Princess Marie of M^ecklenburg-Schwerin ; succeeded to the 
throne, at the death of his father, Aug. 3, 1853 ; married, April 28, 1853, to Agnes, 
the daughter of Duke Leopold of Anhalt Dessau. 

ERNEST II., Dnke of Saxe-Coburfr Gotha, b. June 21, 1818, the son of Duke 

Ernest I. of Saxe-Saalfeld-Cobuig and of Princess Louise of Saxe-Altenburg ; studied 
philosophy and political economy at the University of Bonn, 1834-36 ; entered into the 
military service of Saxony, 1836; travelled in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Northern 
Africa, 1838-40 ; succeeded to the throne, at the death of his father, Jan. 29, 1844. 
Composer of numerous musical pieces, and of the operas * Zaire,' * Casilda,' and * Santa- 
Chiara ;* the latter represented at Paris, 1855. 
ERROIali, WilUani Harry Hay, Earl of, English military commander, b. 1828 ; 
hereditaiy lord high constable of Scotland ; m^or in the rifle brigade ; served with his 
regiment in the Crimea, and was wounded at the battle of Alma, Sept. 20, 1854. 



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\, Creorgef English officer, b. at Worthing, 1815 ; edacated at the Roya] 
College of Caen, and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst ; entered tlie army as 
ensign, 1832 ; was lieutenant, 1836 ; m^or, 1854 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1854 ; colonel, 1860 ; 
api>ointed inspector-general of volunteers, 1865. 

ERSKINEy Jobn Elpbinstone, English politician, b. 1806: educated at the 
Royal Naval College ; entered the navy, 1819 ; and became vice-admiral, 1804; M.P. for 
Stirlingshire since 1865. 

ERSKINE, Thomas Americns Erskine^ Baron, Engh'sh diplomatist, b. 1802 ; 
educated at Cambridge ; was attach^ at Turin, 1807 ; at Naples, 1824 ; succeeded his 
father, 1855. 

ESAADy Effendi Mahommed, Turkish historian, b. at Constantinople, Dec. 16, 
1790 ; ambassador from the Sultan to the Shah of Persia, 1836 ; received the title of 
grand judge of Roumelia ; inspector-general of schools and counsellor of public instruc- 
tion- Author of • Uss-i-Tzafer,' Constantinople, 1828; 'Sefer-Namei-Klair,' ib. 1834. 

E8CAYRAC DE LAUTURB, Comte d't French traveller, b. 1822 ; appointed 
by the Viceroy of Ejjypt to conduct an expedition to discover the source of the Nile, 
1856. Author of 'Notice sur le Kordofan,^ 1851; 'M^moires sur la Chine,' 1844; and 
other works of travel. 

ESCHASSERIAUX, Rene Frangols Engrene, Baron, French politician, 
b. at Ar^es, Cliarente Inferieure, July 25, 1828 ; studied law at Pai'is, and was called to 
the bar ; elected representative of Charente Inferieure to the Legislative Assembly, 1849 ; 
and member of the Corps L^gislatif for the same department since 1852. 

ESCHERy Johan Heinrlch Alfred, Swiss politician, b. at Zurich, Feb. 20, 1819 ; 
studied law in his native town, and at the Universities of Berlin and Bonn, and obtained 
the degree of LL.D. 1842; deputy to the Federal Diet, 1848; burgomaster of Zurich, 
1848 ; one of the founders of the Federal Polytechnic School of Zurich ; vice-president 
of the National Council, 1856-59. 

ESCOSURA, Patricio de la, Spanish statesman and author, b. at Madrid, 
Nov. 5, 1807 ; studied at Valladohd ; was an officer in the Spanish army, 1829 ; aide-de- 
camp and secretary to General Cordova, 1835-36 ; political chief of the town of Guada- 
laxara, 1838-40 ; secretary of state, 1843 to 1846. Author of *La Corte del buen Retiro,' 
1837-44 ; ' El Conde de Candespina,' Madrid, 1832 ; and other works. 

ESMONDE, John. English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at Clongowes, and Trinity 
College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1850 ; is a magistrate for the counties of Water- 
ford and Wexfonl ; M.P. for the county of Waterford since 1852. 

ESPARTERO, Baldomero, Duke of Victory, Spanish s^tesman, b. at 
Granatula, in La Mancha, Feb. 27, 179t: entered the Sacred Battalion as a volunteer, 
1808 ; studied in the Military School and became sub-lieutenant, 1815 ; field-marshal and 
lieutenant-general, 1833 ; regent of Spain. May 8, 1841, to July 22, 1843 ; commissioned 
by Queen Isabella to form a ministry, July 1854 ; dismissed, 1856 ; resigned his post as 
senator, and retired from active political life, 1857. 

ESQUIROS, Henri Alpbonse, French author, b. in Paris, 1814 ; elected to the 
Legislative Assembly for the Sa6ne-et-Loire, 1850 ; exiled from Fi-ance since Dec. 2, 
1851. Author of * Les Anglais chez Eux,' 1861 ; and numerous i>oems and works of 
fiction. 

ESSEN, Peter, Count of, Russian statesman, b. in Livonia, 1780; appointed 
military governor of the province of Orenburg, 1817 ; general, 1830 ; uulitary governor- 
general of St. Petersburg, and created a count of the empire, 1833 ; entered the Council 
of State, 1842 ; chamberlain to the emperor, 1846 ; civil governor of the province of 
Livonia. 

ESTCOURT, RiiTbt Hon. Thomas Sutton Sotberon Bncknall, English 
statesman, b. 1801 ; educated at Harrow, and Oriel College, Oxford; M.P. for Marl- 
borough, 1829 to 1832 ; for Devizes, 1835-44 ; and for North Wilts, 1844 ; president of the 
Poor Law Board, 1848 ; secretary of state for the Home Department, 1859-60. 

ESTERHAZY DE GAIaANTHA, Paul Anton, Austrian statesman, b. March 10, 
1786 ; Austrian minister at Dresden, 1810-11 ; ambassador to England, 1830-38 ; joined 
the Hungarian ministry of Count Louis Batthyani, 1848 ; privy councillor and chamber- 
lain to the Emperor of Austria. 



, Antoine, French sculptor and architect, b. in Paris, March 20, 1808 ; studied 
wider M. Ingres and M. Duban. Executed *Le jeune Hyaclnthe tu6 par Apollon,' 1828; 
' Cain,' 1833 ; ' La Vierge Immaculee,' 1864 ; and numerous groups, busts, and statues. 



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BTTMUIiIiBR> Bmst Merits IiudTvic^ German phQologist, b. at Gersdorf. near 
Labau, Oct 6, 1802 ; studied at the University of Leipsic, 1823 to 1826 ; appointed pro- 
fessor of languages and German literature to the University of Zurich, 182^3. Editor of 
*Kunech Laurin,' Jena, 1829; 'Heinrich von Weldecke's Eneide/ Zurich, 1852; and 
numerous other works. 

EUGENIE, Empress of the Trenth, b. at Granada, Spain. May 5, 1826, the 
second daughter of the Count de Montljo, grandee of Spain, and o{ Marie Manuela Kirk- 
I)atrick de Closebum ; married to the Emperor Napoleon III. Jan. 29, 1853. 

EVANS, DaTid Morler, English financial writer, b. 1819. Author of the ' Com- 
mercial Crisis, 1847-48 ;* * City Men and City Manners ;* * Facts, Failures, and Frauds,* 
1859. Has been City correspondent to the TItms, the Morning Herald, and Standard. 

EVANS, John, English geologist, b. 1823 ; educated at Bosworth School Author of 
* Ancient British Coins,' 1864; 'Flint Implements of the Drift.' Is honorary secretary 
of the Numismatic Society. 

EVANS, Marian, English authoress, b. 1820; published under the nom de plume of 
George Eliot * Adam Bede,' 1858 ; * The Mill on the Floss/ 1859 ; ' Silas Mamer, the 
Weaver of Ravenhoe,' 1861 ; 'Romola,' 1863 ; * Felix Holt, the Radical,' 1866 ; and many 
other works of fiction. 

EVANS, Ven. Robert Wilson Evans. English divine, b. at Shrewsbury, 
Aug. 30, 1789 ; educated at the Grammar School in his native town, and graduated nt 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1811 ; vicar of Tarvin, near Chester, 1836 to 1842 ; arch- 
deacon of Westmoreland, 1856. Author of ' The Ministry of the Body ;' * England under 
God ;' and other religious works. 

EVANS, Thouias William. English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Derby ; M.P. for South Derbyshire, 
1857-68. 

EVERSIiEY, RiflTbt Hon. Charles Sbaw I>efevre, Visconnt, English 
statesman, b. 1794 ; educated at Winchester, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated M.A. ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1819; M.P. for Downton, 1830 ; for 
Hampshire, 1831 ; for North Hants, Dec. 1882 to 1857 ; speaker of the House of 
Commons, 1839 to 1857, when he was created Viscount Eversley. 

EWAIfD, Heinricb Georg: Angrnst, German philologist, b. at Gottingen, Nov. 16, 
1803 ; educated at the University of his native town ; professor of philosophy and 
Oriental languages and theology at the University of Gottingen, 1831 to 1837 ; at l*ubin- 
gen, 1838 to 1848 ; and again at Gottingen. 1848. Author of ♦ The Composition of 
Genesis,' 1823 ; ' The Prophets of the Old Teaitament,* 1840 ; and numerous other works. 

EWART, William, English politician, b. 1798 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1821 ; called to the bar, 1827; M.P. for Bletchingley, 
1828-30 ; for Liverpool, 1830-37 ; for Wigan, 1839-41 ; and for Dumfries, 1841-68. 

EWBANK, Thonuui, American writer, b. at Barnard Castle, Durham, England, 1792 ; 
commissioner of patents to the Government of the United States. Author of *The 
World a Workshop,' 1855 ;' * liife in Brazil,' 1858 ; and other works. 

EWING, Arcbibald Orr, English politician, b. 1819; magistrate and deputy-lieu- 
tenant of Stirlingshire; returned M.P. for Dumbartonshire, 1868. 

EWING, Hnmpbrey Eivingr Crum, English politician, b. 1803 ; is a magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Dumbarton, and a merchant in Glasgow; M.P. 
for Paisley since 1857. 

EWING, Tbomas, American statesman, b. in Ohio, Virginia, Dec. 28, 1789 ; graduated 
at Ohio University, B.A. 1815; called to the bar, 1816; appointed U.S. senator, 1831; 
secretary to the Treasury, 1840; minister of the interior, 1849; retired from political 
life, 1851. 

EXETER, Henry Pbilpotts. Bisbop of, English divine, b. at Gloucester, May 
1779; studied at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1795, and 
M.A. 1798; appointed prebendary of Durham, 1809; degree of D.D. 1821; dean of 
Chester, 1828; consecrated bishop of Exeter, 1830. Author of a great number of 
sermons and religious pamphlets. 

EYRE, EdT^ard Jobn, traveller and colonial governor, b. 1817 ; travelled in Australia, 
1840-41 ; lieutenant-governor of New Zealand, 184&-53 ; governor of Jamaica, 1862-65. 

EYRE, Vincent, English military writer, b. 1810 ; educated at the Military CoUege, 
Addiscombe ; entered the Bengal Artillery, 1828 ; served in Affghanistan, 1841-42 ; also 
during the Indian Mutiny ; colonel and C.B. 1858. Author of * Military Operations in 
Cabul,' 1843 ; and a pamphlet on ' Metallic Boats and Floating Waggons for Naval and 
Military Service ; with Observations on American Life-preserving Cars,' 1866. 



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F. 



5, Paul Andre', French lawyer, b. at Paris, July 23, 1809 ; advocate to the 
Council of State and to the Court of Cassation, 1839 ; president of the Order of Advo- 
cates, 1856 to 185P ; legal adviser to the fiimily of Orleans since 1852. 

, John, English painter, b. at Burley Mill, Kirkcudbright, 1820. Exhibited 
* Shakespeare and his Contemporaries ;' • The Cotter's Saturday Night ;' * Tarn O'Shanter ;' 
and ' The Soldier's Return.' 



S Thonias, English painter, b. at Burley Mill, 1826, brother of the preceding ; 
associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, 1849. Exhibited 'The Mitherless Bairn,' 1855 ; 
'Home and the Homeless,' 1857; * From Dawn to Sunset ;* and other paintings. 

FA6AN, William Addis, English politician, b. 1832 ; educated at the College of 
Stonyhurst ; captain in the 12th Lancers ; elected M.P. for Carlow, 1868. 

FAIDER, Charles, Belgian statesman, b. at Brussels, 1805 ; called to the bar at 
Brussels, 1832 ; minister of justice, Nov. 1852 to March 1865 ; advocate-general of the 
Court of Cassation at Brussels. Author of * Paroles d'un Voyant;' Brussels, 1834 ; * De 
la Nationality litt^raire en Belgique,' 1840 ; and other works. 

FAIDHERBE, Lonis Iieon Cesar, French officer, b. at Lille, June 3, 1818; 
entered the Ecole Polytechnique, 1838 ; and that of Metz, 1840 ; entered the army, and 
served in Algeria, 1844 to 1846 ; at Ouadaioupe, 1848-49 ; and in the province of Con- 
stantine, 1849 to 1852 ; appointed governor of Senegal, 1854. 

FAILIiY, Pierre Iionis Charles Achille de, French officer, b. 1808; studied 
at St. Cyr, 1826 ; second lieutenant, 1828 ; captain, 1837 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1848 ; 
colonel, 1851 ; brigadier-general, 1854 ; was general of division in the Crimea, 1855 ; 
and on his return aide-de-camp to the Emperor, and held command in the Italian 
campaign. 

FAIRBAIRN, William, English civi engineer, b. at Kelso, Roxbui^hshire, 1789 ; 
studied at Newcastle-on-Tyne ; aided Stephenson in the erection of the bridge across the 
Menai Straits ; one of the founders and first members of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science. Author of • Mills and Mill-work ;' * Iron ; its Histoiy, Proper- 
ties, and Process of Manufacture,' second edition, 1865. 

FAIRHOIiT, Frederick Williaui, English artist and author, b. in London, 1818. 
Illustrated ' History of the Silver Coinage of England ;' ' England under the House of 
Hanovei;' 1848; 'Antiquities of Richborough,' 1850 ; and numerous historical and anti- 
quarian woiks. Author of ' Costume in England,' 1646 ; * Up the Nile,' 1861 ; and other 
works. 

FAIiKENSTEIN, Johan Paul von, German statesman, b. at Pegau, Saxony, 1802 ; 
studied at the University of Leipsic, where he received the diploma of LL.D., and was 
professor of law, 1824-40 ; minister of the interior of the kingdom of Saxony, 1844 
to 1848; president of the General Council, 1851; minister of public instmction of 
Saxony, 1853. 

FAIalaOUX, Alfred Frederic Pierre, Conite de, French statesman and author, 
b. at Angerf, May V, 1811 ; member of the Chamber of Deputies, 1846-48 ; minister of 
public instruction, 1848-49; elected member of the French Academy, March 1856. 
Author of 'L'Histoire de Louis XVI.,' Paris, 1840 ; 'Madame Swetchine, sa Vie et ses 
(Euvres,* 1859 ; * La Convention du 15 Septembre,' 1864 ; and other historical Works. 

FAIaMOUTH. Evelyn Bosca^iren, Viscount, English administrator, b. 1819; 
educated at Eton ; a magistrate of Kent and Cornwall ; deputy-lieutenant of Cornwall. 

FANE, Henry Ed-virard Hamlyn, English politician, b. 1817 ; educated at the 
Charterhouse ; a magistrate for Devon, Lincolnshire, and for Hants, and lieutenant- 
colonel R. S. Lincolnshire Militia ; M.P. for South Hants, 1865-68. 

FANE, John William, English politician, b. 1804; educated at Rugby; J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of Oxon ; and lieutenant-colonel of the Oxfordshire Militia ; M.P. for 
Oxfordshure, 1862-68. 



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FARINI^ Carlo IiUigrl, Italian statesman, b. at Rnssi, in the Roman States, Oct. 22, 
1822 ; studied medicine at Bologna ; was suspended and ordered to leave the Papal States, 
1841 ; minister of the interior of Sardinia, 1847-48 ; direetor-in-chief of the sanitary 
and prison department of Rome^ 1848 ; dictator of Modena, 1859 ; commissioner at 
Naples, 1860 ; president of the Italian Council of Ministers, Dec. 8, 1862, to Mar^h 24, 
1863. Author of ' History of Italy,* and other works. 

FARNHAM . Elisa Burhans, American authoress, b. in Albany County, New York, 
Nov. 17, 1815 ; married to Mr. Famham, traveller, 1835 ; devoted herself to prison visiting 
1841 ; appointed matron of the state prison at Sing-Sing, 1844. Author of ' Life in Praine 
Land ;' ' California Indoors and Out,* 1856 ; ' My Early Days,' 1859. 

FARQUHARy Sir Walter Minto Townsbend, English politician, b. 1809 ; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1829 ; formerly 
attache at Vienna; M.P. for Hertford, 1857-68. 

FARR, William, English statistician, b. 1803 ; licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries, 
London, 1832, and graduated M.D. at the University of New York ; chief superintendent 
of the registrar-generars department. Author of * The Medical Annual,' 1835-89 ; * Reiwrt 
to the Registrai'-general on Cholera in England,' 1852 ; and of other statistical works. 

FARRAGUT| David, American naval commander, b. at Knoxville, Tennessee, 1801 ; 
entered the naval service as midshipman, 18ll ; lieutenant, 1821 ; appointed to the 
command of the Saratoga, 1847 ; on the outbreak of the civil war, took command of the 
Gulf squadron, and reduced New Orleans, April 28, 1862 ; admiral of the United States 
navy, 1862. 

FARRINGTON, Sarah Payson Willis, American authoress, b. at Portland, 
Maine, July 9, l&ll ; married to Dr. Eldiidge, of Boston, 1837, who died 1846 ; and to 
Mr. Farrington, of Boston, from whom she separated. Published, under the pseudonym 
of Fanny Fem^ 'Fern Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio; ' 'Ruth Hall;' 'Rose Clark,* 
New York, 1856 : contributor to many American periodicals. 

FAUCIT, Helen, English actress, b. 1817; made her d^but in London atCovent Garden 
as Julia in the * Hunchback,' Feb. 5, 1836 ; was a member of Mr. Maeready's companies ; 
appeared in the * Lady of Lyons ;' in Shakespeare's plays as Juliet, Imogen, Lady Macbeth, 
and many others. Married to Theodore Martin, author, Aug. 25, 1851. 

FAUOERC. Armaad Prosper, French writer, b. at Bergerac, Dofdogne, Feb. 10, 
1810 ; appointed chief secretary to the minister of public instruction, 1831). Author of 
'Pens^es, Fragments et Lettres de Blaise Pasoal,' 1844; * M^moires de Mme. Roland,' 
1864 ; and numerous other workau 

FAUGIER, Victor Augruste, French politician, b. Oct. 27, 1801 ; has been mayor, 
and member of the General Couaoil for the canton of Vienne ; member of the Corps 
L^slatif for the department of the Is^re eixkce 1852. 

FAVRE, Gabriel Claude Jules, French advocate and politician, b. at Lyons, 
March 31, 1809 ; studied law, and was called to the bar at Lyons, 1880 ; secretary-general 
of the ministry of the interior, 1848; under-secretory for foreign affairs, 1848-49; elected 
to the General Counoil, of tbe Rhone and Loire, 1851, but refused to take the oath to the 
new constitution ; defended Orsini, 1858 ; member of the Corps L^slatif since 1858. 
Author of * Contemjwraneous Biography,' 1837 ; and numerous political pamphlets. 

FAwCETT, Henry, English politician, b. 1833 ; educated at King's Collie, London, 
and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1856, and M.A. 1859; fellow 
of Trinity Hall, and professor of political economy in the University of Cambridge ; 
called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1862; M.P. for Brighton since 1866. Author 
of 'Manual of Political Economy,' London, 1866. 

FAY. Theodore Sedgrvirick. American diplomatist, b. in New York, Feb. 10, 1807 ; 
called to tlie bar, 1828 ; appomted United States secretary of legation at the court 
of Berlin, 1837; resident minister at Berne, Switzerland. 1840-60. Author of the 
•Countess Ida.' 1840; *Ulric, or the Voices: a Poem,' 1851; * History of Switzerland ;* 
and otber works. 

FA YE, Herve Aiusruste Etienne Albany. Fi'ench astronomer, b. at St Benoit du 
Sault, Indre, Oct .% 1814 ;• studied at the Ecole Polyteclmique, 1832-34; discovered anew 
comet, Nov. 22, 1843 ; elected member of the Institute, Jan. 18, 1841, and of the Bureau of 
Longitudes, March 26, 1862 ; appointed rector of the Academy of Nancy, 1854 ; member 
of the Imperial Council of Public Instruction, 1864. Author of ' Sur les Declinaisons 
absolues,' 1850 ; and other astronomical works. 

FAZY, Jean Jacques, Swiss political economist, b. in Geneva, May 12, 1796 ; studied 
in France. Editor of La Revolution; Revue de Genhve^ and one of the founders of Ia 
France ChritUnne. Author of ' The Bank of France ;' • La Mort de Leviler, ' Geneva, 1826 ; 
and numerous political pamphlets. 



HANDBOOK OF 



BIOGRAPHY. 



tr die gulvBtUscbe Kette,' 1B31 ;■ Du RaUuelbUchkiu,' 1860 : and 

id in France, and 
MUipture ; iniae tiu aenut a IIm SaUe MoliCre ; appeared In Borlin, 

.___. „.__i at the Princeae'a Theatre u Bamlet, ISM, and as OUiellg, 1E61. 

Lessee and niiiniiger of the Lyceiun Theatre, lSii2-e;. ' 

P&'Ii, Antolno Ibkorent ApOlUnBlTC, French nfttutsliat; b. at Atdentes, Indre, 

Nuv. 7, tTS9; tunndod the PhJiruiaceutical Society or the department of Ibe Seine, 1^19; 

admftt«d to Ibe Academy of Uedieine. IS^ : at,Di>int«d prolessor Dt Militarv In^truetiuii 

lejardin dM PlSDlea. Author of 

iioited at the CharlcrhouBe : a 

pher, b. at Bordeaux, Aug. Si, 
tdeMgr.Airre.'1843; 'Andro- 

. Justice,' 'La Fenueti,' 'La 
cr^'k''lS^^a't G^n^viSe" 



»>ttaiid. ISOB: aivhit 
the commlseioneis 
. Aulhorof 'IlluBt 



nburgb, 1S0B; edoeated at the 
of aur»irj St King's Collepj, 
'itraordinary to her M^esty. 



FtraJay, iln ittkiinjir'j affrrntKi. uiht war 
uimlific riinarh by rtadini lii Bfir»mka 



FERBABA, Frftncsaeo, Itsliai 



Hnaiice of the kingdom of ItaJ?, April T 

FBRRARI, aiiueppe, Italiia wtltei 

Favla, Bud took the degree of LL,D, 1 



HANDBOOK OP CONTBMFOnAKT 



FARINI, Okrlo LuIkIi IfaliBn sttttesman, b. at Rnasi, tn tUe Eoman States, Oct. 22, 

1841 ; m"u1steror the" interim- ot'Sirdinia, 1847^8; dircutor-ln-ehief of tbe sanitaiy 
and prison departnieut of Romo; IMS; dictator of Modemi, 1863; oommissioner at 
Naploa, 18M ; presidenl of the Italian Council of MiBlnW™, Dec. 8, ISflZ. to Marjh 24, 
1863. Anthor of ■ Hiatory of Italy,' and other itorltB. 
FARNHAH, BUm« BnrbanB, American authoreaa, b. In Alhanj' Counlj, New Torh, 
Knv. 17. 1815; married to Mr. Famham, traveller, 1R36 ; devoted heiselflflprison visiting 
"" ;appoinleanu.tronoftlieBtalepri8on»t Sing-Sing, 1844 Author of ■ Life in Pralne 

..I'.'^-i..—,. T_j and Out," lew ; ' My Barlj Dayii,' 1869. 

Towmabend, Engliah politieian, b. ISOB ; 
ird, where be grailuated EA. 1829 ; formerly 
Aliacne At Vienna; m.r. lur otiEvioru, loJi-flS. .._^^^^^ 

PABB, WJIUain, Engiisliatatlattelan, h 1603; licentiate of tbe SnciatiLaiJ^**^^^^ 

K^liJS'^nra^^jucs'tioii. "What will the New Eacyclopxd 
FM^^r»«'^.™'^H it?" please remember that the Britannica h 

^mll^ndo'f trt™^ti8"'al things by practical men. The Britannica 

S'J^7-'>™".'^'"^'""^NVtal idleness on the shelves. Robert Lyo 
''^"?u°™r8li*^cftt. calls it "the most bcthumbed of all boo 

"f'>«™vT^°'i^'tea'i^;'cycIopxdia Britannica is 

FAOCrr, Helen, EngiiBhaetrt,_„nhT, — " toedioil libriry embr»cing 644 

as Julia in the 'Hiin.bMck.' Fe 'hfc, 00 mcdidne and lurgery. lOcludir 

IZ^^^l^^'^Z^h'T-^^^.u^i. (.«««! .dvic for the l.™»a. 

FAUQEHE, ArtnwKl Pro»i ixj.ooo — » v»!u»bli: librwy ™ "gr"^^'""^- 

ISJn ; appointed chief secretary — » huulbook of motic, singmg, OJ 

i^n^'d mSSfl^otheJUlrtL^d, with d«Klog. 

faugibr" Victor A=t«t. -» P'*^"^'' '|br«y fo^-^^';^^ „, 

and nienmJr of the Genaral Co ^iclej — » DuiiOtM llbr»ry foc nKTChants, ni» 

LSpslatiffortheOcpartdientof j„j facturers, adverti»ere. nurket analy 

FAVRB, Gabriel dander ' Utd iiudcatsof econotnici. 

Ei''Si?H'^ri{-o^J^o^«cast .of the future so far as intelligent anal 
^'ictcrmine coming developments io Industrie 



I 



HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Per 
[ 105 ] 



FZSCHNCR, Gustav Theodor, German author, b. at Gross Sahrchen, nearMuskau, 
in Niederlaiisitz, April 19, 1801 ; studied at the Colleges of Sorau and Dresden, and 
medicine at Leipsic; appointed professor at the same University, 1834. Author of 
'Massbeatimmungen liber die galvanische Kette,' 1831 ; ' Das Rathselbiichlein,' 1850 ; and 
numerous other works. 



*f GbarleSy English actor, b. in London, 1823; educated in France, and 
studied painting and sculpture ; made his d^but at the SaUe Moli^re ; appeared in Berlin, 
1846, and in England at the Princess's Theatre as Hamlet, 1860, and as Othello, 1861. 
i Lessee and manager of the Lyceum Theatre, 1862-67. / 

; FE'E, Antoine Iiaurent Apollinaire, French naturalist, b. at Ardentes, Indre, 

I Nov. 7, 1789 ; founded the Pharmaceutical Society of the department of the Seine, 1819 ; 
admitted to the Academy of Medicine, 1824 ; appointed professor of Military Instruction 

U at Lille, 1824, and at Strasburg, 1832 ; director of the Jardiu des Plantes. Author of 

• •Flore de Vii:gile,* 1823 ; and * Souvenirs de la Guerre d'Espagne/ 1857. 

II FEIiIaOMTES^ Ed^irard, English politician, b. 1809 ; educated at the Charterhouse ; a 
*^ magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Norfolk and Hunts; formerly lieutenant in the 

• ' 16th Hussars ; M.P. for Hunts since 1837. 

' ™ F£laON; Joseph; French painter, sculptor, and lithographer, b. at Bordeaux, Aug. 22, 

(^l 1818 ; studied painting under M. Court. Painted ' La Mort de Mgr. Atfre,' 1849 ; ' Andro- 

f niede,* a statuette at the Universal Exhibition, 1865 ; and executed in marble for the new 

Y«J Louvre the Allegories of * La Verite,' * L'Histoire,' ' La Justice,' * La Fermetd,' * La 

1™ Prudence,' * La Force ;* and many other pieces of sculpture. 

00^ FEIaSINGy Jacoby German engraver, b. at Darmstadt, 1802 ; studied at the Academy 
of Milan, and at Florence, and under Torchi at Parma. Engraved * Christ in the Garden 
of Olives,' after Carlo Dolce ; * The Holy Family,' after Overbeck, 1839 ; ' St. Genevieve ' 
of Steinbruck ; and the works of many other celebrated painters. 

'SN'WICK, Edward Matthew, English politician, b. 1812 ; assumed the name of 
•^enwick by royal licence, 1854; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1854 ; a J. P. 
^and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Lancaster, and magistrate for the West Riding 
of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Lancaster, 1864-68. 

7&R6USON, Robert, English physician, b. 1799 ; educated in England, and at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. 1823 ; consulting physician to King's 

•College Hospital, and physician-extraordinary to the Queeu. Author of a treatise * On 
Puerperal Fever.* 

FER6USSON, James, English architect, b. in Ayr, Scotland, 1808 ; architect of the 

miUn. Nineveh Court in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham ; one of the commissioners to inquire 

^ into the defences of the United Kingdom, appointed 1859. Author of ' Illustrations of 

1*** the Rock-cut Temples of India,' 1845 ; • The Palaces of Nineveh and PersepoUs restored,' 

1851 ; and other works on architectura. 

FER6USSON, Sir James, English administrator, b. 1832; educated at Rugby, 
and University College, Oxford ; formerly captain in the Grenadier Guards, and served 
in the Crimea; M.P. for Ayrshire, 1854-67, and 1859-68; appointed governor of South 
Austi-alia, Aug. 1868. 

FERGUSSON, MTilliam, English surgeon, b. near Edinburgh, 1808 ; educated at the 
High School and the University of Edinburgh ; professor of surgery at King's CollegQ, 
London ; surgeon to King's College Hospital ; sui^eon-extraordinary to her Majesty. 
Author of • System of Practical Surgery. ' 

FERNAN, Sebastian Franz Dazenber^rer, German statesman and poet, b. at 
Munich, Oct. 3, 1809 ; studied at the Universities of Gottingen and Berlin ; counsellor of 
state, 1848 ; deputy to the National Assembly of Frankfort, 1849. Author of * Edgar, 
Oder Bliithe ans dem Leben eines Dichters,' Munich, 1838 ; * Gedichte,' Ratisbon, 1845 ; 
and of several dramas. 




.iui| 



», William Busfield, English politician, b. 1809 ; a J. P. and deputy- 
lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire; M.P. for Knaresborough, 1841-47, and for 
Devonport, 1863-68. 

BRRARA, Francesco, Italian statesman, b. at Palermo, Dec. 10, 1810 ; studied 
political economy, and founded the GiomdU di Statistica ; imprisoned in the citadel of 
Palermo, 1847-48 ; member of the Provisional Government of the kingdom of Naples, 
1848-49 ; professor of political economy at the University of Turin, 1849-67 ; minister oi 
Unance of the kingdom of Italy, April 7 to Oct. 28, 1867. 

BRRARI, Giuseppe, Italian writer, b. at Milan, 1811 ; studied at the University of 
Pavia, and took the degree of LL.D. 1831 ; appointed professor of philosophy to the 



College of Rochefort, 1840 ; at Strasburg, 1841. Author of 'Ideas on the Politics of 
Plato and Aristotle/ 1842- 'Histoire des Revolutions d'ltalie, ou Guelfs et Gibelins/ 
Paris, 18d6-58 ; and other historical and philosophical works. 

FESSENDEN^ ^VUliam Pitt, American statesman, b. in Merrimac Conntv, New 
Hampshire, Oct. 16, 180(5; graduated at Bowdoin Collie, 1823; admitted to the bar, 
1827 ; member of Congress, 1838 ; member of the United States House of Representatives, 
1840 ; elected to the Senate ; secretary of finance, 1864-65. 

FETISy Francois Joseph, Belgian musical composer, b. at Mons, March 25, 1784 ; 
studied under Haydn and Mozart ; entered the Conservatoire, and received lessons frona 
Roy and Boieldieu ; appointed director of the Conservatoire of Brussels, 1833 ; member 
of the Belgian Academy, 1845. Published 'Traits du Contrepoint et de la Fugue,* 1818 ; 
* Biographic universelle des Musiciens, et Biographic g^n^rale de la Musique,' Paris and 
Brussels, 1835-44 ; and numerous other works. 

FEXTERBACHy Imdinrlgr, German author, b. at Anspach, Bavaria, July 28, 1804 ; 
studied theology at Heidelberg, under Professors Paulus and Daub. Author of ' Gtedanken 
(iber Tod und Unsterblichkeit,' Nuremberg, 1830; 'Das Wesen der Religion/ Leipsic, 
1845 ; and numerous other philosophical works. 

FEUIIaLET, Octave, French dramatic writer, b. at St. Lo, Manche, Aug. 11, 1812 : 
studied at the College of Louis-le-Grand, Paris. Author of * La Nuit Terrible ;* * Bellah,^ 
1850 ; • Histoire de Sibylle,' 1862 ; • I a Belle au Bois dormant,* 1865 ; and numerous other 
dramas, romances, and poems. Elected member of the French Academy, 1862. 

FE'VAIi, Paul Henri Corentln, French novelist, b. at Rennes, Sept 27, 1817 ; 
studied in his native town, and was called to the bar. Author of * Loup Blanc,' 1843 ; 
' Histoire des Tribunaux secrets/ 1851 ; 'Annette Lais,' 1864 ; and numerous other works 
of fiction. 

FEVERSHAM. ^XTilliam Dnnconibe« Baron, English administrator, b. 1798 ; 
studied at Christ Church, Oxford ; M.P. for York, 1826 to 1841, when he succeeded to the 
title ; deputy-lieutenant of Yorkshire. 

FEZCNSAC, Raimond Emery Philippe Joseph de Montesqnion, Due 

de, French diplomatist, b. at Paris, Feb. 26, 1784 ; brigadier-general, 1S12 ; duke of 
Fezensac, 1832; ambassador at Madrid, 1838. Published * Journal de la Campagne de 
Russie in 1812,' 1850. 

FFEILDEN^ Joseph, English politician, b. 1792 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of 
Lancashire ; high sheriff, 1818 ; M.P. for Blackburn since 1865. 

FIQHTE, Inimanuel Hermann. German philosophical writer, b. at Jena, July 18, 
1797 ; studied at the University of Berlin ; professor at the College of Saarbriicken, 
1822, and at Dusseldorf, 1836 ; at the University of Bonn, 1839, and at Tubingen, 1842. 
Author of 'Satze der Vorschule zur Theologie,* Stuttgai-t, 1826; 'Anthropologic, oder 
die Lehre von der menschlichen Seele,* Leipsic, 1856 ; and other philosophical works. 

FIELD, Gyms West, American electrician, b. at Stockbridge, Massachusetts, Nov. 30, 
1819 ; accompanied the ezi>editions of 1857 and 1858 to lay the telegraph cable in the 
Atlantic from England to America, and took a leading part in the third expedition 
of 1864. 

FIEIiD, David Dudley, American jurist, b. at Haddam, Connecticut, Feb. 13, 1805, 
brother of the preceding ; educated at WiUiams College, Massachusetts ; called to the 
bar, 1828 ; appointed by the State of New York as president of a commission to prepare 
a new political, penal, and civil code, 1857. 

FIELD, Rev. Frederick, English philologist, b. 1800 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1823 ; was elected fellow of his college ; rector of 
Reepham, Norfolk, 1842 ; resigned, 1863. Edited the Greek text of St. Chiysostom's 
Homilies on St. Matthew, 1839 ; the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, according 
to the Alexandrian codex ; and other works. 

FIELDS. James, American author, b. at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1820. Edited 
and published an edition of De Quincey*s writings in 21 vols. : author of * A Few Verses 
for a Few Friends,* 1858 ; and other poems. 

FIFE, James Duff. Earl of, English administrator, b. at Edinburgh, 1814 ; K.T. 
and lord-lieutenant of Banffshire ; M.P. for Banffshire, 1837 to 1857 ; succeeded his uncle, 
third earl, March 1857. 

FIOUIER, Gnlllanme Louis, French writer, b. at MontpelUer, Feb. 15, 1819; 
took the degree of M.D. at Paris, 1841 ; appointed professor to the School of Pharmacy 
at Montpellier, 1846. Author of * Du Tissu adipeux et des Matiferes grasses dans la SMo 
animale,* 1844 ; *La Terre avant le D61uge,' 1862 ; and numerous other works. 



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'■ [ 107 J 



FIZiIalASy Acbille Etienne^ French writer, b. at Aubusson, March 25, 1821 ; studied 
at St Cyr, and entered the anny, 1841. Author of • Etudes surl'Alg^rie,' 1849 ; 'HiBtoire 
de la Conqu^te et de la Colonisation de I'Alg^rie, 18S0-60,' 1860 ; and other works. 

FIIaliMORE^ Millard; American statesman, b. at Summer Hill, State of New York, 
Jan. 7, 1800 ; apprenticed to a wool-carder ; elected to the State Assembly as representa- 
tive of the county of Erie, 1829 ; member of Congress, 1832 and 1837 ; comptroller of 
the State of New York, 1847; vice-president of the United States, 1849-60; president of 
the United States, 1850 to 1853. 

FINGALIiy Archibald James Plnnkett, Barl of, Irish administrator, b. 1791 ; 
lord-lieutenant of the county of Meath ; visitor and trustee of Maynooth College ; sat in 
the House of Commons as Lord Killeen till 1831. 

TINImAY^, Alexander Strutbers, English politician, b. 1806 ; educated at Harrow 
and Glasgow ; a commissioner of supply, and magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the 
county of Argyle; deputy-lieutenant of Bute ; M.P. for Argyleshii-e, 1867-68. 

FINIiAY^ QeorsBf English historian, resident for many years at Athens. Author of 
* History of the Greek Revolution,' and several other works on the history of Greece. 

FINNIE, Williain. English politician, b. 1828 ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 
1852 ; elected M.P. for North Ayrshire, 1868. 

FITZGERAIiD, Ri«rlit Hon. John David. Irish judge, b. in Dublin, 1815 ; edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1838 ; appointed soliiitor-general 
for Ireland, 1855 ; attorney-general, 1856 ; one of the judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas in Ireland, 1860. 

FITZGERAIiD^ Otho AngustuSy IfOrd, English politician, b. 1827 ; formerly 
master of the horse to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland ; appointed comptroller of the 
royal household, Dec. 1868 ; M.P. for the county of Kildare since 1866. 

FITZMAURIGE, IfOrd Edniond Georg^e^ English politician, b. 1846; educated 
at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; returned M.P. for Calne, 1868. 

FITZMAURICEy Hon. William Edward, English author, b. 1805 ; educated at 
Oriel College, Oxford : was captaia in the 2d Life Guards ; M.P. for Bucks from 1842 to 
1847. Author of *A Cruise in Egypt, Palestine, and Greece.* 

FITZPATRICK, Ri^ht Hon. John Wilson, English politician, b. in London. 
1800 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College; Dublin ; lord-lieutenant of Queen's County ; 
captain in the army ; M.P. for Queen's County, 1837-41, 1847-52, and since 1865 ; sworn 
privy councillor for Ireland, 1848. 

FITZPATRICK. William John, English writer, b. in Ireland, Aug. 31, 1830 ; 
educated at the Roman Catholic College of Clongowes Wood; a magistrate and grand 
juror of the county of Dublin. Author of 'The Life, Times, and Correspondence of 
Bishop Doyle ;* and many other biographical works. 

FITZWIIalilAM, Hon. Charles William W^entworth, English politician, 
b. 1826 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; formerly attach^ at Vienna ; M.P. for 
Malton since 1858. •" 

FITZW^IIiIilAM^ Hon. W^iUiam Henry W^entworth-Fitzwilliam, 

English politician, b. 1840, second son of Earl Fitzwilliam; returned M.P. for County 
Wicklow, 1868. 

FITZWIIiIiIAM, William Thonias Spencer Wentworfh FitziviUiamy 
Early English administrator, b. Oct. 12, 1815; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated M.A. 1837 ; a magistrate and lord-lieutenant of the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, and KG. ; M.P, for Malton, 1837 to 1841, and again from 1846 to 
1847 ; M. P. for Wicklow, 1847-57 ; succeeded his father, 1857. 

FlaACH ATy Eugre'ne. French engineer, b. 1802 ; studied at the School of Niroes, and 
at Havre and Paris, 1828 to 1830 ; appointed chief engineer of the railways of the West, 
1857 ; founded the Union des Constructeurs, 1841 ; the Conference des Chemins de Fer, 
1844 ; and the Soci6t6 des Ing^nieurs Civils, 1848. Author of ' De la Traversee des Alpes 
par un Chemin de Fer,* 1860 ; and numerous other works on railroads and engineering. 

FIiAOG, Edninndy American writer, b. at Wicasset, Maine, U.S., November 24, 1815 ; 
graduated at Bowdoin College, 1835 ; called to the bar, 1837 ; appointed United States 
consul for the port of Venice, 1850. Author of * Venice, the City of the Sea ;' * Carrero, 
or the Prime Minister ;' and several novels and dramas. 



Pla HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. FlO 

[ 108 ] 



FLAHAUIiT DE laA BILLARDERIE. Angrnste Charles Joseph, Count 

dCy French diplomatist, b. at Paris, April 20, 1786; created brigadier-general, and 
general of division with the title of count, 1813 ; appointed ambassador plenipotentiary 
at Berlin, 1831 ; ambassador at Vienna, 1841 ; ambassador to Great Britain, 1860 to 
1862. 

FLANDIN, Eus^e'ne Napoleon, French painter and traveller, b. at Naples, Aug. 15, 
1809 ; accompanied M. de Sercey, the ambassador, to Persia, 1839, and M. Botta to the 
ruins of Nineveh, 1843. Published * Voyage en Perse,' 1843 ; * Voyage en Ninive,' 1845 : 
painted • La Ville de Venise,' 1836 ; * Int6rieurs de Bazar 4 T6h6ran,* 1861 ; and many 
other pictures, principally landscapes. 

FIiAUBERT. Gustave. French novelist, b. 1821. Author of * Madame Bovary,' 1857 ; 
*Salarambo,*1862. 

FlaAUDINy Iiouls HugrueSy French politician, b. at Paris, May 6, 1804; admitted 
to the bar, 1827 ; appointed advocate-general at the Paris Court of Appeal, 1848 ; 
member of the Council of State, 1852. 

FIiEISCHER, Heinrich Lebrecht, German philologist, b. at Schandau on the Elbe, 
Feb. 21, 1801 ; studied at the University of Leipsic, 1819 to 1824 ; appointed professor of 
the Kreuzschule of Dresden, 1831 • professor of the University of St. Petersburg, and of 
Leipsic, 1835. Author of ' Samachscharis goldene Halsbander,' Leipsic, 1835; 'Gram- 
matik der lebenden persischen Sprache,' ib. 1847 ; and other philological works. 

FIiEMING, Charles, English linguistic writer, b. at Perth, 1806; studied in 
Edinburgh, and at the University of Glasgow ; teacher of English at the College of 
Louis-le -Grand, Paris, 1829-31 ; at the l^cole Polytechnique, 1844-48 ; at the College 
Bourbon, Paris, 1841-52. Published 'Dictionary of English and French, and French 
and English,' 1839-40 ; and several elementary works. 

FLEMING. Sir Valentine, English colonial judge, b. 1809; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated, 1884 ; called to the English bar ; appointed com- 
missioner of the Insolvent Court for Hobart Town, 1841 ; was s^ccessively solicitor and 
attorney-general for Tasmania, and chief justice of that colony. 

FLETCHER, Isaac, English politician, b. 1827 ; coalowner and ironmaster, and a 
magistrate of Cumberland ; returned M. P. for Cockermouth, 1868. 

FLEURY, Anselnie, French politician, b. Feb. 14, 1820 ; member of the Corps L^gis-^ 
latif for the department of Loire Inferieure since 1852. 

FLEURY, Emile Felix, French general, b. at Paris, Dec. 23, 1815 ; studied at the 
College RoUin ; entered the corps of Spahis, 1837 ; sub-lieutenant, 1840 ; captain, 
1844 ; chief of a squadron, 1848 ; appointed aide-de-camp to the Emperor, colonel of the 
Guides, and grand equerry of the Crown, Dec. 31, 1852 ; general of brigade, 1856 ; 
general of division, 1863 ; senator, 1865. • 

FLOCARD DE MEPIEN, Adolphe, French politician, b. July 20, 1802 ; member 
of the General Council for the canton of Morestel ; member of the Corps Ldgislatif for the 
third circonscription of the Isere since 1852. 

FLOCON, Ferdinand, French politician, b. in Paris, Nov. 1, 1800 ; repoiter to the 
Courrier Frangais, 1820 ; fought at the barricades, 1830; wrote for the Tribune National^ 
and was one of the founders of the Riforme ; member oi the Provisional Government of 
France, and minister of commerce, 1848 ; exiled after the coup d'6tat of Dec. 2, 1851. 

FLORENCOURT, Franz Chassot von, €rerman political writer, b. at Bnins' 
wick, July 4, 1804; studied at the University of Marburg. Author of *Kircldiche, 
politische und literarische Zustande Deutschlands,' Leipsic, 1840; 'Zur preussischen 
Verfassungsfrage,' Hamburg, 1847 ; and other political works. 

TImOTOV^, Friedrich Ferdinand Adolph von, German musical composer, 
b. at Tentendorf, Mecklenburg, April 27, 1812 ; studied under Reicha. Composed ' Rob 
Roy,' 1832; the 'Duchess of Guise,' 1838; 'L'Esclave de Camoens,* 1843; * Martha,* 
1858 ; and many other operas and smaller musical pieces. 

FLOURENS, Marie Jean Pierre, French physiologist, b. at Maureilhan, Hdrault, 
April 15, 1794; received the degree of M.D. at Montpellier, 1813; created a peer of 
France, 1846 ; professor in the College of France, 1855 ; professor of comparative phy- 
siology in the Museum of Natural History in Paris ; perpetual secretary of the Freadi 
Academy of Sciences. Author of *De la Longe\dt6 humaine^' Paris,, 1854; and 
nmnerous other scientillc works, 



PlO HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Por 

[ 109] 



FIiOYER. Johiiy English politician, b. 1811 ; educated at Winchester, and Balliol 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1831 ; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of Dorset ; 
was high sheriflf, 1844; M.P. for Dorset, 1846-57, and since 1864. 

FIiXTGEL, Oustav Lebrecht. German philologist, b. at Bautzen, Feb. 18, 1S02; 
educated at the University of "Leipsic, and at Vienna, where he sttidifd under Von 
Hammer; appointed professor in the College of Meissen, 1832. Author of 'Arabic 
Anthology: Collection of fugitive Pieces of Poetry of ThAalibi,' Vienna, 1829; 'History 
of the Arabs,' 1833 ; and other works. 

FOERSTER^ Ernst Joachim^ German writer and painter, b. at Munchengosser- 
stadt, April 8, 1800, brother of the following; studied at Munich, in the school of 
Cornelius. Executed a great number of frescoes. Author of 'Beitrage zur neuem 
Kunstgeschichte,' Leipsic, IS.'JS ; ♦ Denkmale deuts(5her Baukunst, Bildnerei und Malerei,' 
ib. 1855 ; and many other works. 

FOERSTER^ Friederich^ German military writer, b. at Munchengosserstadt, Sept. 15, 
1792 ; entered the volunteer corps of Liltzow, 1813. Author of 'Beitrage zur neuem 
Kriegsgeschichte,' Berlin, 1816 ; * Preussen's neuere und neueste Geschiehte,^ib. 1850 ; and 
numerous other works. 

FOGARASSYy Johann, Hungarian jurist, b. at Kasmark, Abauj var, 1801 ; called to the 
bar, 1829 ; and became a magistrate, 1835 ; elected member of the Hungarian Academy, 
1838 ; councillor to the minister of finance, 1848 ; judge of the Tribunal of Pesth during 
the revolution. Author of 'Magyarhoui maganos Ton'enytudomany elemei,* Pesth, 
1839 ; and numerous other works on jurisprudence. 

FOIaEY, John Henry. English sculptor, b. in Dublin, 1818 ; studied at the Dublin 
Royal Society, and in the schools of the Royal Academy, London. Exhibited 'The 
Death of Abel,' 1839 ; ' Ino and Bacchus,* 1840 ; * Egeria,' 1854 ; and numerous statues, 
busts, and groups. Elected A. R. A. 1849; R.A, 1858. 

FOIaEYy John Henrv Wentworth Hodfiretts. English politician, b. 1828; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of 
Worcestershire and Staffordshire ; M.P. for South Staffordshire, 1857-68. 

FOIiEYy Thomas Henry Foley, Baron, English politician, b. 1808; M.P. for 
Worcestershire, 1830 to 1833 ; captain of the gentlemen-at-arms from July 1846 to March 
1852, and Dec. 1852 to Feb. 1858; reappointed, June 1859 ; succeeded his father, 1883. 

FOIiJAMBE. Francis John Savile, English politician, b. 1830 ; educated at Eton, 
and Christ Cnurch, Oxford; is a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of Notts; M.P. for East 
Retford since 1857. 

FONBIftA.NQUE, Albany, English journalist and statistician, b. 1797 ; chief of the 
statistical department of the Board of Trade ; for many years proprietor and editor of 
the Examiner. Author of 'England under Seven Administrations,' 1837. 

FOOT, Solonion. American i>olitician, b. at Addison County, Vermont, Nov. 19, 1802 ; 
graduated at Middleburg College, 1826 ; appointed professor of natural philosophy in the 
Vermont Academy of Medicine at Castleton, 1828 to 1831 ; called to the bar, 1831 ; 
returned to Congress, 1842 to 1844 ; member of the U.S. Senate, 1850-56. 

FOOTS, Henry Stnart, American politician, b. in Fauquier County, Virginia, Sept. 20, 
1800 ; graduated at Washington College, Lexington, 1819 ; commenced practice as a 
lawyer, 1822 ; elected to the United States Senate, 1847 ; governor of Mississippi, 1851. 

FORBES, Right Rev. Alexander Penrose, Scottish divine, b. at Edinburgh, 
1817 ; educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1844 ; consecrated 
bishop of Brechin, in Scotland, 1847; and received the degree of D.C.L. Author of 
numerous devotional works. 

FORBES, Charles Stnart, English naval commander, b. at Richmond, Surrey, 
1829 ; entered the navy, 1841 ; served during the first China war, and in New Zealand, 
1844-46 ; joined the flrat expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, and promoted to 
a lieutenancy, 1848 ; took the Algerine gunboat to China, 1867 ; commander in the navy, 
1858. Author of ' Garibaldi's Campaign in the Two Sicilies,' 1861. 

FORBES, Hon. Francis Reginald, English diplomatist, b. 1791 ; educated at 
Eton ; entered the diplomatic service ; was secretary of legation at Rio Janeiro, Copen- 
hagen, and Lisbon, and secretary of embassy at Vienna ; appointed minister at Dresden, 
1832 ; envoy extraordinary to Brazil, 1858. 

FORBES, James David, American naturalist, b. in Edinburgh, 1809 ; educated at 
the University of Edinburgh, where he was professor of natursd philosophy, 1833 to 
1860 ; principal of St Salvator's and St. Leonard's Colleges, St. Andrew's, New Bruns- 
wick. Author of ' Travels in the Alps of Savoy ;' and numerous scientific works. 



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FORCADE, Eugre'ne, French writer, b. at Marseilles, 1820; founded the journal 
Semaphore, 1837 ; the Messager de VAssemblie, Paris, 1851 ; director of the Semaine Fi- 
naTicUre, 1866 to 1862. Author of ' Historical Studies,' 1853 ; and other works. 

FORCADE-IiAROQUETTE, Jean lK>uis Victor Adolphe de. French 
statesman, b. in Paris, 1820 ; studied law in Paris, and called to the bar at the Royal 
Court, 1841 ; LL.D. 1846 ; minister of finance, Nov. 28, 1860, to Nov. 12, 1861 ; member 
of the Senate, Nov. 14, 1861 ; vice-president of the Council of State, 1863 ; minister of 
agriculture, commerce, and public works, 1867-68 ; appointed minister of the interior. 
Dee. 18, 1868. 

FORCE, Peter, American journalist, b. in New Jersey, Nov. 26, 1790 ; educated in the 
trade of a printer ; mayor of Washington, 1836 to 1840. Published a documentary 
history of the American colonies, and several historical tracts. 

FORCH HAMMER, Johan Geor^, Danish chemist and geologist, b. at Husum, 
Schleswig, July 26, 1794 ; studied at Kiel, and at Copenhagen, under Oersted ; took the 
degree of M.D. 1820 ; appointed lecturer on mineralogy at the University of Copenhagen, 
1823 ; professor, 1850 ; member of the Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen, 1825 ; and. 
secret^, 1851. Author of ' Skandinaviens geognostiske Natur,' 1843 ; and numerous 
works on geology and chemistry. 

FOROHHAMMER, Paul WUlielni, German archeeologist, b. at Husum, Schleswig, 
1800 ; studied at Lubeck, and at the University of Kiel ; degree of Ph.D. 1828 ; appointed 
professor at Kiel, 1830. Author of ' Zur Topographie von Athen,' Gottingen, 1833 ; and 
numerous other works. 

FORDE, MTUliam BrOTimlo^r, English politician, b. 1823 ; magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Down ; formerly colonel in the 67th Foot ; hi^ sheriff, 1851 ; 
M.P. for Downshire since 1857. 

FORESTER, Rigrbt Hon. Georgre Cecil Weld, English politician, b. 1807; 
educated at Westminster ; colonel in the Royal Horse Guards ; groom of the bedchamber 
to George IV. and William IV. ; comptroller of the household, 1852, and 1858-59; M.P. for 
Wenlock since 1830. 

FOREY, Elie Frederic, French military commander, b. in Paris, Jan. 10, 1804 ; 
educated at Dijon, and admitted to the Military School of St. Cyr, 1822 ; took part in the 
first expedition to Algeria ; colonel, 1844 ; general, 1848 ; took part in oigauizing the 
coup d'6tat of Dec. 1851 ; general of division, 1852 ; senator, 1869 ; marsh^ of France, 
May 17, 1863 ; commanded the French expedition to Mexico. 

FORGACH, Qfsf Anton von, Hungarian politician, b. 1819 ; chancellor of Ofen 
and of Fiume, 1849 ; appointed vice-governor of Prague, 1853 ; governor of Moravia, 
1860 ; and of Bohemia, Oct. 1860 ; chancellor of Hungary, 1861 ; resigned, April 1864. 

FORGUES, Paul Eniile Danrand, French writer, b. at Paris, April 20, 1813 ; 
studied law at Toulouse, and called to the bar at Parifl, 1834. Contributor under the 
pseudonym of Old Nick to the Charivari^ the Revue des Deux Monties, and many 
other French periodicals : translated into R^nch 'Jane Eyre;' 'Shirley;* 'Macaulay's 
Essays ;' and other works by English authors. 

FORNEROD, Constant, Swiss statesman, b. at Avenches, Canton Vaud, 1820 ; studied 
at the Universities of Lausanne, Tubingen, and Heidelberg ; secretary to the govern- 
ment of Vaud, 1845 ; member of the Council of State for the same canton, 1848 ; president 
of the council, 1861 ; member of the Council of State of the Confederation, 1853 ; presi- 
dent, 1855 ; president of the Swiss Confederation, 1857 ; commissioner of the Confederation 
in the canton of Geneva, 1864. 

FORREST, EdTTin, American actor, b. in Philadelphia, March 9, 1806; made his 
d6but at the Walnut-street Theatre, Nov. 1820 ; played m some of the principal theatres 
in America and England. 

FORRESTER, Alfk>ed Henry, English writer, b. in London, 1805. Contributed, 
under the nom de plume of Alfred Crowquillf to the Humorist, 1828 ; Bentley's Miscellany^ 
Punch, and the Illustrated London News. Author of * Leaves trom my Memorandum 
Book ;' ' The Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil ;* and other works. 

FORSTER, Charles, English politician, b. 1815 ; educated at Worcester College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1840 ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1843 ; a 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Staflfordshire M.P. for Walsall since 1847. 

FORSTER, Rev. Charles, English divine, b. 1790 ; educated at Trinity CoUege, 
Dublin ; entered holy oi-ders in Ireland ; rector of Stistead, near Braintree, Essex, 1828 ; 
appointed one of the six preachers in Canterbury Cathedral, 1835. Author of 'The 
Apostolical Authority of the Epistle to the Hebrews vindicated,' 1838 ; * The One 
Primeval Language traced experimentally through Ancient Inscriptions,' 1851. 



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FORSTER, Frangois, French engraver, b. at Lode, NeufcMtel, Atig. 22, 1790 ; 
studied at Paris under Langlois, Leopold Robert, and at the Bcole des Beaux Arts ; 
elected member of the Academy of Fine Arts, 1844. Engraved * Sainte C6cilo,' after Paul 
Delaroche ; * Queen Victoria,' after M. Winterhalter ; and many otiier works. 

FORSTER; Johiiy English historian, b. at Newcastle, 1812 ; appointed commissioner 
in lunacy, 1861. Author of * Lives of the Statesmen of the Commonwealth ; ' * Sir John 
Eliot, a Biography, 1590-1632,* 1864 ; and other historical works. Editor for a time of the 
Examiner and Daily News, and contributor to the Edinburgh and Qitarterly Reviews. 

FORSTERy WiUiamEdiKrardy English statesman, b. 1818 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant 
of the West Riding of YoAshire ; under-secretary of state for the colonies, 1865-66 ; 
appointed vice-president of the Council of Education, Dec. 1868; M.P. for Bradford 
since 1861. 

FORSYTH, IVIlliain, English author, b. 1812 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1834; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1839; a 
bencher of the Inner Temple, and standing counsel to the secretary of state in the 
Council of India ; M.P. for Cambridge, 1865-68. Author of 'Hortensius, or the Duty 
and Office of an Advocate,' 1849 ; • Life of Cicero,' 1864 ; and other works. 

FORTESCUE, Riftrbt Hon. Chichester Samuel Parkinson^ English 
statesman, b. 1823 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. 1844 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Louth ; lord of the 
Treasury, 1844-45 ; under-secretary for the colonies, 1857-58, and 1859-66 ; appointed 
chief secretary for Ireland, Dec. 1868 ; M.P. for County Louth since 1847. 

FORTESCUE, Hon. Dudley FranciSi English politician, b. 182U; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; a deputy-lieutenant of Devon, and magistrate 
of the county of Waterford; M.P. for Andover since 1857. 

FORTESCUEy Right Hon. Hugh Fortescne^ Earl, English statesman, 
b. 1818; educated at Harrow; M.P. for Plymouth, 1841-52; M.P. for Marylebone, 
1854-69 ; succeeded his father, 1861 ; a lord of the Treasury, 1846-47 ; secretary to the 
Poor Law Board, 1847-51. Author of * Public Schools for the Middle Classes,' 1864 ; 
and several political pamphlets. 

FORTUNE, Robert, English botanist, b. in Berwickshire, 1813 ; appointed collector 
of plants in Northern China by the Botanical Society of London, 1842. Author of 
* Three Years' Wandering in China,' 1847 ; * Residence among the Chinese, Inland, on the 
Coast, and at Sea ; being the Third Visit, from 1853 to 1856 ;' and other works. 

FOSS, EdT^ard, Enj^ish author, b. 1787 ; a magistrate of Kent and Surrey, and of the 
borough of Dover. Author of ' The Grandeur of the Law, or the Legal Peers of England, ' 
1843 ; 'The Judges of England,* 1848-57. 

FOSTER, Birket, English artist, b. at North Shields, Northumberland, 1812 ; studied 
wood-engraving under Mr. Landells. Contributor of sketches for the Illustrated London 
News; illustrated Longfellow's 'Evangeline;' 'Goldsmith's Poetical Works;' and otiier 
publications. 

FOSTER, John, American military commander, b. in New Hampshire, 1824 ; educated 
at West Point, and entered the army as lieutenant, 1846 ; serv'^ed in the Mexican war ; 
was first lieutenant and captain at the outbreak of the civil war ; took part with the 
North, and became major, 1861 ; major-general, 1862 ; placed in charge of the depwiiments 
of Virginia and North Carolina, July 16, 1863. 

FOSTER, La Fayette^ American statesman, b. at Franklin, New London, Connecticut, 
Nov. 22, 1806 ; studied at the University of President Brown, Rhode Island ; elected to 
the Senate of the United States, . 1855 ; re-elected to Congress, 1860 ; president of the 
Senate, and on the death of Abraham Lincoln assumed the ofQce of vice-president of the 
United States, April 14. 1865. 

FOSTER, William Orme, English politician, b. 1814 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieu- 
tenant of the counties of Stafford and Worcester ; M.P. for South Staffordshire, 1857-68. 

FOTHERGIIiL, Richard, b. 1830, English politician ; ironmaster, and magistrate 
and deputy-lieutenant of Glamorganshire ; returned M.P. for Merthyr Tydvil, 1868. 

FOX7CHE' LEPELLETIER. Edouard Edmund Frangois, French politician, 
b. at Havre, 1809 ; member of tne Corps Legislatif for the department of the Seine since 
1852 ; member of the Municipal Commission of Paris. 

FOlVIaER, Robert Nicholas, English politician, b. 1825 : a partner in the banking- 
house of Dimsdale & Co. Comhill, London ; returned M.P. for Penryn, 1868. 



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POWlaER, William^ English politician, b. 1828 ; educated at University College, 
London; culled to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1852; returned M.P. for Cambridge, 
1868. 

POX, Sir Charles, English civil engineer, b. at Derby, 1810 ; constructed the building 
for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park, for which he was knighted ; and the 
Crystal Palace at Sydenham. 

POX, Charles Richard, English politician, b. 1798; entered the army, 1815; M.P. 
for Horsham and Calne before the Reform Bill ; for Stroud, 1832-33 ; for the Tower 
Hamlets, 1841-47. Published 'Engravings of unedited and rare Greek Coins, with 
Descriptions,' 1856-62. 

PRASER, Alexander Campbell, English writer, b. in Argyleshire, 1818 ; studied 
at the University of Edinburgh ; appointed professor of metaphysics and logic in his 
university, 1846. Editor of the North British Review, 1849; author of 'Essays in 
Philosophy.* 

PRANCIS, Oeorire Henry, English writer, b. 1817. Author of 'Opinions of Lord 
Brougham,' 1857; 'Critical Biographies of Mr. B. Disraeli, Sir Robert Peel, Lord 
Brougham, and Lord Palmerston :' contributor to Frnser^s and other magazines. 

PRANCIS JOSEPH I.. Eniperor of Austria and King of Hnnirary, 

b. Aug. 18, 1830, the son of Archduke Franz Carl and of Archduchess Sophia, Princess 
of Bavaria ; appointed governor of Bohemia, April 5, 1848 ; declared of age, Dec^ 1, 1848 ; 
proclaimed Emperor of Austria in consequence of the abdication of his uncle, Ferdi- 
nand I., and the renunciation of the crown by his father, December 2, 1848 ; crowned 
King of Hungary, and took the oath on the Himgarian Constitution, June 8, 1867 ; 
married, April 24, 1864, to Elizabeth, Princess in Bavaria, the daughter of Duke Maxi- 
milian in Bavaria. 

PREEMAN, Edward Ancnstus, English historical writer, b. at Harbome, 
Staffordshire, 1823; elected scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, 1841, and fellow, 1845 ; 
graduated M. A. ; examiner in law and modem philosophy, 1857-58 and 1863-64. Author 
of 'History of Architecture.' 1849; 'History of Federal Government,' 1863; 'History of 
the Norman Conquest,' 1867; and other works. 

PREERi Martha MTallLer, English authoress, b. at Leicester, Oct. 25, 1822 ; married 
to the Rev. John Robinson, rector of Windmerpool, near Nottingham, 1861. Author of 
'Life of Marguerite d'Angoul6me, Queen of Navarre,* 1854; 'The Married Life of Anne 
of Austria,* 1864; and other biographical works. 

PREIIiIGRATH, Perdinand, German poet, b. at Detmold, Northern Germany, 
June 17, 1810 ; educated for a mercantile career. Author of numerous lyrical poems. 

PREMANTIiE, Sir Thomas Prancis, English statesman, b. 1798 ; educated at 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1819; M.P. for Buckingham, 1826-46; 
deputy-chainnan of the Board of Customs, 1846, and chairman of the board, 1850 ; was 
secretary at war, 1844-45 ; chief secretary for Ireland, 1845-46. 

PREMONT, John Charles, American officer and statesman, b. in South Carolina, 
Jan. 21, 1813 ; graduated at Charleston College, 1830 ; explored the South Pass of the 
Rocky Mountains, 1842 ; captain, 1845 ; colonel, 1850 ; unsuccessful candidate for the 
Presidency of the United States, 1856 ; took part with the Union Government in the 
civil war, and appointed lieutenant-general, 1861. 

PI^'MY, Edn&ond, French chemist, b. at Versailles, Feb. 28, 1814 ; studied at the 
Ecole Pol3rtechnique ; professor in the same from 1848 to 1850 ; elected member of the 
Academy of Sciences, 1857. Author of several works on chemistry. 

PRENGH, Benjamin, American writer, b. in Virginiaj June 8, 1799. Published 
'Memoirs of Eminent Female Writers,' 1825; 'Historical Collections of Louisiana,' 
1844 to 1853 ; and other works. 

PRENGH, Right Hon. Pits-Stephen, English politician, b. 1801 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Roscom- 
mon ; M.P. for county of Roscommon since 1832. 

PRERE, Sir Henry Bartle Ed^irard, English colonial administrator, b. 1815 ; 
educated at Haileybury ; entered the Bengal ^vil Service, 1833 ; appointed British 
resident in Scinde, 1856; created K.C.B. civil division, 1859 ; governor of Bombay, 
1862-68. 

PRERE, Rer. John Alexander, English theological writer, b. 1814 ; educated at 
fn_f_.x„ A^.,,-_- ^ ^_.j_- -,-._- ^- J, X.., « a '"""and M.A. ; appointed vicar 

Scripture,' 1860; 'The Tes- 



Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1838. and M.A. ; appointed vicar 
of Shillington, Beds, 1863. Author of ^The Inspiration of ; 



timony of the Spirit to the Incarnation,' 1863. 



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FRE'BE-ORBAN. Hnbert, Belgian statesman, b. at Liege, April 24, 1812 ; studied 
law, and after 1830 entered the journalistic career; elected member of the Chamber 
of Deputies for Liege, June 1847 ; minister of finance in 1847, and again 1848-62 ; 
minister of public works, 1847-48 ; appointed a third time minister of finance, Oct. 26, 
1861. 

FRERICHS. nriedriCh Theodor, German physician, b. at Aurich, in Hanover, 
March 24, 1819; studied at the Universily of Gottingen, where he graduated M.D.; 
physician to the King of Prussia, 1854. Author of a * Practical Treatise on Diseases of 
the Liver ;' and other medical works. 

FRESHFIBIaD, Charles Kaye. English politician, b. 1812; educated at the 
Charterhouse ; is deputy4ieutenanx of London, and solicitor to the Bank of JSngland ; 
M.P. for Dover, 1865. 

FRIEDRICH I., Grand Dtike of Baden, b. Sept 9, 1826, second son of 
Grand Duke Leopold I. and of Princess Sophia of Sweden ; ascended the throne of 
Baden at the death of bis father, April 24, 1852 ; married, Sept. 20, 1856, to Louise, 
b Dec. 3, 1838, the daughter of King Wilhelm I. of Prussia. 

FBIEDRICH FRANZ I., Grand Doke of Mecklenbnrir-Strelits, 

b. Oct. 17, 1819, the son of Grand Duke Geoi^ and Princess Marie of Hesse-Cassel ; 
succeeded to the throne at the death of his father. Sept. 6, 1860 : married, June 24, 1843, 
to Augusta, b. Jnly 19, 1822, the dau^ter of the late Duke Adolphus of Cambridge. 

FRIEDRICH FRANZ II., Grand Dnke of Mecklenbnrgr-Sdiwerin, 

b. Feb. 28, 1823, the son of Grand Duke Paul Friedrich and Princess Alexandrine of 
Prussia ; studied pliilosophy and theology at the University of Bonn, 1840-42 ; succeeded 
to the throne at the death of his father, March 7, 1842. 

FRISWEIali, James Hain, English writer, b. at Newport, Shropshire, 1827. Author 
of 'Houses with the Fronts Off,' 1865 ; * A Daughter of Eve ;' 'The Gentle Life ;' and 
other works of a miscelltmeous character. 

FRITH, WllUani Po^irell. English painter, b. at Studley, near Ripon, 1819 ; entered 
the Art Academy^ 1835. Exhibited 'Malvolio before the Countess Olivia,' 1840; 

* English Merrymaking a Hundred Years Ago,' 1847 ; ' A Child at its Evening Prayers,* 
1852 ; ' A Dream of Hie Future,' 1856 ; and numerous other paintings. Elected A.R.A. 
and R.A. 1852. 

FROST, Williami EdDtrard, English painter, b. at Wandsworth, Surrey, 1810 ; was 
. admitted as student at the Royal Academy, 1829. Painted ' Diana and Actseon,' 1846 ; 

* The Syrens,' 1849 ; ' Chastity,' 1854 ; * The Glacis,' 1863 ; and many others. Elected 
A.R.A. 1846. 

FROTHINGHAMy Richard, American author and politician, b. at Charlestown, 
Massachusetts, Jan. 31, 1812 ; member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, 
1889 to ia50 ; 'mayor of Charlestown, 1850 to 1853. Author of * History of Charlestown,* 
1848 ; and otiier works. 

FROX7DE, James Anthony, English historian, b. at Dartington, Devonshire, 
April 23, 1818 ; educated at Westminster, and Oriel College, Oxford ; took deacon's 
orders, 1844. Author of 'Lives of the English Saints,' 1844; 'The Nemesis of Faith,* 
1848 ; ' History of Enghmd, flrom the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth,' vols. 1-8, 
1856-65. Editor of Fraaer's Magazine. 

TVAJ>y Mehmed Pasha, Turkish statesman, b. in Constantinople, 1814; studied 
medicine in the Schools of Galata ; nominated second interpreter to ^e Porte, 1843 ; 
Ottoman commissioner at Bucharest, 1848 ; commissioner at the head-quarters of Omar 
Pasha in the Crimea ; minister of foreign affairs, 1856 ; Grand Vizier, 1861-66. Author 
of 'The Alhambra,' a poem, and 'The Truth upon the Question of the Holy Places,' 1853. 

FUBRST, Jnlius, German philological writer, b. at Zerkowa, duchy of Posen, May 12, 
1806. Author of a ' Hebrew Concordance ;* * Biographical Dictionary of eminent Hebrew 
Literati and Savans, past and present ;' and other philological and biographical works. 

FUIiIiERTON, Iiady Georifis&St English authoress, b. 1814 ; married to Captain 
Alexander Fullerton, 1833. Author of 'Ellen Middleton,' 1844; 'Lady Bird,' 1852; 
'Laurentia, a Tale of Japan,' 1861 ; 'Too Strange not to be True,' 1864 ; and other works 
of fiction. 

FURSTENBERG, Carl E^ron Iieopold Maximilian. Prince of. German 
military commander, b. March 4, 1820 ; succeeded his father, Oct. 22, 1854 ; lieutenant- 
general in the service of Baden, and aide-de-camp to the Grand Duke of Baden. 

FURSTENBERG, Johann Neponinck Joachim Egron, laanderave of, 

Austrian statesman, b. March 21, 1802 ; succeeded his father, Feb. 4, 1856 ; chamberlain 
at the court of Austria ; privy coimcUlor and grand master of ceremonies to the Emperor. 



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GABEIiENTZ. Hans Conon von, Oernian philologist, b. at Altenbnrg, Oct. 13, 1807 ; 
studied at the Universities of Leipsic and Oottiugen ; privy councillor of the Duke of 
Saxe-Altenbuiv. 1848-48 ; president of the Cabinet of Altenburg, 1848-49 ; represented 
Altenbiuv at the parliament of ErAirt, 1850 ; president of the Diet of Altenbuig, 1851. 
Author of * BeitrS^ zur Sprachenkunde,' Leipsic, 1852 ; and other works. 

GAERTNER. nriedricb voi&y German architect, b. at Coblentz, 1792 ; studied at 
Munich, and m England and Italy ; appointed professor of architecture in the Munich 
Academy, 1820 ; director of the Academy of Fine Arts at Munich ; furnished the design 
for the royal palace at Athens, 1886 ; superintended the restoration of the cathedrals of 
Regensburg and Bamberg ; ardiitect of the principal public buildings at Munich. 

GAOERN, Helnrlch Wilbelin Aunst, Baron voxi; German statesman, b. at 
Bayreuth, Aug. 20, 1799 ; studied at the Milita^ School of Munich, and at Gottingen, 
Jena, and Heidelberg ; entered the service of the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1821 ; 
deputy to the Legislative Chamber of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1832-48 ; member of the Gterman 
Parliament at Frankfort, and one of the authors of the Federal Constitution, 1848-49 ; 
retired into private life, 1852. Published ' A Life of General Friedrich von Gagem,' 1866. 

GA6NE, Panlin^ French writer, b. at Montoison, Dr6me, June 8, 1806 ; studied law, 
and was called to the bar at Paris. Author of • Le Suicide,' 1841 ; * Le Supplice du 
Mari,' 1865 ; * Le Congrfes Sauveur des Rois et des Peuples,' 1864; and other works. 

GAI«IiAIT| LoniSy Belgian historical painter, b. at Toumay, 1810 ; studied at Antwerp 
and Paris. Painted ' Tasso in his Cell, visited by Montai^e,' 1836 ; * The Last Moments 
of Egmont,' 1853 ; and exhibited at the International Exhibition of 1862 'The Abdication 
of Charles V.' and ' The Last Honours paid to Egmont and Horn.' 

GAIiIiOWAY. Randolph Stewart, Earl of, English administrator, b. in Sussex, 
1800; educated at Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for Cockermouth, 1826 to 
1831 ; succeeded his father, 1884 ; a magistrate of Elirkcudbrightshire and Wigtonshire. 

GALLWEY, Sir Williaui Payne. English politician, b. 1808 ; deputy-lieutenant 
of the North Riding of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Thirsk since 1851. 

GAIiWAY, Georee Ed^irard Amndell Monckton Amndell, Visconnt, 

English politician, b March 1, 1805 ; educated at Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he graduated B. A. ; was a lord- in-waiting to the Queen, Feb. to Dec. 1852 ; deputy- 
lieutenant of Notts ; M.P. for East Retford since 1847. 

GAM BIER. Sir Ed^irard John, English colonial judge, b. 1796; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated ; called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn ; 
appointed recorder of Prince of Wales Island, 1828 ; transferred as puisne judge to 
Madras, 1886; chief judge, 1840 to 1849. 

GARBETTy Ven. James, English divine, b. 1800; educated at Brasenose College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1822; appointed public examiner at Oxford, 1829; 
rector of Clayton, Sussex, 1835 ; prebendary of Chichester, 1843 ; archdeacon of Chi- 
chester, 1851. Published *Bampton Lectures' and • Prrolectiones Academicse.' 

GARDNER, John, English physician, b. at Coggeshall, Essex, 1804 ; educated at 
London, Edinburgh, and Giessen; graduated M.D. 1844: founded the Royal College of 
Chemistry and the General Apothecaries' Company. Author of 'The Great Physician,* 
1843 ; 'Treatise on Consumption,' 1854 ; ' Household Medicine,' 1863 ; and other works. 

GARIBALDI, Giuseppe, Italian general and politician, b. at Nice, July 22, 1807 ; 
entered the Sardinian navy, 1825 ; engaged in a conspiracy, and took refhge in France, 
1834 ; returned to Rome, 1848 ; commanded at Varese, Camerlata, &c. in the campaign 
against Austria, 1859 ; landed at Marsala, May 1860, and conquered Sicily and Naples ; 
attacked by the Italian troops at Aspromonte and severely wounded, Aug. 27, 1862 ; 
visited En^and, 1864 ; defeated at Mentana, 1867. 

GARLIES, IfOrd Stevvart, English politician, b. 1836, eldest son of the Earl of 
(Calloway; educated at Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford; a captain in the Royal 
Horse Guards Blue ; returned M.P. for Wigtonshire, 1868. 



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GARNIER. Jean IiOtds Cbarles, French architect, b. in Paris, Not. 6, 1825 ; 
entered the Eicole des Beaux Arts, 1842 ; designed the hall of the new Op^ra at Paris. 

GARNIER. Joseph Clement. French political economist, b. at Beuel, Nice. Oct 3, 
1813 ; studied at Dragoignan, and at the l^cole Snp^rienre dn Commerce at Paris. 
Author of 'Elements d'^conomie politique,' 1846; • Premieres Notions d'Economie 
politique ou sociale,' 1864; and numerous other works. Founder of the Nouveau 
Journal des Connaissanoea UtUes. 

GARNIER PAGE'S, Iiouis Antonin, French politician, b. at Marseilles, July 18, 
1803 ; mayor of Paris, and minister of finance under the Provisional Government, 1848 ; 
elected member of the Corps L^giidatif for the fifth circonscription of Paris, 1864. 
Author of 'History of the Revolution of 1848,' 1860-62. 

GARRETTy Sir Robert, English officer, b. 1794 ; entered the army, 1811 ; served in 
the Peninsula ; was lieutenant-colonel during the war in the Crimea ; ^pointed to com- 
mand a brigade at Gibraltar, 1856, and in China, 1857; created K.C.B. for services in 
suppressing* the Indian Mutiny. 

GASCy Jean. French lawyer, b. at Toulouse, 1800 ; studied law, and was called to the 
bar of his native town, 1823 ; appointed councillor of state, 1855. 

GASEIaEE, Stephen. English politician, b. 1807; educated at Winchester, and Balliol 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A, 1828, M. A. 1832 ; called to the bar of the Inner 
Temple, 1832; serjeant-at-law, 1840; M.P. for Portsmouth, 1865-68. 

GASPARINy Airenor E'tienne, Conite de, French writer, b. at Orange, July 10, 
1810. Author of * De 1' Amortisseraent,* 1834 ; * L'Am6rique devant TEurope,' 1862; and 
other historical and financial works. 

GATTY, Margraret. English authoress, b. in Essex, 1809 ; married to the Rev. Alfred 
Qatty, D. D. , vicar of Ecclesfleld, near Sheffield, 1839. Author of * The Fairy Godmothers, 
and other Tales,' 1851 ; * Old Folks from Home ;* and numerous works of fiction. 

GAXTMEy Jean Joseph, French theological writer, b. at Fuans, Doubs, 1802; 
appointed professor of theology at the Seminary of Nevers, 1827 ; took the degree of 
D.D. from the University of Prague ; vicar-general of Rheims, Montauban, and Aquila. 
Author of *Le Signe de la Croix au XIX 8i6cle,' 1863 ; and other theological works. 

GAUTIERy The'ophile. French poet, novelist, and critic, b. at Tarbes, Aug. 31, 1808 ; 
entered the College Charlemagne, 1822. Author of 'Poesies* and 'Albertus,' 1830; 
*La Com6die de la Mort,' 1838; 'Une Larme du Diable,' 1839; 'Tr6sors d'Art de hi 
Russie ancienne et modeme,' 1860-63 ; ' Loin de Paris,* 1864 ; and other works. 

GAVAZZI, Alessandro, Italian priest and politician, b. at Bologna, 1809 ; admitted 
into holy orders in the Church of Rome, 1825 ; appointed chaplain-general of the forces, 
and accompanied the Roman army to Vicenza, 1848. Published a 'Life ' of himself, in 
English and Italian ; and 'Orations,' 1851. 

GAVIN, Geor^re O'Halloran, English politician, b. 1810; entered the 16th Lancers, 
1827 ; became a major in the army, 1846 ; retired, 1850 ; a magistrate of the county of 
Limerick; M.P. for Limerick since 1859. 

GAVINI^ SampierO; French politician, b. at Bastia, May 18, 1823; advocate at the 
Imperial Court of that town, and member of the General Council for the canton of Cam- 
pile ; elected to the Corps L6gislatif for the department of Corsica, 1863. 

GAYANGOS. Pascnal. Spanish historian, b. June 21, 1809; studied Oriental 
languages under Silvestre ae Sacy^ in France ; appointed professor in tfie University of 
Madrid, 1843. Author of 'History of the Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain ;' and of a 
Spanish translation of Ticknor's ' History of Spanish Literature,' 1851-56. 

GAYARREy Charles Arthur, American writer, b. at Louisiana, Jan. 8, 1805- 
studied at the College of New Orleans. Author of ' History of Louisiana ;' the ' School 
for Politics ;' and other works. 

GEIGER, Abraham, German writer, b. at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, May 24, 1810, of 
Jewish parents ; studied at the Universities of Heidelberg and Bonn ; appointed Rabbi 
of the Jewish community of Wiesbaden, 1832. Author of 'Was hat Mohammed aus 
dem Judenthum aufgenommen?' Bonn, 1883 ; and other works in Jewish literature. 

GEIKIEy Archibald, English geologist, b. at Edinburgh, 1835 ; educated at the High 
School and University of Edinbuigh ; appointed to the Geological Survey, 1855. Author 
of 'The Story of a Boulder,' 1858 ; 'The Phenomena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland,' 
1863 ; and other geological works. 

GEMEAX7, Aususte Pierre Walbonrgr, French general, b. at Paris, Jan. 4, 
1790 ; left the Militu^ School as sub-lieutenan^ 1808 ; colonel, 1825 ; lieutenant-general 
1846 ; senator, 1859l 



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OENDRON, Aufrnstei French historioal painter, b. in Paris, 1818 ; studied under 
Paul Delaroche. Painted *Le Dante comments par Boccace/ 1844; ' Les Nymphes au 
Tombean d'Adonis/ 1864 ; and numerous other pictures. 

OENTEUR, Simon Maximilian, French statesman, b. at St. Germain Hont, 
Ardennes, 1815 ; studied at the ^Lyc^e of Rheims, and law at Paris ; called to the bar of 
Orleans, 1840 ; mayor of Orleans, 1954 ; appointed secretary-general of the Ministry of 
Public Instruction, and councillor of state, 1863. 

OEOROB I.J Kin|r of the Hellenes^ b. Dec. 24, 1845, the second son of Prince 
Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderbui^g-Oliicksbuig ; elected King of the Hellenes by 
the National Assembly at Athens, March 18 (30), 1863 ; accepted the crown, through bis 
father and the King of Denmark, acting as his guardians, June 4, 1863 ; declared of age 
by decree of the National Assembly, June 27, 1863 ; landed in Greece, Nov. 2, 1868. 

GEOROB II., Dnke of Saxe-Meininsen. b. April 2, 1826, the son of Duke 
Bemhard I. ; succeeded^ on the abdication of his father, Sept. 20, 1866 ; married. May 18, 
1850, to Princess Charlotte of Prussia, who died March 80, 1855 ; married again, Oct 23, 
1858, to Princess Theodora of Hohenlohe-Langesburg, b. July 7, 1839. 

OEOROE Victor, Prince of Waldeck, b. Jan. 14, 1831, the son of Prince Geoi^g 
Friederich and I^ncess Emma of Anhalt-Bemburg ; succeeded to the throne at the death 
of his father, under the guardianship of his mother. May 14, 1845 ; married, Sept. 26, 
1853, to Helena, b. Aug. 12, 1831, daughter of the late Duke of Nassau. 

OEOROB, John, English politician, b. 1804; educated at Trinity Collie, Dublin, 
where he graduated B.A. 1822, M. A. 1824 ; called to the Irish bar, 1826 ; to the English 
bar, 1828 ; magistrate of the county of Wexford ; formerly crown-prosecutor for the 
Leinster circuit ; solicitor-general for Ireland, 1858-59 ; M.P. for county of Wexford, 
1852-57, and 1859^^. 

OERIJkOH, Oeorgr Daniel; Danish general, b. at Eckemforde, Schleswig, Aug. 31, 
1798 ; entered the army as ensign, 1813 ; major, 1848 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1849 ; colonel, 
1850 ; mivjor-general, 1854 ; lieutenant-generail, 1863 ; chief of the Danish army, 1864. 

OERMINY, Charles Oabriel Le Be'gne, Gomte de, French stetesman, b. at 
Cliponville, Seine Inf6rieure, Nov. 3, 1799 ; minister of finance, 1848 ; governor of the 
Bank of France, 1857-63 ; vice-president of the General Council of the Seine Inf6rieiire. 

OE'ROMB, Jean Le'on, French painter, b. at Vesonl, Haute-Sadne, May 11, 1824 : 
studied in Paris, 1841, under Paul Delaroche, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arte ; appointed 
professor of painting to the ^cole des Beaux Arts, 1863. Exhibited * Bacchus et rAmour,' 
1848 ; 'Phryne,* * C16opatre,' 1863 ; and numerous «ther paintings. 

OERSTAEGKBR. Friedrich, German traveller and author, b. at Hamburg, May 16, 
1816. Author of * Streif-und JagdzUge durch die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerica/ 
Dresden, 1844; 'Pirates of the Mississippi,' 1856; 'A Wife to Order/ 1860; and other 
works of travel and fiction. 

OERVINU8, Oeorgr Gottfried, German historian and critic, b. at Darmstadt, 
May 20, 1805 ; studied at Heidelberg, 1826 ; professor of German literature at the Uni- 
versity of Gottingen. Author of 'A History of Europe since 1815 ;' ' History of Gtorman 
Poetry,' Leipsic, 1853 ; treatises on Shakspeare and Handel ; and other works. 

OE8NER, Abrahan&t American geologist, b. at Comwallis, Nova Scotia. Author of 
* On the Mineralogy and Geology of Nova Scotia ;' * On the Industrial Resources of Nova 
Scotia ;• and other geological works. 

GETTY, Samnel Gibson, English politician, b. 1817 ; a magistrate of the county of 
Antrim; was mayor of Belfast, 1856-58 ; M.P. for Belfast, 1860-68. 

GIBSON, RifTht Hon. Thomas Milner, English stetesman, b. at Trinidad, 1807, 
the son of M^]or T. Milner Gibson ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; vice-presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade from July 1846 to May 1848 ; president of the Poor Law 
Board. 1869 ; sat for Ipswich from July 1837 to July 1839 ; and for Manchester from 1841 
till 1867 ; M.P. for Ashton, 1857-68 ; president of the Board of Trade, 1859-66. 

GIBSON, William Sidney, English antiquarian, b. at Fulhani, 1815 ; called to the 
bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1845 ; appointed registrar of the Court of Bankruptcy, 1852. 
Author of 'The History of Tynemouth,' and other historical and antiquarian works. 

OIIiB^RT, Jacqnes Eniile, French architect, b. in Paris, Sept. 3, 1793 ; entered 
the Ecole Polytechnique, 1811 ; and the Ecole des Beaux Arte, 1813 ; directed the con- 
struction of the H6tel de la Prefecture de Police, 1866, and numerous other public 
buildings; elected member of the French Acad6mie des Beaux Arte, 1853. 

GIIiBERT, John. English artist, b. at Blackheath, Kent, 1817. Exhibited paintings 
in water-colour of ^Don Quixote giving Advice to Sancho Panza,' 1841 ; 'Peace and War,' 
1852. Draftsman on wood for the Imtstrated I/mdon News, the British Workman^ and 
numerous other illustrated works. 



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OIIiBERT, William, English novelist Author of 'Shirlev Hall Asylum;' 'Dr. 
Austin's Guests/ * Life of Lucrezia Boigia ;' and many other works. 

OIIiES, Rer. John Allen, English author, b. 1802 ; educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1824 ; i^pointed head master of the City of 
London School, 1836; renigned, 1840. Author of * ^fe and Times of Alfired the Oreat ;' 

• History of the Ancient Britons ;* and other historical works. 

OIIiFIIiIftA.Nt Rer. Qeorge, English -author and critic, b. at Comrie, Scotland, 
1813; appointed minister of the Schoolwynd Church at Dundee, 1837. Author of 
'A Gallery of Literary Portraits ;' 'The History of a Man,' 1886; 'Alpha and Omega,' 
1860 ; and other works of miscellaneous hterature. 

OIIiIiIES, Marsaret, English artist, b. in Scotland, 1803 ; studied under Frederick 
Cruikshank and Henry Schetfer ; elected lady member of the old Society of Painters in 
Water Colours, 1853 ; a constant contributor to the exhibitions of that institution. 

OIIiIiMORE| Qnincy Adams, American military commander, b. in Loraine 
County, Ohio, 1825 ; admitted to the Academy of West Point, 1845, where he graduated, 
1840 ; lieutenant, 1849 ; captain on the outbreak of civil war, 1861 ; brigadier-general and 
migor-general, 1863. 

OIIiPIN, Gharles, English politician, b. at Bristol, 1815; educated for a mercantile 
careen and became member of the Common Council of London ; secretary of the Poor 
Law Board, 1859-65 ; M.P. for Northampton since 1857. 

GILPIN, Richard Thomas, English politician, b. 1801 ; educated at Bugby, and 
Christ's College, Cambridge ; colonel of the Beds Militia ; depiuty-Uentenant and magis- 
trate of Beds and Bucks ; M.P. for Bedfordshire since 1851. 

GIL Y ZARATB, Antonio, Spanish dramatic poet, b. Dec. 1, 1793 ; member of the 
Spanish Academy. Author of 'Cn Afio despues de la Boda,' played at Madrid, 1825 ; 

• Don Pedro de Portugal,' 1828 ; * Rosmunda,' 1840 ; and numerous other works. 

GIRARDET, Karl, French painter, b. at Locle, Neufch&tel, May 13, 1810. Painted 
' Le Mont Righi ;' ' Le Retour du Soldat,' 1850; ' Vue prise dans les Landes de Oascogne,' 
1864 ; and numerous other landscapes. 

GII^RDIN. Emile de, French journalist, b. in Switzerland, 1806. Author of 

• Emile,' 1827 ; * Au Hasard,' 1828 ; founded La Fresse, 1886 ; member of the Chamber ot 
Deputies, 1834-48 ; retired nrom the direction of La Presae, 1856 ; subsequently established 
LaLiberU. 

GIRARDIN, Jean Pierre Louis. French chemist, b. in Paris, Nov 16, 1803 ; 
correspondent of the Acad^mie des Sciences de I'lnstitut. Author of ' Elements de 
Min^ralogie appliqu^e aux Sciences chimiques,' Paris, 1826; 'Legons dc Chimie ^l^men- 
taire faites le Dunanche 4 1'Ecole munieipale de Rouen,' ib. 1860; and many other worlui 
on chemistry. 

GIRAX7D, Gharles Joseph Barthelemy, French legal writer, b. at Femes, 
Vaueluse, Feb. 20, 1802 ; stnoied law at Aix ; vice-rector of the Acad^mie de Paris, 1845 
to Feb. 25, 1848 ; appointed inspector-general of the Order of Advocates, 1861. Author of 
'Bssai sur I'Histoire du Droit Frangais au Moyen Age,' 1845 ; and other legal worlds. 

GIRAX7D. nerre Francois Engrene, French painter, b. at Paris, Aug. 9, 1806; 
entered the Scole des Beaux Arts, 1821. Exhibited ' Les Enrdlements Volontaires,' 1S85 ; 
*Incendie k Constantinople,' 1853; 'Debordement du Nil,' 1863; and many other 
paintings. 

GIRDLE8TONB, Rev. Charles, English author, b. March 6, 1797; educated at 
Wadham College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1818, and M.A. ; vicar of Sed^ey, 
Staffordshire, 1826-47; rector of Kingswhiford, Staffordshire, 1847. Author of 'Family 
Commentary on the Bible,' 1832-42; and other religious works. 

GLADSTONE, Rieht Hon. "William B^rart, English statesman, b. at Liver- 
pool, Dec. 29, 1809, me fourth son of Sir -John Gladstone, Bart., a Liverpool merchant; 
educated at Eton, and at Christ Church, Oxford ; a lord of the Treasury, Dec. 1884 ; 
under-secretary for the Colonial Department, Jan. 1835 to April 1835 ; vice-president of 
the Board of Trade and master of the Mint from Sept. 1841 to May 1843 ; president of 
the Board of Trade, May 1843 to Feb. 1845 ; secretary of state for the colonies, July 
1846 ; chancellor of the Exchequer in Lord Aberdeen's ministry, Dec. 28, 1852 ; resigned 
with the Aberdeen ministry, Jan. 30, 1855 ; accepted the same office under Lord Palraer- 
Bton, Feb. 5, but resigned, Feb. 21, 1855 ; M.P. for Newark, 1882-45 ; chancellor of the 
Exchequer, June 18, 1859, to July 5, 1866 ; M.P. for South Lancashire, 1865-68 ; returned 
M-P. for Greenwich, Nov. 1868; appointed first lord of the Treasury, Dec. 8, 1868. 
Author of 'The Church considered in its relation with the State,' 1840; and several 
other political treatises. 



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GIftA.D8TONE, William Henry, English politiciaii, b. 1840; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, where be graduated B.A. 1862, M.A. 1865; deputy-lieutenant 
of the county of Flint ; M.P. for Chester, 1866-68, for Whitby, 1868.. 

OIiAIRE, I'Abbe' Jean Baptiste, French theologian, b. at Bordeaux, April 1, 1798 ; 
studied at St. Sulpice ; entered holy orders, 1822 ; appointed to the chapter of Notre 
Dame de Paris, 1840 ; nominated councillor of the University, 1845. Author of ' Lexicon 
manuale Hebraicum et Chaldi^'cum,' 1880 ; 'Concordances Arabes du Coran ;' 'Principes 
de Grammaire Arabe,' 1857 and 1861 ; and other theological and philological works. 

OIaA.IS-BIZOIN| Alexander, French politician, b. at Quintin, Cdtes du Nord^ 
March 9, 1800 ; was called to the bar, 1822 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the 
department of C6tes du Nord, 1863. 

OlaASGOW. James Garr Boyle. Earl of, English administrator, b. 1792: 
studied at Oxford; was lieutenant K.N. ; lord-lieutenant and principal sheriff of Ren- 
frewshire ; a deput^-lieuteoant of the county of Bute ; was M.P. for Ayrshire, as Lord 
Kilbum, 1839 to 1843, when he succeeded his father. 

OIiASS, Sir Richard Atinrood, English politician, b. 1820; educated at King's 
College, London ; created baronet for his services in laying the Atlantic Telegraph, 1866 ; 
returned M.P. for Bewdley, 1868, unseated, 1869. 

OLEIG, Rer. Georire Robert, English author, b. at Stirling, April 20, 1796; 
educated at Glasgow, and Balliol College, Oxford ; obtained a commission, 1812 ; joined 
the army of the Duke of Wellington, 1818 ; entered holy orders, and became rector 
of Ivychurch, Kent, 1822 ; prebenduy of St. Paul's ; chaplain-general of the forces. 
Author of *The Subaltern/ 1825 ; 'The Life of the Duke of Wellington ;' and numerous 
other works. 

GIiOGKER, Ernst Friedricli, German mineralogist, b. at Stuttgart, May 1, 1793 ; 
studied theology at TUbingen, and was ordained, 1815; studied botany and mineralogy at 
Halle and Berlin ; professor of mineraloc^ at Breslau. Author of * Charaktenstik der 
schlesischen mineraJogischeik Literatur,' Breslau, 1827-32 ; ' Ueber die Qescbiebe der 
Oderebene,' 1854 ; and numerous other scientific works. 

OIiOUGESTER AND BRISTOL, Ritrht Rer. Chaxles John Ellieott, 
Bishop of, English divine, b. at Whitwell, 1819 ; educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated, 1841 ; appointed professor of divinity in King's CoU^e, 
London, 1858 ; dean of Exeter, 1861 ; consecrated to the see of Gloucester and Bristol, 
1863. Author of ' Critical and Grammatical Commentaries ;* and other theological works. 

OLYN, Oeorgre Garr, English politician, b. 1797; educated at Westminster; a 
commissioner of lieutenancy for London ; M.P. for Kendal, 1846-68. 

6LYN, Georgre Grenfell, English statesman, b. 1824; educated at Rugby, and 
University College, Oxford ; appointed Joint-secreti^ of the Treasury, Dec 1868 ; M.P. 
fur Shaftesbury since 1857. 

GlaYN, Isabella, English actress, b. at Edinburgh, May 22, 1823 ; first appeared on 
the stage in 1847 ; married to Mr. E. Dallas. 

GOBAT, San&nel, German missionary, b. at Cremme, canton of Berne, 1799 ; went as 
missionary to Abyssinia, 1825 ; vice-principal of Malta Protestant Coll^ ; consecrated 
missionary bishop of Jerusalem, 1846, on the nomination of the King of Prussia. Author 
of * A Journal of Three Years in Abyssinia,' 1847. 

GODARD DE8MARET8, Hippolyte, French politician, b. at Paris, Oct. 8, 1796 ; 
member of the General Council for the canton of I^on ; member of the Corps L^gis- 
latif for the departement du Nord since 1853. 

GODDARD, Ambrose Lethbridgre, English politician, b. 1819; educated at 
Harrow, and St. John's College, Cambridge ; deputy-lieutenant of Wilts, and captain of 
Wilts Yeomanry ; M.P. for CncUade, 1847-6a 

GODDARD, Arabella, English pianist, b. at St Servan, near St. Malo, Brittany, 
Jan. 1836; studied under KaUcbrenner and Thalberg, and G. A. Macfarren; made her 
d^but at the National Concerts, Oct. 1850 ; married to Mr. Davidson, musical critic, 1860. 

GODKIN, James, English writer, b. at Gorey, county of Wexford, 1806 ; minister 
of a dissenting congregation at Armagh, 1834 ; was editor of the Christian Patriot, the 
Londonderry Standard, and Dtiblin Daily Express, for several years ; Irish c-orrespondent 
of the Times since 1860. Author of * The Outcast ; a Story of the Modem Reformation ;* 
' Illustrated History of England fh>m 1820 to 1852 ;' and other works. 

GODWIN, Georgre, English architect, b. at Brompton, Middlesex, Jan. 28, 1815 ; 
designed St Mary's Church, West Brompton ; and restored Redcliff Church, BristoL 
Author of 'Churches of London,* 1838; * History in Ruins,' 1853; * London Shadows,' 
1854 ; and numerous other works on architecture. . 



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GODIVIN. Parke, American journalist, 1). at Fat«rson, New Jersey, Feb. 25, 1816 ; 
took his aegrees at the College of Princetown, 1834, and studied law : was one of the 
principal editors of the New York Evening Post, 1837 to 1853. Author of * Political 
Essays,' 1856 ; and other works. 



[, Arthur^ Hungarian general and statesman, b. at Toporcz, in the comitat 

of Zips, Upper Hungary, Feb. 5, 1818; admitted as cadet to the School of Pioneers %t 
Tulu, 1832 ; lieutenant, 1842 ; captain, 1844 ; took part in the Revolution of 1848 ; dic- 

I tator of Hungary, Aug. 11, 1849. Published *My life and Acts in Hungary in the Years 

I 1848 and 1849,' Leipsic, 1852. 

GOIiDNEYii Oabriel, English politician, b. 1813 ; a magistrate of Wilts, and governor 
of Christ's Hospital ; was formerly a solicitor ; M.P. for Chippenham since 1865. 

GOLDSGHMIDT^ Hermann, German astronomer and painter, b. at Frankfort, 
June 17, 1802; studied painting at Munich, under Schuorr and Cornelius. Painted 
I <A Woman in Algerine Costume,' 1836; 'The Deaths Of Romeo and Juliet,' 1857. 

i Engaged in constant astronomical observations, and discovered seven i>lanets. 

60IiD8GHMIDT| Madame, Swedish singer, b. at Stockholm, Oct 21, 1821 ; studied 
under Croelius and Gkurcia ; first appeared in tx)ndon as Jenny Idnd, May 1847 ; 
visited the United States, 1850 ; married to M. Otto Ooldschmidt, and retired fi'om the 
stage, 1851 ; reappeared for a short time in 1855, 1861, 1863, and 1864. 

GOU>SCHMIDT| Meyer Aaron, Danish novelist, b. at Vordingbord, Jutland, 
Oct. 26, 1819 ; founded the Corgair at Copenhagen, 1840. Published, under the name 
of Adolph Meyer, ' A Jew/ 1845 ; * The Homeless One,' 1853-57 ; and other works of 
fiction. 

60LD8MID, Sir Francis Henry, English politician, b. 1808 ; called to the bar of 
Lincoln's Inn, 1833 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of Berks, and a baron of the kingdom of 
Portugal ; M.P. for Reading since 1860. 

GOLD8MID. Frederick Dayid, English politician, b. 1812 ; educated at University 
Collie, Lonaon; a magistrate of Kent; M.P. for Honiton, 1865-68. 

GOIiOVIN, Ivan, Prince Hovna, Russian author, b. 1813 ; exiled from Russia on 
political grounds, and took refuge in England, 1843. Author of 'The Caucasus, fh)m an 
HistoriciU, Political, and Physical Point of View,' 1858; 'History of Alexander I.' 1858 ; 
'Progress in Russia,' 1859 ; and other political worlu. 

GOIiOVTINE, Engrene Alezandrowitch, Russian general and statesman, b. 1795 ; 
lieutenant-general, 1831 ; governor-general of the provinces of the Baltic, 1845 ; appointed 
minister of public instruction, Dec. 20, 1862. 

GOMM, Sir William Majnard, English military commander, b. 1784 ; entered the 
army as ensign, 1798 ; served in Holland and the Peninsula ; was quartermaster-general 
at Waterloo, and created K.G.B. ; appointed governor and commander-in-chief of the 
Mauritius, 1842 ; commander-in-chief of India, 1850 ; retired, 1855 ; appointed colonel in 
the Coldstream Guards, 1863. 

GONDRBCOURT, Henri Anffe Alfred de, French novelist, b. at Ouadaloupe, 
March 22, 1816 ; entered the MUitaiy School of St. Cyr, 1832, and fought in Africa ; 
lieutenant-colonel, 1855 ; colonel, 1859. Author of ' MMiue,' 1845 ; 'Le Pays de la Soif,' 
1864 ; and many other romances. 

GONZAIiES, Louis Jean Emmannel, French writer, b. at Saintes, Oct. 25, 1815. 
Author of ' Les Chercheurs d'Or,' 1857 ; ' Les Trois Fiances,' 1864; and numerous other 
works ; also contributor to a great number of French periodicals. 

OOOCH, Sir Daniel, English politician, b. 1818 ; studied engineering, and took a 
leading part in laying the Atlantic telegraph ; created baronet, 1866; M.P. for Cricklade 
since 1865. 

GOODAIjL, Frederick, English painter, b. in London, Sept. 17, 1822, son of the 
preceding. Painted ' French Soldiers Drinking at a Cabaret,' 1839 ; ' Village Festival,' 
1847 ; ' Raising the Maypole,' 1851 ; ' The Swing,' 1854 ; and many others. Elected 
A.B.A. 1852, and R.A. 1863. 

GOODFORD, Rev. Charles Old, English divine, b. 1812 ; educated on the founda- 
tion at Eton, and at King's College, Cambridge ; was assistant master at Eton ; appointed 
head master, 1853; provost of Eton, 1862. 

O00D80N, James, English politician, b. 1810 ; called to the bar of Gray's Inn, 1855 ; 
a magistrate of Midd^sex and Westminster ; M.P. for Great Yarmouth, 1865-68. 



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GOODWIN, Charles 'Wycliffe, English author, b. at King's Lynn, 1817 ; educated 
at St. Catherine's Collie, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1838 ; caUed to the bar of 
Lincoln's Inn, 1848. Author of * Hieratic Papyri,' 1858; 'The Mosaic Cosmitgony,' 
published in the ' Essays and Reviews ;' and editor of Anglo-Saxon and Greek works. 

GOODWIN, Very Rer. Harvey, English author, b. at King's Lyna, Norfolk, 1818; 
entered Caius College, Cambridge, 183(5, and graduated, 1840 ; incumbent of St. Edward's 
Church, Cambridge, from 1848 to 1858 ; dean of Ely. Author of * Lectures on the 
Church Catechism ;' ' Problems and Solutions in Mathematics ;' and other works. 

GORB, John Ralph Ormsby, English politician, b. 1816; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of the counties of Salop and Car- 
narvon ; late groom-in-waiting to the Queen ; M.P. for county of Carnarvon, 1837-41, 
and for North Shropshire since 1859. 



DRE. WUliaan Richard Ormsby, English politician, b. 1819 ; educated at Eton ; 
deputy-lieutenant of Salop, and a magistrate of Sligo ; was captain in the 13th Light 
Dragoons ; M.P. for County Sligo, 1841-62, and for County Leitrim since 1858. 

GORE-IiANGTON, 'William Henry Powell, English politician, b. 1824; edu- 
cated at Eton, and (3hrist Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1846, M.A. 1848 ; 
magistrate and deputy-lieu^nant of Somerset; M.P. for West Somerset, 1851-59, and 
since 1863. 

GORSJBf Joseph Aui^nstin, Baron, French general, b. Sept 20, 1784 ; entered 
the Ecole Polytechnique, 1802 ; captain in the army, 1810 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1825 ; 
general, 1841 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Tarn since 1863. 

OORTSGHAKOFF, Alexander MichaelOTich, Russian statesman, b. 1798 ; 
educated at the Lyceum of Zarskoe-Selo ; entered the diplomatic service, 1818 ; secretary 
of embassy at London, 1824 ; minister at Florence, 1830 ; plenipotentiary at Tienna, 1832 ; 
ambassador-extraordinary at Stuttgart, 1841 ; ambassador at Vienna, 1854 ; appointed 
minister of foreign aflGurs, and chancellor of the empire, April 17, 1856. 

OOSCHEN, Rigfht Hon. Oeoree Joachiui, English statesman, b. 1831; educated 
at Rugby, and Oriel College, Oxford ; a deputy-lieutenant of London, and late director 
of the Bank of England : vice-president of the Board of Trade, 1865-66 ; chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, Feb. to July 1866 ; appointed president of tie Poor Law Board, 

^ Dec. 9, 1868 ; M.P. for the city of London since 1863. 

O088, John, English musical composer, b. at Fareham, Hants, 1800 ; appointed oiganist 
of Si Paul's, April 1838. Composed the anthem, * If we believe ;' and numerous glees 
and other musical pieces, chiefly sacred. 

GOSS£, 'l*oi^ FranQOis Nicolas, French painter, b. in Paris, Oct. 4, 1787 ; 
entered the £cole des Beaux Arts, 1805, and studied under Andr6 Vincent. Exhibited 
• Ex Voto,' 1808 ; ^La Mort de Saint Vincent de Paul,' 1845 ; and other paintings. 

GOSSB^ Philip Henry, English naturalist, b. at Worcester, 1810. Author of ' The 
Canadian Naturalist,' 1840 ; ' A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica ;' ' A Naturalist's Rambles 
on the Devonshire Coast;' 'Actinologia Britannica ; a History of the British Sea Ane- 
mones and Corals,' 1860 ; and other works on natural history. 

OOUGH, Hugh Ooneh, Visconnt, English military commander, b. 1779 ; entered 
the army, 1791 ; commanded the 87th regiment through the Peninsular war ; commanded 
the expeditionary force in China, and concluded a ^eace with that country ; commanded 
the army of India in the Gwalior, Sutlej, and Pni^aub campaigns ; field-marshal in the 
army. 

OOUGR, John, En^sh lecturer, b. at Sandgate, Kent, 1817. Travelled through the 
Northern and Southern States of America, Canada, and England, lecturing on temperance. 
Published his ' Autobiography ' and ' Orations,' 1855. 

GOUIN, Alexandre. French politician, b. at Tours, Jan. 26, 1792; elected deputy for 
the department of Inmre-et-Loire, 1831 ; minister of commerce, 1840^-44 ; elected to the 
Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; member of the Legislative Assembly, and of the Corps 
L^gislatif for the dei)artment of Indre-et-Loire since 1862. 

GOUIaBURN, Rev. Edward Meyrick, English divine, b. 1818 ; educated at Eton, 
and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1839 ; appointed head master of 
Rugby School, 1848 ; minister of Quebec Chapel and prebendary of St. Paul's, 1858 ; one 
of the Queen's chaplains in ordinary, and incumbent of St. John's, Paddington, 1859 ; 
dean of Norwich. 

GOULD, Edi^rard, American writer, b. at Lichfield, Connecticut, May 11, 1808. Pub- 
lished an abridgment of Alison's ' History of Europe,' New York, 1845 ; * The Very Age ;* 
ib. 1850 ; and numerous translations from French authors. 



6ot& HAI^BOOK OP CONTEMPORART BIOGRAPHY. Or a 

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QOUIaD. John, English ornithologist, b. at Lyme, Dorset, Sept 14, 1809. Author of 
*A Centory of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains/ 1888; 'The Birds of Australia;' 
< Mammals of Australia ;' ' Monograph of the TrochilidA of Humming Birds ;' and uume- 
Tons other works on ornithology. 

aOX7IiHOT DE SAINT GERMAIN, AclilUe FeUcite' de, French politician, 
b. at Paris, March 27, 1809 ; entered the army, and was captain, stafT-maJor, and offlper of 
ordnance to Marshal Oudinot ; sub-prefect of Romorantin, 1835 ; and of Bemay, 1838 ; 
appointed senator, Jan. 25, 1862. 

OOX7NOD, Charles Francois, French musical composer, b. at Paris, June 17, 
1818 ; studied under Reicha, Lesneur, and M. Hal6vy. Composed ' Sapho,' 1850 ; ' La 
Nonne Sanglante/ 1854; 'Faust,'. 1859; 'La Reine de Saba,' 1862; and many other 
operas. 

GOURLBY. Ed^vard Temperley, b. 1828 : shipowner of Sunderland, and pro- 
prietor of tne Maltese Cross line of steamers ; electea M.P. for Sunderland, 18<}8. 

60U88ET, Thomas Marie Joseph, French divine, b. at Montigny les Cherlieux, 
Haute-Sadne, May 1, 1792* studied in the School of Amance, near Vesoul ; ordained, 
1817 ; appointed bishop of Perigeux, Oct. 6, 1835 ; vicar-general of Besangon, 1830; arch- 
bishop of Rheims, May 2tf, 1840 ; cardinal, Sept. 30, 1850. 

GOWER, Hon. Edward Frederick LeTeson, English politician, b. 1819; edu- 
cated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840, M.A. 1844 ; 
called to the bar, 1845; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of Staffordshire; M.P. for Derby, 
1847, for Stoke, 1851-57, for Bodmin since 1859. 

GOYON, Charles Marie Anfuste, Comte de. French gtneral, b. Nov. 19, 1802 ; 
studied at the Military School of St. Cyr ; became lieutenant, 182^1 ; captain, 1831 ; mai«ir, 
1839 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1843 ; colonel, 1846 ; brigadier-general, 1850 ; general of division, 
1853 ; charged with the command of the division of occupation at Rome, 1859 ; and 
received the title of general-in-chief of the IiYench in Rome, 1861 ; recalled and created 
a senator, 1862. 

CrOZIftAN, Le'on, French writer, b. at Marseilles, Sept 21, 1806. Author of 'Les 
Memoires d'un Apothicaire,' 1828 ; * Le Notaire de Chantilly,' 1836 ; ' Aristide Froissard,' 
1848 ; ' Pluie et le Beau Temps/ 'Le Diamant et le Verre,' 1861 ; and numerous novels, 
romances, and dramas. 

QRABGW, Johanni Oemum iwlitician, b. at Prenzlau, Prussia, April 15, 1802 ; studied 
law at Berlin, and was burgomaster of his native town ; elected deputy to the Prussian 
Diet, 1847 ; and to the National Assembly fortbe town of Prenzlau, 1848 ; elected president 
of the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, 1849, and again 1861. 



GRAEFB, HeinriCh. German politician, b. at Buttstadt, March 3, 1802 ; studied at 
Weimar and at the University of Jena ; di^ctor of the Municipal School of Jena, 1825 ; 
professor at the University of Jena, 1840 ; deputy to the German' National Assembly, 
1849. Author of 'Der Verfassttngskampf is Kurhessen/ Leipsie, 1851; and of several 
educational works. 

ORAESSE^ Johaxin Georflr Theodor, German bibliographer, b. at Grimma, Jan. 31, 
1814 ; studied at Leipsie, Halle, and Dresden ; appointed librarian to the King of Saxony, 
1843 ; inspector of the Royal Numismatic Cabinet, 1848. Author of ' Lehrbuch einer 
allgemeinen Literaturgeschichte,' Dresden and Leipsie, 1837 to 1855 ; ' Handbuch der 
alten Numismatik,' lb. 1852 ; and numerous other works. 

ORAF8TROEM. Andrevir Abrahain. Swedish poet, b. at Sundswall, 1790 ; took 
the degree of Ph.D. from the University or Upsal, 1815 ; was ordained, 1830 ; appointed 
pastor of Umea, 1835 ; dean of the district, 1837. Author of ' Skaldeforsdk,' Stockholm 
1826-32 ; *^ Sanger frau Norrland,' 1848 ; and other poetical works. 

GRAFTON, William Henry Fitsroy, Duke oft b. Aug. 4, 1819 ; educated at 
Harrow ; was attache to the British Legation at Naples, 1841 ; M.P. for Thetford, 1847 to 
1863 ; is deputy-lieutenant and magistrate of Northamptonshire, and magistrate of 
Suffolk ; succeeded his father, 1863. 

GRAHAM, Sir Frederick Ulrick, English diplomatist, b. 1820 ; attach^ to the 

British Embassy at Vienna, 1842 ; deputy-lieutenant of Cumberland, 1856 ; succeeded his 

brother, 1861. 
GRAHAM, Thomas, English chemist, b. at Glasgow, Dec. 20, 1805 ; educated at 

the Grammar School and the University of Glasgow, where he graduated M.A. 1826; 

appointed professor of chemistry at the London University, 1837 ; master of the Mint, 

1855. Author of ' Elements of Chemistry,' and other works. 



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ORAHAM, IXTUliam. English politician, b. 1817 ; educated at the University of Glas- 
gow ; a magistrate for the county of Lanarlc; merchuit at Glasgow ; M.P. for Glasgow 
since 1865. 

ORAHAM STOTXTN, Rigrht Rev. Henry Cotterill, BisHop of, English 
divine, b. 1812 ; educated at 8t John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated, 1835 ; 
principal of Brighton College ; consecrated to tiie see of Graharostown, South Aitica, 
1859. Author of * The Seven Ages of tlie Church,' and other theological works. 

ORAMMONT, Ferdinand, Marquis de, French politician, b. at ViUersexel, 
June 6, 1805 ; was deputy for the arroudisement of Lure, 1837 ; elected for the Haute- 
Sa6ne, 1848 ; member of the Corps L^;islatlf for Uie department of Haute-Sadne since 
1852. 

ORAMONT, Antoine AflTe'nor Alfred, Dnc de, French diplomatist, b. at Paris, 
Aug. 14, 1819; entered the Ecole Polytechnique, 1837 ; minister plenipotentiary to Cassel, 
and Stuttgart, 1852 ; to Turin, April 1853 ; ambassador to Rome, 1857 to 1861 ; ambas- 
sador to Austria, 1861-66. 

6RANARD, Georgre Arthur Hastingra Forbea, Earl of, English administra- 
tor, b. 1883 ; was attach^ at Dresden, 1852 to 1854 ; lord-lieutenant of the county of 
Leitrim ; succeeded to the earldom, 1837. 

ORANIER DE CA88A6N AG, Adolphe de, French writer and politician, b. at 
Cassagnac, Gters, 1808 ; educated at the Lyceum of Toulouse ; contributor to the Journal 
des Dibate and the Revue de PariSy 1832 to 1850, wheu he joined the CovstittUionnel ; 
member of the Corps L^slatif for the department of Gers since 1852. Author of ' Histolre 
des Classes ouvri^s et des Classes bourgeoises,' 1837 ; and numerous other works. 

GRANT. Albert, English politician, b. at Dublin, 1830; educated in London and Paris ; 
assumed the name of Grant in lieu of Gottheimer, 1863 ; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1865-^8. 

GRANT, Sir Francis, English painter, president of the Royal Academy, b. 1803. 
Exhibited * Meet «f his Majesty's Sta^ounds,' 1837); the ' Melton Hunt ;' and many others, 
especially portraits of celebrated persons. Elected A.RA. 1842, RA. 1851, P.R.A. 1867. 

GRANT, Hon. JanieS| English politician, b. 1817 ; magistrate for Banff, Elgin, and 
Inverness ; elected M.P. for Elgin imd Nairnshire, 1868. 

GRANT, James, English journalist, b. at Elgin, Morayshire, 1805; editor of the 
Morning Advertiser since 1850. Author of 'Random Recollections of the House of 
Lords ;' *The 3ench and the Bar;* 'Our Heavenly Home;' 'The End of all Things,' 
1866 ; and numerous other works. 




1864 ; and many other works of fiction. 

GRANT, James Angustns, English traveller, b. at Nairn, 1827 : educated at the 
Grammar School and Marischal College, Aberdeen ; appointed to the Indian ^imy, 1845 ; 
took part in the relief of Luckuow under Gen. Havelock, where he yras wounded, 1857 ; 
explored the sources of the Nile with the late Captain Spejl^e^ 1863^65. 

GRANT, Sir Alexander, English author, b. 1826; educated at Harrow, and 
Balliol College, Oxford ; elected fellow of Oriel College, 1849 ; appointed one of the 
examiners for the Indian Civil Service appointments, 1855 ; inspector of schools in Madras 

S residency, 1858 ; professor of history and political economy in Elphinstone CoU^^ 
ladras, 1860. Author of ' The Ethics of Aristofde with E^lish Notes,' 1854. 

GRANT, Sir James Hope. English military commander, b. 1808 ; entered the army, 
1826 ; served in China and India ; became brevet-colonel, 1854 ; ser\'ed in India through 
the Mutiny of 1857-58 ; appointed to the command of the military forces during the war 
with China, 1860 ; appointed commander-in-chief and governor of Madras, Dec. 1861. 

GRANT, Sir John Peter, English colonial administrator, b. 1808 ; entered the East 
India service, 1826; was lieutenant-governor of Bengal during the Indian Mutiny of 
1857-59 ; K.C.B. civil division, 1862 ; governor of Jamaica, 1867. 

GRANT, Sir Patrick, English officer, b. 1804 ; entered the military service of the East 
India Company, 1819 ; served on the staff in India ; was made C.B. for services at 8o- 
bi-aon; appointed commander-in-chief of the Madras army, 1856; K.C.B. and aide-de- 
camp to the Queen. 

GRANT, Ulysses Simpson, American general and statesman, b. at Point Pleasant, 
Ohio, April 27, 1822 ; entered at West Point, 1839 ; graduated with the brevet of lieu- 
tenant, June 30, 1843 ; first Heutenant, 1847 ; captain, Aug. 1853 ; resigned, 1854 ; took 



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part with the North in the civil war ; appointed brigadier-general, July 1861 ; com- 
mander-in-cbief of the U.S. army, 1864; secretary of war, Aug. 1867 to Feb. 1868; 
elected President of the United States, Nov. 1868. 

GRANTLEY, Fletcher Norton* Baron. English officer, b. 1798 ; served for some 
years in the Guards, and was wounded at Waterloo ; succeeded to the title, 1822. 

GRANVILLE, Georgre Lereson GoTirer, Earl, English statesman, b. 1815 ; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church,- Oxford, where he gmduated in 1834 ; attach^ to the 
Embassy at Paris, 1835 ; M.P. for Morpeth, iaS6-40, and for Ijichfteld, 1840-46, when he 
succeeded to the peerage ; under-secretary of state for foreign atfairs, 1840 ; vice-presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade, 1848 ; secretary of state for foreign aflTairs, Dec. 1851 to 
March 1852 ; lord president of the council, Dec. 21, 1852 ; resigned, April 1854 ; re- 
appointed, Feb. 5, 1855 ; resigned, Feb. 1858 ; reappointed, June 1859, and resigned, July, 
1866 ; appointed secretary of state for the colonies, May 9, 1868. 

GR ATTAN^ Thonias Colley. Irish novelist, b. at Dublin, 1796 ; entered the army, 
and fought at the battle of Waterloo. Author of ' Highways and Byways,' London, 1827 ; 
* Legends of the Rhine/ 1887 ; ' History of the Netherlands ;' and numerous other works 
of fiction. 

GRAVES, Samuel Robert. English politician, b. 1818 ; member of the Royal Com- 
suission of Lights, Buoys, and Beacons, and commodore of the Royal Mersey Yacht Club ; 
mayor of Liverpoiol, 1860 ; M.P. for Liverpool since 1865. 



, Asa^ American botanist, b. at Paris, Oneida County, New York, Nov. 1810 ; gra- 
duated at Fairfield College, 1831 ; appointed professor of natural histoiy at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1842. Author of ' Elements of Botany,' 1836 ; ' Botanv of the United 
States ;' ' Pacific Exploring E:q>edition under Captain Wilkes,' 1854 ; and other works on 
botany. 

GRAY, Georcre Robert, English ornithologist, b. 1808; entered the Zoological depart- 
ment of the British Museum, 1831. Author of ' A List of the Genera of Birds,' 1840 ; ' The 
Genera of Birds,' 1837-49 ; and other works. 

GRAY, John Ed^vard, English naturalist, b. at Walsall, 1800, brother of the preceding ; 
appointed assistant to the natural history department of the British Museum, 1824 ; 
keeper of the zoological collection, 1840. Author of ' Illustrations of Indian Zoology ;' 
* A Manual of British Land and Freshwater Shells ;' and other works. 

GRAY. Sir John, English politician, b. 1815 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; 
called to the Irish bar, and appointed magistrate of the city of Dublin ; M.P. for Kilkenny 
since 1865. Editor and proprietor of the Freeman's Journal. 

GRAY, 'William, English politician, b. 1814; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of Lan 
cashire, and manufacturer near Bolton; mayor of Bolton, 1850-52; M.P. for Bolton 
since 1857. 

GRAY, "Wilson, English administrator, b. 1815 ; educated at University College, Dublin ; 
appointed one of the assistant commissioners of the Irish Poor j^ainrs, 1835 ; called to 
the bar in America, and to the Irish bar, 1844 ; member of the Colonial Legislature 
of Sydney, Australia. 

GREAVES, Edtvurd. English politician, b. 1803 ; banker at Warwick, and mayor of 
the borough, 1840 ; M.P. for Warwick since 1855. 



r, Horace, American journalist, b. at Amherst, ]^ew Hampshire, Feb. 3, 
1811 ; apprenticed to a printer, 1825 to 1830. Founded The New Yorker, 1834 ; the New 
York Tribune, 1841. Author of ' Histoir of the Struggle for Slavery Extension or 
Restriction in the United States from 1787 to 1856 ;' and other works. 

GREENALL, Gilbert, English politician, b. 1806 ; deputy-lieutenant of Lancashire ; 
M.P. for Warrington, 1847-68. 



GREENE, Ed^vard, English politician, b. 1815 ; educated at Bury St. Edmunds' 
Bchool ; magistrate ofSuffi^k ; M.P. for Bury St Edmunds since 1865. 

GREENE, Georgre 'Washington, American writer, b. at Bhode Island, U.S. of 
America, April 8, 1811 ; educated at Brown University ; was United States consul at 
Bome, 1837 to 1842 ; professor of modem languages at Brown University, 1847. Author 
of 'History and Geography of the Middle Ages,' aud other works. 

GREENE, Mary Anne Everett, English authoress, b. at Sheffield, 1818; 
married to Mr. Geoige P. Greene, artist, 1845. Published 'Lives of the Princesses 
of England,' 1849^5 ; * Letters of Queen Henrietta Maria,' 1857 ; and other biographical 
works. 



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GREEN-PRIGE, Ricliard, English politician, b. 180S ; educated at Eton ; a J.P. 
and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Radnor; M.P. for Radnor, 186S-69. 

OREENlVSIiL. Dora. English authoress. Author of 'Christina, and other Poems,' 
1848 ; • Stories that might be True,* 1861 ; • The Power of Faith exemplified in Life,' 
1849 ; *Two Friends,* 1862 ; and other works. 

OREGy 'William Rathbone, political and miscellaneous writer, b. about 1810. 
Author of * The Creed of Christendom, 1851 ; * Literary and Social Judgments/ 1868 ; 
and other works. Head of the Stationery OflBce. 

GREGORY, CliarleB Hutton. English civil engineer, b^ 1817; appointed resident 
engineer of the London and Croydon Railway, 1840 ; chief engineer of the Bristol and 
Exeter Railway, 1846 ; appointed a member of the Ordnance Select Committee, 1855 ; 
president of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

GREGORY, Georce Barro^r, English p(ditician, b. 1813 ; educated at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; elected M.P. for East Sussex, 1868. 

GREGORY, William Henrji English politician, b. 1817 ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Qalway ; M.P. for Dublin, 1842^7^ and for County Galway 
since 1857. 

ORENFBIiL* Henry Riversdale, English politician, b. 1824 ; educated at Harrow, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; a partner in the firm of P. Grenfell & Sons ; was private 
secretary to Lord Fanmure at the War Ofllce, and to Sir Charles Wood at the India OflBice ; 
M.P. for Stoke-on-Trent, 1862-68. 

ORENVILLE, Ralph Nerille, English politician, b. 1817 ; educated at Eton, and 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1837 ; J.P. and deputy-lieu- 
tenant of Somerset ; M.P. for Windsor, 1841-47 ; a lord of the Treasury, 1846-52 ; M.P. 
for East Somerset, 1865-68 ; returned M.P. for Mid Somerset, 1868. 

ORE8LEY| Rer. William, English writer, b. 1801 ; educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he sraduated B. A. 1822 ; ordained, 1823 ; appointed prebendary of Lichfield 
Cathedral, 1840 ; incumbent of a district church at Boyne Hill, near Maidenhead, 1857. 
Author of ' Bernard Leslie,' and several novels. 

ORESlVEIiLt Rev. Edward, English theologian, b. at Manchester, 1797 ; entered 
Brasenose CoUege, Oxford, 1815; graduated at Corpus Christi, B.A. 1819. Author of 
* Harmonia Evangelica ;* ' Fasti Temporis Catholici ;' ' Origines Kalendariai Italicse ;' and 
other works. 

GREVILLZS. Alfiremon William Folke, English politician, b. 1841 ; captain in 
the Ist life Guards ; M.P. for the county of Westmeath since 1865. 

OREVIlaliE, Fnlke SonthiNrCll, English politieian, b. 1821 ; deputy-lieutenant of 
the county of Longford; vice-lieutenant of Westmeath, and colonel of Westmeath 
MiUtia ; M.P. for county of Longford since 1852. 

GREY, Hon. Charles, English general, b. 1804 ; educated at Cambridge ; entered the 
army, 1821 ; major-general, 1854 ; lieutenant-general, 1861. 

GREY, Rii^ht Hon. Sir Charles Edi^irard, English colonial administrator, b. 1785 ; 
educated at University College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1866 ; appointed com- 
missioner in bankruptcy, 1817 ; judge at Madras, 1820 ; chief judge of Bengal, 1825 ; 
governor of Bardadoes, 1841-46 ; governor of Jamaica, 1846. 

GREY, Hon. Frederick William, English naval commander, b. 1805 ; entered the 
royal navy ; fought in China ; admiral of the blue, 1855 ; vice-admiral of the red, 1863 ; 
a lord of the Admiralty, 1861. 

GREY, Sir Georre, English colonial administrator, b. 1812 ; educated at Sandhurst 
College, and entered the army as ensign in the 83d regiment, 1830 ; lieutenant, 1833, and 
captain, 1839 ; left England in 1837 with instructions ftom Government to explore the 
north-west part of Australia, during 1837-39 ; appointed governor of South Australia, 
Dec. 1840 ; governor of New Zealand, 1846 ; governor of the Cape of Good Hope, 1854 ; 
again governor of New Zealand, 1861-67. 

GREY, Riifht Hon. Sir Georgre, English statesman, b. at Gibraltar, 1799, the 
eldest son of Sir George Grey, Bart, resident commissioner of Portsmouth Dockyard; 
studied jurisprudence, and was called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1826 ; undAr-secretaiy 
of state for the colonies, July to Nov. 1834 ; judge-advocate-general, 1839, and chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1841 ; secretary of state for the Home Department, July 1846 
to March 1852 ; secretary of state for the colonies, June 1854 to Jan. 1855 ; home secretary 
under Lord Palmerston, Feb. 1866 to Feb. 19, 1868 ; chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
June 1859 ; secretary of state for the Home Department, July 1861 to July 1866. 

GREY^ Rijrht Hon. Henry George, Earl, English statesman, b. 1802 ; educated 
atTrmity College, Cambridge; M.P. for Winchelsea, 1826; for Higham Ferrars, 1830; 



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for Northumberland, 1831 to 1841 ; for Bnnderland, 1841 to 1845, when he succeeded to 
the peerage ; was under-secretary for the colonies, Nov. 1830 to Mar. 1835 ; for the Home 
Dei)artment, Jan. to July 1834 ; secretary at war, April 1835 to Sept. 1830 ; secretary of 
state for the colonies, July 1846 to Feb. 1852 ; lord-heutenant of Northumberland. 

ORIDIaEY, Henry OiUett, Ehglish politician, b. 1820 ; called to the bar of the 

Middle Temple, 1856 ; captain in the King's Own Light Infantry Regiment Militia ; 
M-P. for Weymouth, 1865-68. 

ORIBR, Robert Gooper* American judge, b. in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 
March 5, 1794 ; studied at Dickinson College ; called to the bar, 1817 ; appointed presi- 
dent judge of the district comt of Alleghany County, 1838 ; one of the justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, 1848. 

ORIE8HBIM. Karl Augrnst Julian Toni German politician, b. at Berlin, 
1798 ; entered the army ; lieutenant in the Guards, and staff-matfor. 1824 to 1831 ; deputy 
to the Prussian National Assembly, 1848 ; elected to the Second Chamber, 1850 ; 
api>ointed military commander of Coblentz, and ra^jor-general, 1853. Author of 
' Lebensfragen der Landwehr,' 1851 ; and other political works. 

ORIEVB, James Johnston, English politician, b. 1810 ; magistrate for Renfrew- 
shire, and provost of Greenock, 1868 ; returned M.P. for Greenock, 1868. 

GRIFFITH. Christopher Darby, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at Eton, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1826; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant 
of Berks ; M.P. for Devizes, 1857-68. 

GRIFFITH, Sir Richard John, Bart.. English civil engineer, b. in Dublin, 1784 ; 
appointed commissioner for the general valuation of land and tenements in Ireland, 1825 ; 
chairman of the Board of Public Works, 1851 ; created a baronet, 1858. Author of * The 
Geological Map of Ireland.* 

GRI 81. Ginlia, Italian singer, b. May 22, 1812 ; educated at a convent in Italy ; made 
her debut in London, 1834 ; was prima donna of her Majesty's Theatre till 1846, and at 
the Royal Italian Opera, Covent (harden, till 1861 ; has been twice married, first to 
M. Gerard de Melcy in 1836, and secondly to Signer Mario. 

OR08, Jean Baptiste Lonis, Baron, French diplomatist, b. at Ivry-sur-Seine, 
Feb. 8, 1793; created a baron, 1829; was secretary of legation in Mexico, 1834; 
ambassador at Athens, 1850 ; minister to Spain, 1854 ; signed the Treaty of Bayonne, 1856 ; 
signed the Treaty of Tietsin, Canton, June 27, 1858 ; called to the French Senate, 1858 ; 
French ambassador to Great Brittdn, 1862-63. 

GR08VEN0R, Lupns, Earl, English politician, b. 1825, second son of the 
Marquis of Westminster ; educated at Eton, and Balliol College, Oxford ; magistrate of 
Cheshire ; M.P. for Chester since 1847. 

GR08VEN0R, lK>rd Richard de Aonila, English politician, b. 1837 ; educated 
at Westminster, and Trinity Collie, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1858 ; a magis- 
trate of the counties of Flmt and Dorset; M.P. for Flintshire since 1861. 

GR08VEN0R, Hon. Robert Wellesley, English politician, b. 1834 ; educated 
at Harrow, and King's College, London ; captam in the 1st Life Guards ; M.P. for West- 
minster since 1865. 

GROTB, Oeorce, English author, b. at Beckenham, Kent, 1794; educated at the 
Charterhouse ; MP. for the City of London, 1832 to 1841. Author of * The History of 
Greece,* 1846-56; 'Plato and the other Companions of Socrates,* 1864; and other 
historical works. 

GROUCHY, Ernest Henri, Vicomte de, French politician, b. at Paris, Jan. 26, 
1806 ; studied at the Bcole Polytechnique ; sub-prefect at Cambrai, 1830 ; at Baveux, 1832 ; 
at Montaigis, 1833 ; prefect of Gers, Jan. 10, 1849 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for 
the department of Loire since 1857. 

GROVE, Georgre^ English author, b. at Clapham, Surrey, 1820 ; educated for the 
engineering profession ; charged with the erection of an iron lighthouse on Morant Point, 
Jamaica, 1841, and of a similar tower on Gibbs' Hill, Bermuda, 1844 ; secretary to Society 
of Arts from 1849 to 1852 ; appointed secretary to the Crystal Palace Company, 1852. 
Editor of MacmUlan's Magazine J a leading contributor to the Dictionary of the Bible. 

GROVE, Thonias Fraser, English politician, b. 1823 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant 
of Wilts ; high sheriflf, 1863 ; M.P. for South WUtshire since 1865. 

GROVE, William Robert, English author, b. at Swansea, July 14, 1811 ; educated at 
Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1832 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's 
Inn, 1835 ; professor of experimental philosophy at the London Institution, 1840 to 1846. 
Author of ' On the Correlation of Physical Forces,' 1846 ; and several other scientific works . 



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ORUNBR, WlUieim Helnrich, Oerraan engraver, b. at Dresden, Feb. 24, 1801 : 
studied nnder Klinger, and at the Academy at Dresden. Engraved Raffaelle's cartoons at 
Hampton Conrt for the Berlin Museum, 1842. Published 'Fresco Decorations and 
Studies,' London, 1844 ; and other works. 

ORUNBRT, Jobann Aufnuit, German mathematician, b. at Halle, Feb. 7, 1797 ; 
studied at the University of Giittingen, where he graduated Ph.D. 1820 ; appointed pro- 
fessor of mathematics at Brandenburg, 1828 ; at tibe Academy of Eldena, 1838. Author 
of * Lehrbuch der K^elschnitte,' Leipsic, 1824 ; * Lehrbuch der Mathematik und Phy- 
sick,' ib. 1841-51 ; and other works. 

ORUNNE; Karl Ludwlgr, Gount, Austrian military commander, b. at Vienna, 
Aug. 25, 1808 ; entered the army, and became major. 1838 ; chamberlain and aide-de-camp 
to uie emperor Franz Joseph, 1848, and created migor-general ; field-marshal, 1850. 

6UDIN, The'odore, French marine painter, b. in Paris, Aug. 15, 1802 ; studied under 
Girodet Trioson. Painted * Sauvetage des Passagers du Columbus,' 1831 ; the ' Coup de 
Vent dans la Rade d' Alger,' 1835; commissioned by King Louis Philippe to paint the 
principal events in the naval history of France, for the chateau of Versailles, 1838-48. 

OUELIj-Y-RENTE, Don Jose', Spanish poet and politician, b. at Havannah, 1819 ; 
educated at the'College of St. Charles, in Cuba ; and graduated D.C.L. at the University 
of Barcelona, 1840 ; sat in the Cortes for the city of Valladolid, 1855. Author of * The 
Virgin of the Lily;' ' The Granddaughter of a King ;' ' American Traditions ;' and other 
poetical works. 

OUERIGKE, Heinricli Ernst Ferdinand, German theologian, b. at Vettin, 
Prussia, Feb. 23, 1803 ; studied theology at Halle, and was assistant professor, 1829 ; 
apx)ointed examiner at the University, 1833 to 1838, and again 1840. Author of 
*A Manual of Church History,' 1833; 'History of the Reformation,' 1855; and other 
theological works. 

OUE'RINi JnleSj French physician, b. at Boussu, Jemappes, March 11, 1801; studied 
at Lou vain and Paris, and was adniitted M.D. 1826 ; became proprietor and editor of the 
Gaxette MedicdU de Paris. Author of 'Determination rigoureusement scientifique des 
Principes, M6thodes et Proc^dds de I'Orthop^die, sous le double Rapport de la I^tique 
et de la Th6orie,' in sixteen volumes ; and other medical works. 

OUERRAZZI, Francesco Domenico, Italian writer and politician, b. in Livonia, 
1805 : studied law at the University of Pisa ; took part in the conspiracies of 1831 ; im- 
prisoned in the fortress of the isle of Elba, 1847 ; regained his freedom, and a member 
of the ministry of M. Montanelli, 1848 ; proclaimed dictator at Rome, April 12, 1849. 
Author of * Isabella Orsini ;' * Beatrice Cenci ;' * Apol(^ of my Life,' 1851. 

OUEST. Arthur, English politician, b. 1841 ; educated at Harrow, and Trinity College, 
Cambndge ; depu^-lieutenant of Glamorganshire ; elected M.P. for Poole, 1868. 

6UES-VILLER, Philippe Antoine. French military commander, b. at Paris, 
March 10, 1791 ; studied at the Military School of Fontainebleau, 1810 ; served in Spain, 
and at the battle of Leipsic ; colonel, 1836 ; general of division, June 1848 ; senator, 1852. 

6UIGNIANT, Joseph Daniel, French historical writer, b. at Paray-le-Monial, Sadne- 
et-Loire, May 15, 1794 ; studied at the Ecole Norinale, 1818 ; master of conferences at 
the ticole Normale ; teacher of history at the College of France, 1854 ; professor, 1857. 
Author of * Sur le Dieu S6rapis et son Origine,' 1828 ; and other works. 

OUILLAUME, Jenn Baptiste Clande, .French sculptor, b. at Montbard, Feb. 
1822 ; studied at Paris under M. Pradier, at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Executed bas- 
relief of ' An Amazon ;' ' Monument de Colbert,* at Rheims, 1856 ; a statue in marble 
of Napoleon I. 1861 ; and other works. Member of the Institute, 1862. 

OUIIaLAUMIN; Jacqnes Frangois Angnstiny French politician, b. at Brescia, 

Italy, Feb. 5, 1802 ; member of the Legislative Assembly for the department of Cher 

since 1856. 
GUIIaliOUTET, Lonis Adhemar, Marqnis de, French politician, b. Aug. 6, 

1819 : mayor of Parlebose, and member of the General Council for the canton of Gabaret ; 

member of the Corps L6gislatif for the department of Landes since 1863. 
GUINNESS. Sir Arthur. English politician, b. 1839; educated at Eton, and Trinity 

College, Dublin ; succeeded his father, first baronet, 1868 ; returned M.P. for Dublin, 1868, 

unseated, 1869. 
GUISTIERE, Amand Oanthier de la, French politician, b. at Rennes, May 2, 

1825 ; mayor of Rennes, and counsellor of the prefecture of Ille-et-Vilaine, 1868 ; resigned, 

18C3 ; elected member of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, 1863. 

GUIZOT, Francois Pierre Gnillaume, French author and statesman, b. at 
Nimes, Oct. 4, 1787 ; educated at Geneva ; elected member of the Chamber of Deputies, 



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1829 ; appointed minister of the interior, 1830 ; minister of public instruction, 1882 ; 
minister of foreign affairs, 1840 to Feb. 1848. Author of 'History of tho English 
Revolution of 1640* 1826-66; 'Love in Marriage,' 1864;' 'L'Eglise et la Society Chr6- 
tienne,' 1861 ; ' M^itations sur I'Essence de la Religion Chr^tienne,' 1864 ; and numerous 
other historical and political works. 

OX7NTHER II., PrlBce of SchwarBburgr-Sonderahausen. b. Sept. 24, 1801 ; 
succeeded to the throne in consequence of the abdication of his father. Prince QUnther I. , 
Aug. 19, 1886 ; married, in first nuptials, in 1827, to Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudol- 
stadt, who died in 1833 ; and secondly, in 1836, to Princess Mathilda of Hohenlohe- 
Oehringen, from whom he was divorced in 1852. 

GX7RDON, RebOTNT John, English politician, b. 1799; educated at Eton; J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of Essex; high sheriff, 1862; M.P. for Colchester, 1867-69, and since 
1866. 

GURNEY, Rev. Archer, English author, b. 1820 ; ordahied, 1849^; chaplain to an 
English congregation in Paris. Author of ' Charles I.,' a dramatic poem dedicated to the 
memory of ' The Royal Martyr ' of the Established Church ; and numerous sermons. 

GURNEY, Ruasell, English politician, b. 1804 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1826; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1828 ; 
appointed Q.C. 1845 ; recorder of London, 1856 ; M.P. for Southampton, 1866-68. 

GURNEY, Samnelf English politician, b. 1816; ma^strate for Surrey; M.P. for 
Penrhyn and Falmouth, 1867-68. 

GUTHRIE, Rer. Thomas, English author, b. at Brechin, Forfarshire, 1800; studied 
at the University of Edinbui^h ; ordained minister of the parish of Arbirlot, 1830 ; 
minister of St. John's, Edinburgh, 1840 ; assisted to establish the Edinbui:gh Original 
Ragged or Industrial School, 1847. Editor of the Sunday Magazine. 

OUTZKOW, Karl Ferdinand, German dramatic poet, b. at Berlin, March 17, 
1811 ; studied at the University of his native town. Author of ' Konig Saul,' 1839 ; 
'Richard Savage;' 'Die Ritter vom Gcist/ 1860-62; and numerous other dramas and 
works of fiction. 

GYULAY, Frans, Gonnt, Austrian military commander, b. at Pesth, 1799 ; entered 
the army, and became major-general, 1839; lieutenant field-marshal, 1846, and held 
command of the province .of Trieste, 1847 ; minister of wai:, June 1849 to July 1860 ; 
commanded in the Italian campaign of 1869, and was commander-in-chief at the battle of 
Magenta, June 1859. 



H. 



HAA8E, Christian, German philologist, b. at Magdebn^g, Pmssia, Jan. 4, 1808; 
studied at the Universities of Halle and Berlin ; professor at Schulpforta, 1836 ; professor 
of philology at the University of Breslau, 1840 ; deputy to the National Assembly of 
Berlin, 1848. Author of ' Veigangenheit und Zukunft der Philologie,' Berlin, 1836; and 
other works. 

HAGKIaAGNDER, Friederich IVilhelm. German traveller and author, b. at 
Boruette, nenr Aix la-Chapelle, Nov. 1, 1816. Author of 'Bilder aus dera Soldatenleben 
im Prieden,' Stuttgart, 1841; 'Soldatenleben im Kriege,' ib. 1869-60; 'Ein Winter in 
Spanien,' ib. 1866 ; and numerous novels and comedies. 

HADDINGTON, George Baillie, Earl of, English administrator, b. 1802 ; suc- 
ceeded his cousin, ninth earl, Dec. 1858 ; elected a representative peer of Scotland, May 
1869 ; deputy-lieutenant of the county of Haddingtion. 

HADFIEIiD, Geori^e, English politician, b. 1787 ; was a solicitor in Manchester, and 
member of the Anti-Corn-Law League ; M.P. for Sheflleld since 1852. 

HAENTJEN8, Alfred Alphonse, French politician, b. at Nantes, June 11, 1824; 
member of the Corps L^gislatif for tiie department of thu Sarthe since 1863. 

HAGENBAGH, Karl Adolph, German Protestant theologian, b. at Basel, May 4, 
1801 ; studied at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin ; appointed professor of theology 
at the University of BaseL 1828. Author of ' A Guide to Christian Instruction,' Leipsic, 
1850 ; and numerous theological works. 



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\f iMOXdUf Belgian painter, b. at Tonmay, Belgium, 1802 ; chiefly residing in 
England, and member of the new Water Colour Society. Painted * Hall of Courtray ;* 
* The Hall of Audience at Bruges ;* and numMX>us other works. 

HAHN-HAHN; Ida, Cottntess TOn, German authoress, b. at Tressow, Duchy of 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, June 22, 1805 ; married to Count von Hahn, 1826 ; divorced, 1829. 
Author of ' Oriental Letters,' 1844; ' From Babylon to Jerusalem ;' and numerous works 
of fiction. 

HAIiDEMAN, Samuel, American naturalist, b. near Columbia, Pennsylvania, 1812 ; 
educated at Dickinson College, and employed on the New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
geological surveys, 1836-37 ; appointed professor of natural history in Delaware College, 
Newark, Delaware, 1855. Anther 4>f 'Analytic Orthography,' 1858 ; and other works. 



n»M«a, John ParkeTi American politician, b. in Rochester, New Hampshire, U.S. 
March 31, 1806 ; called to the bar, 1830 ; elected to the State Legislature, 1832 ; appointed 
U.S. attorney for New Hampshire, 1634; returned to Congress, 1843; returned to the 
U.S. Senate, 1847 ; re-entered the Senate, 1855. 

HALE; Sarah. American authoress, b. at Newport, New Hampshire, 1795 : married to 
Mr. David Hale, 1814, who died, 1822. Author of * The Genius of Oblivion,' 1823 ; 
' Flora's Interpreter ;' ' Woman's Record ; or Sketches of Distinguished Women, from 
the Creation to a.d. 1854 ;' and other works. 

HALE, Ven. Wniiam. English divine, b. 1795; educated at the Charterhonse, and 
Oriel College, Oxford, wnere he graduated, 1817 ; rector of Cripplegate, 1847 to 1857 ; 
archdeacon of London, 1842. Author of 'Some Account of the Hospital of King 
Edward VI., called Christ's Hospital.' Editor of * The Four Gospels ;' and other works. 

HALE'VY, Leoiii French author, b. at Paris, Jan. 14, 1802 ; studied at the Lyc6e Charle- 
magne ; appointed professor of literature at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1831 to 1834 ; entered 
the Ministry of Public Instruction, 1837 to 1853. Author of ' La Peste de Barcelone/ 
1822 ; *Ce que Fille veut,* 1858 ; and numerous poems and dramas. 

HALL. Anna Maria, English authoress, b. in Wexford County, 1805; manled to 
Mr. Samuel Carter Hall (see belowX 1824. Published ' Sketches of Irish Character,' 
1828; 'The Buccaneer,'^ 1832 ; 'The Whiteboy/ 1845; 'Can Wrong be Right?' and 
numerous other works of fiction. , 

HALL, James, American novelist, b. at Philadelphia, Aug. 19, 1793 ; took part in the 
war with England as volunteer, 1818. Author of 'Letters from the West,' 1820; 
'Border Tales,' New York, 1853; 'History and Biography of the Indians of North 
America ;' and other works. 

HALL, James, American geologist, b. at Hingham, Massachusetts, U.S. 1811 ; studied 
at New York ; appointed on the New York Survey, 1837 ; geologist of the State of Iowa, 
1855. Author of ' Palaeontology of New York,' 1847-52 and 1869. 

HALL, Sir John, English surgeon, b. 1795 ; entered the medical department of the 
army, 1815 ; statf-surgeon, 1827 ; deputy-inspector of hospitals, 1846 ; chief medical 
officer of the army in the Crimea, 1854-56 ; and inspector-general of hospitals since 
1854. 

HALL, Rev. Newman, Ei^^lish theolc^an, b. 1816 ; educated at Highbury CoU^e, 
and graduated at the London University, B.A. and LL.B. ; minister of the Albion Con- 
gregational Church, Hull, 1842 to 1854 ; minister of Surrey Chapel since 1854. Author 
of ' Come to Jesus ;' and numerous devotional tracts. 

HALL, Samnel Garter, English author, b. at Topsham, Devon, 1801 ; barrister-at- 
law ; editor of the Art Journal since 1839. Edited the ' Book of Gems ;' ' Book of 
British B^Iads ;' and other works. 

HALLE', Charles, musical performer and composer, b. in Gteimany; director of the 
Musical Institution at Manchester. 

HALLEGK, Henry "Waflrer, American military commander, b. in New York, 1810'; 
entered West Point as a cadet, 1835, and graduated, 1839 ; lieutenant, 1839 ; captain, 1847 ; 
captain of engineers, 1863, and retired from service, Aug. 1854 ; commissioned mtgor- 
general of the U.S. army, Aug. 19, 1861 ; placed at the head of the United States armies, 
July 11, 1862 ; resigned in favour of Lieutenant-general Grant, 1864 ; commander of the 
Pacific military department, 1805. 

HALLIDAY, Sir Frederick James, English colonial administrator, b. near 
Epsom, Surrey, 1806 ; educated at St Paul's School, Rugby, and Haileybury College ; 
entered the civil service of the East India Company, 1825 ; member of the Supreme 
Council of India, 1853; ^pointed Ueutenant-govemor of Bengal, 1854; created K.C.B. 
civil division, 1860. 



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HALIiIWlSIaLj^ James Orchard^ English biblioOTaphical writer, b. at Chelsea, 1820. 

Author of *A Life of Shakespeare ;' ' Skeleton Hand List of the Early Quarto Editions of 

Shakespeare,' 1860 ; 'Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales/ 1849; and numerous other 
.works. 
HAMILTON. Rif Itt Hon. Lord Clande, English politician, b. 1818 ; educated 

at Trinity College, Cambridge; was M.P. for county of Tyrone, 1836-37, and since 1839 ; 

was treasurer of the Household- 1852, and 1868-69 ; a deputy-lieutenant of Tyrone, and 

lieutenant-colonel Donegal Militia. 

HAMILTON. Lord Clande John, English politician, b. 1843 ; educated at Harrow ; 
lieutenant and captain Grenadier Quards ; M.P. for Londonderry, 1896-68. 

HAMILTON, Edward 'William Terrick, English politician, b.a809; educated 
at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1832, M.A. 1836 ; 
M.P. for Salisbury since 1865. 

HAMILTON, Very Rev. Henry Parr, English divine, b. 1794; educated at 
Trinity Coll^;e, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1816; appointed dean of Salisbury, 
1850. Author of ' The I^nciples of Analytical Geometry ;' ' Remarks on Popular Edu- 
cation ;' and several otlier works, and sermons. 

HAMILTON, Ion Trant, English politician, b. 1839 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge; a magistrate for the county of Dublin; M.P. for county of Dublin since 
1863. 

HAMILTON, James, Visconnt, English politician, b. 1838 ; educated at Harrow, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1860 ; a ma^^strate for the county 
of Don^al ; M.P. for county of Done^ since 1860. 

HAMILTON, Sir Robert Collie, English diplomatist, b. in India, 1802 ; educated 
at Haileybury ; entered the Bengal Civil Service, 1819 ; political agent to the Governor- 
General in Central India, 1842 ; accompanied General Sir Hugh Rose throng the whole 
campaign in the Indian Mutiny; and created K.C.B. civil division, 1858. 

HAMILTON, IViUiam Alexander, Dnke of, Scottish administrator, b. 1845 ; 
premier peer of Scotland ; hereditary keeper of the palace of Holyrood; succeeded hia 
father, eleventh peer, July 1863. 

HAMMERICH, Peder Adolph, Danish author, b. at Copenhagen, Aug. 9, 1809 ; 
studied at the University of Coi>enhagen, and graduated Ph.D. 1834; pastor in Jutland, 
1839 ; pastor of Trinity Church, Copenhagen, 1845. Author of • Heroic Songs,' 1841 ; 

* Gustavus Adolphus in Germany,' 1844 ; ' The War of Three Tears in Schleswig,' 1862 ; 
and numerous other works. 

HAMMETT, Samnel, American writer, b. at Jewett City, Connecticut, 1816 ; gra- 
duated at the University of New York. Published, under the pseudonjnn of P. Paxton, 

* A Stray Yankee in Texas,' New York, 1853 ; ' The Wonderful Adventures of Captain 
Priest,' 1854. 

HAMMOND, James Hamilton, American statesman, b. in Newburv, South Caro- 
lina, U.S. Nov. 15, 1807 ; graduated at the South Carolina College ; admitted to the bar, 
1828 ; elected to Congress, 1835 ; general of brigade, 1841 ; governor of South Carolina, 
1842 ; elected to the Senate of the United States, 1857. Author of several papers on 
politicg, military tactics, agriculture, and slavery. 

HANBURY, Robert Gnllinir, English politician, b. 1823 ; deputy-lieutenant of 
Middlesex and the Tower Hamlets, and a maglBtrate for Herts, Middlesex, and East 
Sussex ; M.P. for Middlesex, 1867-68. 

HANBURY.TRAGY, Hon. Charles Richard, English poUtician, b. 1840; 
a barrister-at-law of Lincoln's Inn; late lieutenant in the Royal Navy; M.P. for Mont- 
gomery since 1863. 

HANCOCK, 'Winiield Scott, American military commander, b. in Pennsylvania, 
1824 ; entered West Point Academy, 1840 ; graduated and received a commission as 
lieutenant, 1844 ; served in the Mexican war, and made assistant quartermaster-general ; 
bris^ier-genera^ 1861 ; mi^or-general, 1863. 

HANKEYi Thomson, English politician, b. 1805 ; a West India merchant, and 
director of the Bank of England, of which he was governor, 1861 to 1863; M.P. for 
Peterborough, 1853-68. 

HANMER, Sir John, English politician, b. 1809 ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; 
a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Flintshire ; M.P. for Shrewsbury, 1832-37; for 
Hull, 1841-47 ; and for Flintshire since 1847. 



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HANNA. Rer. 'WlUlam, English author, b. in Belfiist, 1808; edacated at the 
University of Glasgow, and ordained to the minist^ of the iSresbrterian Church, 1835. 
Author of * Wycliffe and the Huguenots/ and a ' Biography of the late Rev. Thomas 
Chalmers.' 

HANNAH^ Rer. John, English theologian, b. 1819 ; educated at Corpus ChrfsU 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840 ; rector of the Academy at Edinburgh, 
and warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond. Author of ' Discourses on the Fall and its 
Results.' Edited ' The Poems and Psalms of Harry King,' 1843 ; and other works. 

HANNAY; James, English author, b. at Dumfries, 1827 ; served in the Royal Navy, 
1840 to 1845. Author of * Singleton Pontenoy,' 1854 ; * Eustace Conyers/ 1855 ; * Satire 
and Satirists ;' and other works. 

HAN8EMANN, Dayid, German politician and writer, b. at Firckenwerder, near 
Hambuig, July 12, 1790 ; member of the Provincial Diet of the Rhine, 1846 ; and of the 
Prussian Diet, 1847 i appointed minister of finance of Prussia, March 1848 ; resigned. 
Sept 10, 1848. Author of 'The German Constitution of March 28, 1849 ;' and numerous 
other political works. 

HARDGASTIaXa, Josepli Alfred, English politician, b. 1815; educated at Bory, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1888, and M. A. 1841 ; called 
to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1841; M.P. for Colchester, 1847-52, and for Bury 
St Edmund's since 1857. 

HARDINOE, Charles Ste^eart, Viscount, English statesman, b. 1828; 
educated at Elton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1844 ; M.P. for 
Downpatrick, 1851 to 1866 ; under-secretary of state for the War Department, Feb. 1858 
to June 1859 ; succeeded h^ father, first viscount, 1856. Author of ' views in India,' 1847. 

HARDIVIGK, Philip, English architect, b. 1793. Designed the buildings at 
St Katharine's Docks; the Goldsmiths' Hall, London; the Grand Entrance to the 
North-Western Railway Station, Euston Square ; the Great Hall at Lincoln's Inn ; and 
other public buildings in London. 

HARDIVIGRB, Riifht Hon. Charles Yorlce, Earl, English admiral, b. 1799 ; 
educated at Harrow, and the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth ; M.P. for Belgate, 1831-32, 
and for Cambridgeshire, 1832-34, when he succeeded his uncle, third earl ; sworn privy 
councillor, 1852 ; lord privy seal, 1858-59 ; admiral, and lord-Iieutenant of Cambridgeshire. 

HARDY, Gathome, English statesman, b. 1814 ; educated at Shrewsbury, and Oriel 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1836; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 
1840; M.P. for Leominster, 1858 ; under-secretary of state for the Home Department, 
1868-59 ; returned M.P. for Oxford University, 1865 ; president of the Poor Law Board, 
July 6, 1866, to May 17, 1867 ; secretary of state for the Home Department, May 17, 1867, 
to Dec. 9, 1868. 

HARDY, John. English politician, b. 1809 ; educated at Oriel College, Oxford, where 
he graduated B.A. 1831{; M.A. 1834; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Staffordshire 
and for the West Biding of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Midhurst, March to April 1859; and 
for Dartmouth, 1860-68. 

HARDY, Thomas Dnffos, English antiquarian, b. at Port Royal, Jamaica, 1804; 
entered the public service as junior clerk in the Record Office, Tower, 1819 ; appointed 
deputy-keei)er of the Public Rolls, 1861. Edited ' Rotuli Literarum Clausarum in Tunri 
Londinensi asservati,' 1833-34 ; ' Modus tenendi Parliamentum,' 1846 ; and other ancient 
MSS. in the Rolls collection. 

HAREIVOOD, Henry Thynne laascelles. Earl, English administrator, b. 1824; 
a deputy-lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire ; succeeded his father, third earl, 
1857. 

HARORAVESy Edmnnd Hanunond. English traveller, b. at Gosport, Sussex, 
1816 ; settled in Australia, 1834 ; sailed to tne Califomian Gold Diggings, 1849 ; returned 
to Australia, and made the discovery of gold fields, 1851 ; appointed commissioner of 
Crown lands, 1850. Published * Australia, and its G<)ld Fields,' 1854. 

HAERING, 'Wilhelm, German novelist, b. at Breslau, June 1798 ; fought in the cam- 
paign of 1815 as a volunteer; studied at Berlin and Breslau after 1817. Author, under 
the nom de plume of * Wilibald Alexis,' of 'Die Treibjagd ;' * Walladmor,' 1823 ; * Schloss 
Avalon,' 1827 ; and numerous other works of fiction. 

HARINGTON, Rev. Edward Charles, English author, b. 1807; educated at 
Worcester College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1828 ; appointed chancellor of Exeter 
Cathedral, 1847, and residentiary canon, 1857. Author of 'The Reformers of the Anglican 
Church ;' * Macaulay's History of England ;' * Rome's Pretensions tested ;' and other works. 



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HARIiESS, Theoithiliis Christophi Oerman Protestant theologian, b. at Nttrnberg, 
Nov. 21, 1806 ; studied at Erlangen and Halle ; professor of theology at the University of 
Erlangen, 1836 ; appointed private ecclesiastical councillor to the minister of worship at 
Munidi, 1852. Author of ' Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians,' 1884 ; ' Ti-eatise 
on Plastic Anatomy/ 1857 ; and numerous other works. 

HARNESS. Rer- William, English author, b. 1790; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ's CoUege, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A 1813 ; incumbent of All Saints, 
Enightsbridge. Author of ' Welcome and Farewell,' a drama, 1837 ; ' Claims of tiie 
Church of Borne considered ;* and numerous sermons and pamphlets. 



(. Hon. Ed<«irard Alfred, English diplomatist, b. 1808 ; educated at Eton, 
and the Koyal Naval College; entered the navy, 1823; captain, 1843; M.P. for Christ 
Church, Hants, 1844 to 1852 ; appointed consul at Elsinore, 1852 ; transferred to Peru as 
consul-general and charge d'affaires, 1852, and to Chili, 1853 ; consul at Venice, 1858 ; 
minister-plenipotentiary at Berne, 1861-66. 

HARRIS, Georse Francis Robert, Baron, English administrator, b. 1810; 
educated at ChrisfChurch, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1831 ; succeeded his father, 
second baron, 1845; lieutenant-governor of Trinidad, 1846-54; governor of Madras, 
1854-59 ; returned to England, 1861 ; chambeiiain of the Princess of Wales. 

HARRIS, John Dove, English politician, b. 1809 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of 
the county of Leicester ; M.P. for Leicester, 1857-69, and since 1865. 

HARRISON, Ven. Benjamin, English divine, b. 1809 ; educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1830 ; appointed archdeacon of Maidstone, and preacher 
in Canterbury Cathedral, 1845. Author of * An Historical Enquiry into the True Inter- 
pretation of the Rubrics relating to the Sermon and Communion Service,' 1845. 

HARRISON, Thomas, English civil engineer, b. 1810 ; employed in the construction 
of docks in IJondon ; engineer of the North-Eastem Railway. 

HARROIVBY, Ricrht Hon. Dudley Ryder, Earl, English statesman, b. 1798 ; 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1819 ; was M.P. for Tiver- 
ton, 1819 to 1830, and for Liverpool, 1882 to 1847, when he succeeded his father, first 
earl ; has been secretary to the India Board, chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and 
lord privy seaL 

HART, Joel, American sculptor, b. in Clark County, Kentucky, 1810; executed a 
marble statue of Henry Clay, 1859 ; a statue in bronze of the same for the city of New 
Orleans, 1861 ; and busts of several other distinguished persons. 

HART, Solomon Alexander, English painter, b. at Plymouth, April 1806 ; entered 
the Royal Academy as student, 1823 ; appointed professor of painting in the Royal 
Academy, 1857. Exhibited 'The Elevation of the Law,' 1880 ; ' Wolsey and Buckingham,' 
1834 ; ' Simchath Torah, or the Rdoicing of the Law,' 1845 and 1850 ; ' The Three Inven- 
tors of Printing;' and numerous other paintings. Elected A.R.A. 1835, R A. 1840. 

HARTINGTON, Right Hon. Spencer Compton, Marqnis of, English 
statesman, eldest son of the Duke of Devonshire, b. 1833 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1854; under-secretary for war, 1863-66; secret^ 
for war, 1866 ; appointed postmaster-general, Dec. f, 1868 ; M.P. for North Lancashire, 
1857-68 ; for the Radnorshire boroughs, 1869. 

HARTIiSY, Sir Charles Auenstos, English civil engineer, b. at Hepworth, 
county of Durham, 1825; served in the Crimea as captain in the Turkish Contingent 
ihi^neers, 1855-56 ; appointed engineer-in-chief to the Eiiropean Commission for im- 
proving the Navigation of the Danube, 1857 ; knighted, 1862. 

HARTIaSY, James, English politician, b. 1811 ; educated at Bristol ; a magistrate 
for the county of Dcurham, and an alderman of Sunderland ; M.P. for Sunderland^ 
1865-68. 

HARTMANN, Morits, German author, b. at Duschink, Bohemia, Oct 15, 1821 ; 
studied at the Universities of Prague and Vienna. Author of ' Reich und Schwert,' 
Leipsic, 1845; 'Sie sind arm;' 'Reimchronik des Pfaffen Mauritius,' Frankfort, 1849; 
' Briefe aus Irland,' 1851 ; and numerous other, chiefly poetical, works. 

HARTOPP, Sdv^ard Bonrchier. English politician, b. 1809 ; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate lor the county of Leicester ; was high sheriff, 1833 ; 
M.P. for North Leicestershire, 1859-68. 

HARTSHORNS, Rev. Charles Henrv, English author, b. 1803; educated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1826 ; appointed rector of Hol- 
denby, near Northampton, 1850. Author of ' Book Rarities in the University of Cam- 
bridge,' 1829 ; * Home of the Working Man,' 1866 j and other works. 

K 2 



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HARVEY, Georire, Scottish painter, b. at St Ninian's, near Stirling, 1805; studied at 
the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, 1823 to 1825 ; associate of the Royal Edinburgh 
• Academy, 1826 ; and academician, 1829. Exhibited the * Covenanters Preaching,' 1830 ; 
* The Wise and Foolish Builders/ 1849 ; and numerous other paintings. 

HARVCYj, Robert Bateson, English politician, b. 1824; a J. P. and deputy-lieu- 
tenant of Bucks ; M.P. for Bucks, 1864-68. 

HARVSY, Robert John Harvey, English politician, b. 1817: a J. P. and deputy- 
lieutenant of Norfolk ; high sheriflf, 1862 ; M. P. for Thetford, 1865-68. 

HASSAN Alal KHAN, Persian statesman, b. at Bi^jar, 1821 ; nominated colonel in 
the army by Mohammed Schah, 1889 ; general, 1851 ; governor of the city of Herat, 1856; 
envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to JranceJ Aug. 1859 to Oct. 1864. 

HASTINGS, Sir Charles, English physician, b. 1794; educated at Edinburgh, 
where he graduated M.D. 1818 ; knighted, 1850 ; deputy-lieutenant of Worcestershire. 
Author of ' Treatise on Inflammation of the Mucous Membrane of the Lungs ;' ' Illustra- 
tions of the Natural History of Worcestershire ;' and other works. 

HASTING9i Jacob Henry Astley, Baron, English administrator, b. 1822; 
educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; a deputy-lieutenant and magistrate of 
Norfolk ; lieutenant in the 2d Life Guards, 1848-51. 

HASTINGS, Sir Thomas, English administrator, b. 1790 ; entered the navy^ 1808 ; 
principal storekeeper and member of the Board of Ordnance, 1845 to 1855 ; knighted, 
1855; nominated K.CiB. ^859; J. P. for the counties of Hereford and Brecon, and 
deputy-lieutenant of Hereford. 

HATCHSIaLi, Rig;ht Hon. John, Irish administrator, b. in Wexford County, 1788 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1809 ; solicitor-general for 
Ireland, 1847 ; attorney-general, and sworn in the privy council for Ireland, 1850 ; M. P. 
for Windsor, 1850-62 ; appointed commissioner of national education, and charitable 
donations aad bequests in Ireland, 1853 ; resigned, 1861. 

HATHERIiEY, William VtLge IVood, Baron, English judge, b. 1801 ; vice- 
chancellor, 1852 ; lord justice of appeal, 1867 ; raised to the peerage and made lord 
chancellor, Dec. 1868. 

HATHSRTON, Edward Richard, Baron, English administrator, b. at Teddesley, 
Dec.>81, 1815 ; educated at Eton ; M.P. for Walsall, 1847 to 1852, and for South Staflford- 
• shire, 1853 to 1857 ; deputy-lieutenant and magistrate of Staffordshire. 

HAUREAU, Jean Barthelemy. French author, b. in Paris, Nov. 9, 1812; studied 
at the College of Louis-le-Grand and the CoU6ge Bourbon. Author of * La Montague,' 
. 1832; 'Histoire de la Pologne,' Paris, 1844; 'Charlemagne et sa Cour,' 1852-55; *Cata- 
lc)gue chronologique des (Euvres de J. P. Gerbier,' 1863 ; and many other works. 

HAUSSERi Iiud'wis, German historical writer, b. at Cleebourg, Lower Alsace, Oct. 26, 
1818 ; studied at Mannheim and Jena; member of i^he Second Baden Chamber, 1849; 
appointed titular professor of history at the University of Zurich, 1850. Author 
of * History of Germany from the Death of Frederick the Great,' 1863 ; and other 
works. 

HAUSSMANN, Georges Eugene, Baron, French statesman, b. in Paris, 
March 27, 1809 ; entered the Conservatoire of Music, and subsequently studied law in 
Paris, and was called to"the bar ; sub-prefet of N6rac, 1833, of St. Girons, 1840, of Blaye, 
1842 ; appointed pr6fet de la Seine, June 23, 1853 ; created senator, Aug. 1857. 

HAVEGAIa, Rev. IVilliam Henry, English divine, b. 1792; educated at St. Ed- 
mund's Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1815, and M.A. 1819; rector of Astley, in 
Worcestershire, 1829-42 ; < rector of St. Nicholas, Worcester, 1845 ; rector of Shareshill, 
near Wolverhampton, 1860. Author of several sermons and musictd compositions. 

HAVEIiOCK, Sir Henry Marsham, English military commander, b. at Chin- 
sura, Bengal, 1830 ; entered the army, 1846 ; quartermaster-general in the expedition to 
Persia, 1857 ; aide-de-camp to his father, the late General Havelock, in Oude and 
Cawnpore, Aug. 1857; lieutenant-colonel, 1859; assistant adjutant-general at Alder- 
shot, 1861. 

H AVIN, laeonor Joseph, French politician, b. at St. Ld, 1799 ; judge of the peace 
at St. Ld, 1835 ; member of the Constituent Assembly for the department of La Manche, 
1849 ; elected to the Corps L^gislatif for the 1st circonscription of the department of 
La Manche, 1863 ; director of Le Siicle newspaper. 

HAVRINCOURT, Alphonse Pierre, Marquis d', French politician, b. Sept. 12, 
1806 ; entered the Ecole Polytechnique, 1826 ; lieutenant, 1832 ; elected to the Legislative 
Assembly, 1849 ; member of the Corps L^islatif for the department of Nord, 1868. 



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[ ]33 ] 



HAWKINS, Benjamin Waterhoose. English geologist, b. in Tx)ndon, Feb. 8, 
1807 ; educated at St Aloysius College. Author of ' Popular Comparative Anatomy,* 
1840 ; ' Comparative View of the Human and Animal Frame,' 1860 ; and other works. 

HA'WKINSy Ceesar Henry, English surgeon, b. near the end of the last century : 
elected sni^eon to St. George's Hospital, 1829 ; resigned, 1861 ; consulting surgeon and 
trustee to St George's Hospital. Author of ' Lectures on Tumours ;' and other medical 
works. 

HAWKINS, Rev. EdT^ard, English divine, b. 1789; educated at St John's College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1811 ; provost of Oriel College, 1828 ; appointed Dean 
Ireland's professor of the Exegesis of Holy Scripture at Oxford, 1847 ; resigned, 1861. 
Author of ' Discourses on the Historical Scriptures of the Old Testament ;' and sermons. 

HA'WKSHAW, Jolm^. EngHsh civil engineer, b. at Leeds, 1811 ; educated at Le«ds 
Grammar School ; enghieer of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, the Charing Cross, 
and a great number of English and foreign railroads ; one of the metropolitan com- 
missioners of sewers. 

HAY, laord John, English politician, b.. 1827 ; a captain in the Royal Navy, and 
captain of 1st Middlesex Rifle Vdlunteers; M.P.' for Wick, 1867-69, and returned for 
Ripon, 1866 ; appointed lord of the Admiralty, Dec. 1868. 

HAY, Sir John Charles Dalryn&ple, English naval ofBcer, b. 1821 ; educated at 
Rugby, 1821; served a^ midshipman during the siege of Acre, 1841; flag-lieutenant, 
1846 ; commanded the ColumJbinej 1849 ; commander of the HAnnibal, in the Black and 
Mediterrane^an Seas, during the Russian war,- 1864-^6 ; M.'P.'^ for Wakefleld, 1862. 

HAY, lK>rd William Montagne, English ppliticiany b. 1826 ; educated at Hailey- 
bury College ; formerly in the Civil Service at Bengal ; M.P. for Taunton, 1866-68. 



A M. «•», Angfustos Allen. American chemist, b. at Windsor, State of Vermont, 
Feb. 28, 1806 ; graduated at the Military Academy of Norwich, Vermont, 1823 ; state 
assayer of Massachusetts. Author of 'The Existence of a Deposit of Iron on the 
African West Coast ;' and other works. 



L, Arthur Divett, English politician/ b. 1835 ; educated at Eton, and 
Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated B.Ai 1857, and M.A. 1869 ; captain in 
the Grenadier Guards; M.P. for Wells, 1865-68. " 

HAYTER, Sir Georc^e, English painter, b. in London, 1792 ; appointed midshipman 
in the Royal Navy, 1809 ; studied painting in Rome, 1816 to 1819 ; member of the Im- 
perial Academies of Parma, 1826 ; appointed historical painter in ordinary to her 
Majesty, 1841 ; knighted, 1842. Author of 'Hortus Ericseus Wobumensis.' 

HAYTBR, Riffht Hon. Sir William. English politician, b. 1792 ; educated at 
Winchester, and Trinity College, Oxford ; cjilled to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1819 ; M.P. 
for Wells, 1837-64; judge-advocate, 1847-49 ; financial secretary of the Treasury, 1849-60 ; 
parliamentary secretary, 1850-68 ; created a baronet, 1868. 

HAZIaITT, Williani Carew, English author, b. Aug. 22, 1834 ; educated at Merchant 
Taylors' School : called to the bar, 1861. Author of ' The History of the Venetian Re- 
public : her Rise, her Greatness, and her Civilization,' 1860 ; and other works. 

HEAD, Sir Francis Bond, English author, b. 1793 ; served in a corps of Royal 
Engineers at Waterloo ; governor of Upper Canada, 1886 ; resigned, March 1838 ; created 
a baronet,. 1838. Author of ' Rough Notes of a Journey across the Pampas ;' • A Faggot 
of French Sticks ;' * The Horse and his Rider ;' and numerous other works. 

HBADIaAM, Rigfht Hon. Thomas Smerson, English administrator, b. in 
Yorkshire, 1813 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1839 ; 
called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1839 ; appointed judge-advocate-general, 1869 ; 
chancellor of Ripon and Durham, 1864 ; M.P. for Newcastle-on-Tyne since 1847. 

HSADIaEY, Joel Tyler. American author, b. at New York, Dec. 30, 1814 ; studied 
at Auburn Theological Seminary, and became pastor of a church at Stockbridge, Massa- 
chusetts. Author of * Letters from Italy ;* * Napoleon and his Marshals,' 1846 ; • History 
of the Second War between England and the United States ;' and other works. 

HEATH, Rer. Dunbar Isidore, English theologian, b. 1817 ; graduated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1838 ; appointed vicar of Brading, Isle of Wight, 1846 ; deprived of 
his benefice, 1861. Author of * The Future Kingdom of Christ,' 1862-63 ; * The Proverbs 
of Aphobis, B.C. 1900,' 1868 ; and other works. 

HEATHCOTE, Hon. Gilbert Henry, English politician, b. 1830 ; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; a deputy-lieutenant of the counties of Lincoln 
and Rutland; M.P. for Boston, 1862-66 ; and for Rutlandshire, 1866-68. 



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HSATHCOTE, Sir William, English politician, b. 1801 ; educated at Winchester, 
and Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1821 ; elected fellow of All Souls, 
1822 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Hants ; M.P. for Hants, 1826-82, for North 
Hants, 1837-i9, and for Oxford University, 18S4r-68. 

HEDGE, Rev. Frederick Henry, American author, b. in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, Dec. 12, 1805; ordained, 1829; minister of the Congregational Church in 
Brooklyn, Massachusetts. Author of ' Proae Writers in Germany,' 1848. 

HEINRICH XrV., Prince of Rensa-Schleis, b. May 28, 1832, the son ofPrince 
Henry LXVIL and of Princess Adelaide ; succeeded to the throne at the death of his 
father. Prince Henry LXVII., July 10, 1867 ; married, Feb. 6, 1858, to Princess Louise of 
Wiirtemberg. 

HEINTZEIaMAN, Samnel, Anrarican military commander, b. in Pennsylvania, 1807: 
admitted as cadet to West Point, 1822 ; maJor, 1847 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1861 ; wounded 
at the battle of Bull Run, /uly 21, 1861 ; brigadier-general, and commander of a division, 
1861-62 ; mjyor-general, July 1862. 

HEIaMERSEN, Greg^or TOn, Russian traveller, b. near Dorpat, Sept. 29, 1803 ; 
studied at St. Petersbiug. and .at the University of Dorpat ; professor of geology to the 
School of Mines of St. Petersbuig. Author of * Geognostiche Untersuchung des Sildural- 
gebirgs,' Berlin, 1831 ; ' Beitrage zur Kenntniss des russischen Reichs.' 

HEIaMORE, Rer. Thoniaa, English theologian, b. May 7, 1811 ; educated at Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840 ; appointed priest in ordinary of her 
Majesty's Chapels Royal, 1847. Author of 'The Canticles noted f and other works. 

HEIiPS. Arthnr, English author, b. 1817 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 

where he graduated B.A. 1838; appointed clerk of the privy council, 1859. Author of 

'Catherine Douglas ;* 'The Cmnquerors of the New World and their Bondsmen ;* *The 

Spanish Conquest of America ;' and otiier works. 
HENDERSON, Edmnnd Yeamans Walcott, English administrator, b. 1820 ; 

studied at Woolwich, and entered the army, 1838 ; lieutenant-colonel Royal Engineers, 

1862 ; appointed surveyor-general of prisons, 1863. 
HENDERSON, John. English politician, b. 1807 ; educated at Durham Granunar 

School; a magistrate of Durham, and carpet manuflEUsturer in that city; M.P. for 

Durham since 1864. 

HENEAGE, "Bdward, English politician, b. 1840; educated at Eton; a J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of the county of Lincoln; was lieutenant 1st Life Guards ; M.P. for 
Lincoln, 1866-68. 

HENGSTENBERG, Ernst WilheUn, German theologian, b. at Fraudenbeig, 
Oct. 20, 1802 ; educated at Bonn ; appointed professor and doctor of theology at Berlin, 
1829. Editor of 'Aristotle's Metaphysics,' 1824 ; conductor of the EvangeHtehe Kirchen 
Zeitung, 1827. Author of ' Commentaries on the Apocalypse and the Psalms.' 

HENIaEY, Anthony Henley Henley, lK>rd, English politician, b. in London, 
1825 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Qhurch, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
of the county of Northampton ; was high sheriff 1854 ; M.P. for Northampton since 1859. 

HENIiEY, Ric^ht Hon. Joseph Warner, English statesman, b. 1793 ; educated 
at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1815 ; a magistrate ahd deputy- 
lieutenant of Oxon ; president of the Board of Trade, March to Dec. 1852, and 1858-59 ; 
M.P. for Oxfordshire since 1841. 

HENNIKER, lK>rd John, English politician, b. 1801; educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1822 : called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 
1826; deputy-lieutenant of Sutfolk; M.P. for East Suffolk, 1832-46, and since 1856. 

HENRIQUEIi-DUPONT, laonis .Pierre. French engraxrec, b. in Paris, June 13, 
1797 ; studied under Pierre Guerin. Engraved ' Tlie Interment of Christ," after Paul 
Delaroche ; ' The Abdication of Gustavus Vasa,' after Hersent ; and other works. 

HENRY, Caleb Spragne, American author, b. at Butland, Massachusetts, Aug. % 
1804 ; graduated at Dartmouth College, 1825 ; appointed professor of philosophy and 
history in the University of New York, 1839. Author of * A Compendium of Christian 
Antiquities ;' and other works. 

HENRY, Joseph, American electrician, b. in Albany, New York, Deo. 17, 1797; 
learnt the trade of a watdimaker in his native city ; appointed professor of mathematics 
in the Albany Academy, 1826 ; professor of natural philosophy in the College of New 
Jersey, Princetown, 1832 ; first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, 
1846. Author of 'Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism,' 1839; and other 
works. 



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HERAUD, John Abraliani. English author, b. in London. 1799. Author of ' Totten- 
ham,' 1820 ; ' The Descent into Hell,' 1830 ; ' The Judgment of the Flood,' 1834 ; < Videna,' 
a tragedy acted in 1854 ; and numerous other poems and dramas. 



HERBERT, John "Rogem, English painter, b. at Maldon, Essex, Jan. 28, 1810 ; 
entered the Royal Academy as a student, 1816. Exhibited ' The Appointed Hour,' 1884 : 
* Christ and the Woman of Samaria.' 1843 ; ' Lear disinherits Cordelia,' 1849 ; and 
numerous other paintings, chiefly of religious subjects. Elected A.R.A. 1841, RA. 
1846. 

HERCUIiANO DE CAR VAIiHO ETRAN JO. Alexander, Portuguese author, 
b. at Lisbon, March 28, 1810 ; studied in Paris. Author of ' A \oz do Propheta,' 1836 ; 
'Historia de Portugal,' Lisbon, 1848-52 ; * History of the Origin and Establishment of 
the Inquisition in Portugal ;' and other works. 

BERRING, John Frederick, English painter, b. in Surrey, 1795. Fainted * Returning 
tiom Epsom ;' ' Derby Day ;* * The Scene near the Windmill Inn on Clapham Comimon y 
a ' Horse Fair ;' and numerous other paintings, chiefly of horses and dogs. 

HERSCHEIa, Sir John Frederick, English astronomer, b. at Slough, near Windsor, 
1792 ; educated at St John's College, Cambridge ; created a baronet, 1838 ; lord rector 
of Marischal CoU^e, Aberdeen, 1842 ; president of the Astronomical Society, 1848 ; 
appointed master of the Mint, 1850; resigned, Feb. 1855. Author of 'Outlines of 
Astronomy,' 1850. 

HERTFORD, Richard Seymonr Conway, Marqvis of, b. 1800 ; attach^ 
at Baris, 1817-19, and at Constiuitinople, 1829 ; formerly m the army ; succeeded his 
father, third marquis, 1842 ; created K.Q. 1865. 

HERVEY, laord Anirtui Henrr, English politician, b. 1837; honorary M.A. of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1859 ; M.P. for West 8uff<^ since 1864. 



(TEY, Eleonora Iiovisa, Ei^lish authoress, b. at Liverpool, 1811 ; married to 
Mr. T. K. Hervey, 1843. Author of 'The Landgrave,*^ 1839; *The Double Claim;' 'The 
Feasts of Camelot,' 1863 ; and of numerous essays and tales. 

HE8KETH, Sir Thoniaa Georse. Bart.t English politician, b. 1825 ; educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford ; a deputy Ifeutenant of Lancashire; high sheriff, 1848 ; M.P. 
for Preston since 1862. 



E8SEY, Rer. James Ancnatoa, English divine, b. in London, 1814 ; educated 
at St. John's Collie, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1836 ; elected head-master of 
Merchant Taylors' School, 1845; preacher of Gray's Inn, 1850 ; appointed to the prebendal 
stall of Oxgate in St Paul's Cathedral, 1860. 



HEURTIaEY, Rer. Charles Abel, English divine, b. 1806: educated at Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1827 ; rector of Fenny Compton, War- 
wickshire, 1840; elected Maigaret professor of divinity, and canon m Christ Church 
Cathedral, 1853 ; member of the Hebdomadal Council of the University of Oxford, 18C4. 
Author of numerous sermons and lectures. 

HEWIT80N. William, English naturalist, b. at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Jan. 6, 1806. 
Published 'The British Oology,' 1831; 'Exotic Butterflies,' 1852; and 'Illustrations of 
Diurnal Lepidoptera.' 

BEYGA,TE, Sir Frederick William, English politician, b. 1822 ; educated at 
Eton, and Trinity Collie, Cambridge ; deputy-lieutenant of Leicestershire, and lieu- 
tenant of Leicestershire f eomanry ; M.P. for county of Londonderry since 1859. 

HEYGATE, Rer. William Ed^vard, English author, b. 1817 ; studied at St John's 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1839. Author of 'Godfirey Davenant, or 
School Life ;' ' Sir Henry Appleton ;' ' The Gtood Shepherd ;' and other works. 

HEYTESBURY, William Henry Ashe, Baron, English administrator, b. 1809 ; 
educated at Eton, and St. John's College, Cambridge ; a deputy-lieutenant and magis- 
trate of WUts, Hants, and the Isle of W^ht ; M.P. for the Isle of Wight, 1837-^7. 

HEY WOOD, James. English politician, b. May 28, 1810 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1837 ; called to the bajr, 1838 ; M.P. for North Lancashire, 
1847 to 1857. Author of ' History of University Subscription Tests,' 1858 ; * The State of 
Biblical Revision,' 1860 ; and other works. 



if Shirley, English horticulturist. Author of 'Summer Songs,' 1851: 
' Fresh Water Aquaria,^ 1856 ; ' Garden Favourites,' 1858 ; ' Epitome of the [Russian] War,' 
1857 ; and other works. 



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HIBBERT, John Tomlinson, English politician, b. 1824 ; educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he gradoated B.A. 1847, M.A. 1851 ; called to the bar of the 
Inner Temple, 1849 ; M.P. for Oldham since 1862. 

HIGGINSON, Sir James Macaulaiy, English colonial governor, b. 1805 ; educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin ; entered tiie Bengal army, 1824 ; governor and commander-in- 
chief of the Leeward Islands, 1846 to 1850 ; governor of Mauritius, 1850 ; retired, 1857. 

HIIaDRETH, Richmrdi American author, b. at Deerfield, Massachusetts, 1807; gra- 
duated at Harvard College ; called to tiie bar, 1830 ; U.S. consul at Trieste. Author of 
' Hlstoiy of the United States of America ;* 'Japan as it is,' 1855 ; and other works. 

HIIaDYARD. Rer. James, English author, b. 1809 ; educated at Shrewsbury School, 
and Christ's College,. Cambridge,, where he graduated B.A. 1833; appointed rector of 
Ingoldsby, Lincolnshire, 1846. Author of ' Inguldsby L^^nds,' 1858-62. 

Hllalay, Ambrose, American general, b. at Culpepper, Virginia, 1825 ; entered West 
Point Militiiry Academy as a cadet, 1842 ; lieutenant, 1847 : appointed assistant on the 
U.S. Coast Survey, Nov. 1855; joined the Confederate Army, March 1861; appointed 
brigadier-general. May 1862 ; lieutenant-general, 1863-66. 

Hllala^ David Octavliis, English artist, b. at Perth, 1802 ; studied in Edinburgh. 
Exhibited ' Windsor Castle— Summer Evening ;' ' Old and New Edinburgh — ^from the 
Castie ;' * The River Tay from the BHdge at Perth ; * and numerous other luidscapes. 

Hllala, Matthe^RT Davenport, English administrator, b. 1792 ; called to the bar of 
Lincoln's Inn, 1819 ; M.P. for Kingston upon HulL 1832 to 1834 ; recorder of Birmingham, 
and commissioner in bankruptcy for the Bristol district. Author of 'Suggestions for 
the Repression of Crime ;' and several pamphlets on Reformatories. 

Hllala, RoTVland Hill, Visconnt, English administrator, b. 1800; lord-lieutenant 
of Shropshire ; colonel of the Nortii Shropshire Yeomanry ; sat iii the House of Commons 
as Sir R Hill, 1821 to 1842, when he succeeded his uncle, first viscount, in the peerage. 

HIIaliARD. Georice Stillman, American author, b. in the State of Maine, 1808; 
educated at Harvard College ; studied law, and was called to the bar. Published ' Six 
Months in Italy,' 1853 ; was editor of the North. American Review. 

HIIali-TREVOR, Itord Arthur Sd^irin, English politician, b. 1819; educated at 
Eton, and Balliol College, Oxford ; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of the counties of Den- 
bigh, Down, and Salop ; M.P. for the county of Down since 1845. 

HINCKS. Francis, English colonial administrator, b. in Cork, 1795; studied at 
Trinity CJoUege, Dublin ; member of the Provincial Parliament of Canada, and subse- 
quently prime minister for some years under Lord Elgin ; governor of Barbadoes, 
1856-61 : governor of British Guiana, 1861-66. 

HIND, John Russell, English astronomer, b. at Nottingham, 1822 ; foreign secretary 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, and superintendent of the Nautical Almanac. Pub- 
lished 'The Solar System,' 1846; * The Unexpected Return of the Great Comet^' 1848; 
* Astronomical Vocabulary,' 1852 ; and other works on astronomy. 

HINDS, Rigrbt Rev. Sauinel, English divine, b. in Barbadoes, 1793 ; educated at 
Queen's College, OxfonL where he graduated in 1815 ; appointed dean of Carlisle, 1848 ; 
consecrated bishop of Norwich, 1849 ; resigned, 1857. Author of a 'Treatise on Logic ; ' 
' History of the Rise and Early Progress of Christianity ;' 'Inquiry into the Nature and 
Extent of Inspiration ; ' several sonnets and sacred poems. 

HINGESTON, Rev. Francis Charles, English author, b. March 31, 1833 ; edu- 
cated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1855, and M.A. 1858; appointed 
rector of Ringraore, Devon, 1860. Author of ' Specimens of Ancient Cornish Crosses, 
Fonts, &c.' 1850 ; edited ' A Collection of Royal and Historical Letters during the Reign 
of Henry IV .' 2 vols, for the Master of the Rolls, 1860 ; and numerous other works. 

HINTON. Rev. John Howard, English author, b. at Oxford, March 24, 1791 ; 
graduateu at Edinburgh ; minister of a Baptist chapel in Devonshire-square, Bishops- 
gate, London. Author of ' History of the United States of NorUi America ;' ' Elements 
of Natural History ;* and other works. 

HIRSCHER, Johann Baptist von, German theologian, b. at Alt-Ergarten, June 20, 
1788 ; educated at the University of Freiburg : ordained, 1810 ; appointed professor of 
Christian morals at the University of TUbingen, 1817; transferred in the same capacity 
to Freiburg, 1837; resigned, 1863. Author of 'Christian Ethics;' * Treatise on the 
Present State of the Churdi,' 1850 ; and other works. 

HIS DE BUTENVAIa, Charles Adrien, Baron, French diplomatist, b. 1805 ; 
entered the diplomatic service, 1830 ; successively secreiiary of legation at Lisbon and 
secretary of embassy at Constantinople till 1842; minister-plenipotentiary to Brazil, 
1847 ; to Sardinia, 1851 ; to Belgium, 1852 ; councillor of state, June 23, 1853. 



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HITZIGy Ferdinaadi German philologiRt, b. at Hiiningen, Baden, June 23, 1807 ; 
studied theology at the Uniyersities of Halle and Heidelberg ; appointed professor of 
Ez^esis at Zurich, 1883. Author of ' Translation and Commentary of the Prophet Isaiah,' 
1882 ; " Commentary on the Psalms,' 1833 ; and other critical works on the Old Testament, 
Oriental mythology, philology, and archeeology. 

HOARE, Sir Henry Ainslie, English politician, b. 1824; educated at Eton, and 
Trinity Colle^, Cambridge ; a J. P. and depufy-lieutenant of Somerset, and a magistrate 
of Wilts; M.P. for Windsor, 1866-68. 

HOD6SS. JameS| English civil engineer, b. at Queenborough, Kent 1816; assistant 
engineer to the late Sir William Cubitt, at Dover, 1839 to 1844 ; constructed the new 
harbour at Lowestoft, 1844 to 1848, and t^e great Victoria Bridge across the St. Lawrence, 
at Montreal, oi>ened 1860. 

HODGKINSON, Grosvenor, English politician, b. 1818; educated at King Edward's 
School, Louth ; a solicitor in practice at Newark ; M. P. for Newark since 1859. 

HODGSON, Kirkmaa Daniel, English politician, b. 1814 ; educated at the Charter- 
house ; a merchant, one of the directors or the Bank of England, and a commissioner 
of Public Works Loan Office ; M.P. for Bridport, 1857-68. 

HODGSON, Williank Nicholson, English politician, b. 1801 ; a J.P. and deputy- 
lieutenant of Cumberhmd; was high sheriff, 1863; M.P. for Carlisle, 1847-48, 1857-59, 
and 1865-68. 

HOFFMAN, Charles Fenno, American author, b. in New York, 1806 ; studied at 
Columbia College. Author of 'A Winter in the Far West,' 1835; ' Wild Scenes in the 
Forest and the Prairie,' 1837 ; * Grey Slaves ;' and a volume of poems. Founder of 
the Knickerbocker Magazine. 

HOFFMANN VON FAIalaERSLEBSN. Anffnst Heinrich, German poet, 
b. at Fallersleben, Hanover, April 2, 1798 ; studied theology at Rome. Author of * Frag- 
ments of Ottfried,' 1820 ; * Deutsche Lieder aus der Schweiz,' 1843 ; ' Horse Belgicse,' in 
8 vols. 1850-52 ; and numerous other poetical works. 

HOFMANN, Auenst Wilhelnk, German chemist b. at Giessen, Hesse, 1817; 
studied chemistry under Liebig ; successively professor of chemistry at the University of 
Bonn, and manager and director of the College of Chemistiy in London ; appointed pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the University of Berlin, 1864. Edited 'Fownes Manual of 
Chemistry,' and other works. 

HOGG* James Macnairhten, English politician, b. 1823 ; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; formerly lieutenant-colonel Ist Life Guards ; M.P. for Bath, 
1865-68. 

HOGG, Sir Jauies Weir, English administrator, b. 1799 ; called to the bar, went to 
India, and became registrar of the Supreme Court of Calcutta: M.P. for Beverley and 
Honiton, 1885-57 ; director of the East India Company, 1839-58, and chairman of the 
same, 1846-47. 

HOGG, Robert, ^Snglish botanist, b. at Dunse, Scotland, 1818. Author of the ' Vege- 
table Kingdom and Its Products:' 'British Pomology.' Editor of the Florist and 
Pomologist^ and of the Journal of Horticulture. 

HOIaBROOK, John l^dmrards, American naturalist, b. at Beaufort, South Carolina, 
1795; graduated at Brown University, Massachusetts; studied medicine in Europe; 
appointed professor of anatomy in the Medical College of South Carolina, 1824. Author 
of 'American Herpetolognr ;' ' Description of the Reptiles inhabiting the United States ;' 
and ' Ichthyology of Soiaa Carolina.' 

HOIaDEN, Her. Hubert Aston, English author, b. 1822; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated B. A. 1845 ; vice-principal of Cheltenham College, 1853 ; 
head-master of Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Ipswich, 185S. Edited 'Foliorum 
Silvula,' and numerous other works. 

HOIaFORD, Robert Stayner, English politician, b. 1808; educated at Oriel College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1829 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Glouces- 
tershire, and a magistrate of Wilts ; M.P. for E&at Gloucestershire since 1854. 

HOIaliAND, Bdv^ardjEnglish politician, b. 1805 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
of Gloucestershire and Worcestershire ; M.P. for East Worcestershire, 1835-87; M.P. 
for Evesham, 1855-68. 

HOIaliAND, Sir Henry, English author and physician, b. at Enutsford, Cheshire, 
1788 ; studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, and graduated M.D. 1811 ; 
appointed physician in ordinary to the late Ihrince Consort, 1840, and to the Queen, 1852 ; 
created a baronet, 1853. Author of 'Medical Notes and Reflections ;' and other works. 



Hoi HANDBOOK OF CONTEMFORABT BIOOBAPHT. Bop 
_ [ 188 ] 



HOLMES; John* b. 1830 ; is a depnty-liefiteiuuit for the Tower Hamlets, and a magis^ 
trate for Lanark8hire ; elected M.P. for the new boroui^ of Hackney, 1868. 

HOIaMSS, Oliver Wendell^ American author, b. at Cambridge, Massadinsetts, 
Aug. 29, 1809 ; entered Harvard College, and graduated in 1829 ; received the d^iree of 
M^. 1836 ; appointed professor of anatomy and physiology in Harvard College, 1847. 
Author of ' Report on Medical Literature,' 1848 ; ' The Autocrat of the Breakfiast Table ;* 
* Elsie Venner ;' and numerous songs and poems. 

HOLMESDAIaE, William Archer Amlierst, Viscount, English politician, 
b. 1836 ; educated at Eton ; a magistrate of Kent ; formerly captidn in the Coldstream 
Guards ; served in the Crimea, 1854-65 ; M.P. for West Kent, 1859-68. 

HOLST, Hans Peder, Danish author, b. at Copenhsgen, Oct. 22, 1811 ; appointed 
master of Danish language and logic at the Academy of Cadets, 1836. Author of * National 
Romances,' 1832 ; and several novels and poems. 

HOIaT, Jauies Maden, b. 1829; a magistrate for Lancashire ; elected for North-Kast 
Lancashire, 1868. 

HOME, Cospatrick Alexander Honie, Earl, English administrator, b. 1799; 
entered the diplomatic service, and was attach^ to the embassy at St. Petersburg, 1822 ; 
under-secretaiy of state, 1828-30 ; succeeded his father, tenth earl, 1841 ; deputy-lieu- 
tenant of Berwickshire. 

HOME, Daniel Ooofflas, spiritualist, b. March 1833. Author of * Incidents of my 
Life,' 1863. 

HONE, Ven. Richard Brindler, English divine, b. 1805 ; educated at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1827; honorary canon of Worcester, 1845; 
archdeacon of Worcester, 1849. Author of ' Lives of Eminent Christians,' in 4 vols. ; 
and several sermons. 

HONOLULU. Risht Rer. Thomas Staley. Bishop of, English divine, b. at 
Sheffield, YorKshire, 1823 ; educated at Queen's Collie. Cambridge, where he graduated 
in 1844, and was elected fellow, 1846 ; consecrated first missionary bishop of Honolulu, 
Sandwich Islands, 1861. 

HOOD, Sir Alexander Ackland, English politician, b. 1819 ; educated at Rugby ; 
a deputy-lieutenant of Somerset ; formerly captain in the Royal Horse Guards ; M.P. for 
West Somersetshire, 1859-68. 

HOOD, Rev. Ed^vin Paxton, English author, b. at Weston, 1820 ; minister of an 
Independent chapel at Brifl^ton. Author of *The Age and its Architects;' * Life of 
Swedenborg;' * Genius and Industry;' 'Mental and Moral Philosophy of Laughter;' 
and numerous other works. 

HOOK, Jauies Clarke, English painter, b. 1818 ; studied in the schools of the Royal 
Academy. Painted * Bassanio commenting on the Caskets,' fh)m the Merchant of Venice, 
1847 ; 'Times of the Persecution of the Reformers in Paris,' 1864 ; * Luff Boy,' 1869 ; and 
numerous other works. Elected A.R.A. 1864 ; R.A. 1869. 

HOOK, Very Rev. Walter Farqnliar, Eng^sh divine, b. 1798 ; educated at Win- 
chester College, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1821 ; vicar of 
Leeds, 1837 ; dean of Ctiichester, 1869. Author of ' lives of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury,' 1861-64 ; and several theological works. 

HOOKER, Joseph, American military commander, b. at Hadley, Massachusetts, 1819 ; 
cadet at West Point, 1833 ; lieutenant, 1887 ; captain, 1846; major, June 1847 ; lieutenant- 
colonel, Sept. 1847; resided, Feb. 1868; appointed lieutenant-colonel and brigadier- 
general of Volunteers, 1861 ; ms^or-general of Volunteers, Aug. 1862 ; major-general of the 
U.S. army, Jan. 1863. 

HOOKER, JosepliDalton, English botanist, b. 1817; graduated M.D. 1841 ; appointed 
assistant director of Kew Gudens, 1866. Author of 'Flora Antarctica;' 'Himalayan 
Journals,' 1862 ;^' Flora Indica ;' ando^r botanical works. 

HOPE, Alexanxiex%!Beresford^[^mglish politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Harrow, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1841 ; M.P. for Maidstone, 1841 to 
1862, and 1867 to 1859 ; returned for Cambridge University, 1868. ^l^*^^^- '^'^^ /^»'^-&t^-b<*^ 

HOPE. Sir Jauies, English naval commander, b. at Edinburgh, 1808; entered the 
Royal Naval College, and became a midshipman, 1882; captain, 1838; commander-in- 
chief of the English naval forces on the East India station and the Chinese coast, 
1839-60 ; on the West India station, 1863. 

HOPETO^VN, John Alexander Hope. Earl of, English administrator, b. at 
Edinburgh, 1831; educated at Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford; lord-lieutenant of 
Linlithgowshire. 



Hop HANDBOOK OF CONTEMFORABT BIOGRAPHY. How 

[IW]— 



HOPKINS, Bdtirard Jobn, Bnglish musical composer, b. 1818 ; studied music in the 
choir of the Chapel Royal, St James's, 1826 to 1833 ; appointed organist of the Temple 
Church, 1843. Composed the anthems, 'Let us now go even unto Bethlehem;' ' ^Hiy 
seek ye the living among tiiie dead?' and numerous chants and anthems. 

HOPKINS, John Larkln, English musical composer, b. 1820, cousin of the pre- 
• ceding ; educated in the choir of Westminster Abbey ; successively organist of Roches- 
ter Cathedral and of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of a great number of chants 
and services. 

HOPKINS, John Henry, American theologian, b. in Dublin, 1792 ; called to the 
bar, 1817 ; ordained to the American Episcopal Church, 1823 ; appointed rector of Trinity 
Church, Pittsburg, 1824 ; elected ttrst bishop of Vermont, 1832. Author of * Christi- 
anity Vindicated,' 1833 ; and numerous theol^cal works. 

HORNBY. Sir Phivps, English admiral, b. 1785 ; entered the navy, 1797 ; attained 
flag rank, 1846, and fml admiral, 1858 ; commander-in-chief on the Pacific station, 1847 to 
1851 ; made a K.C.B. 1852, and Q.C.B. 1861. 

HORNBY, Williank Henry. English politician, b. 1805 ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of Lancashire ; M.P. for Blackburn since 1857. 

HORNE, Richard Henry, English author, b. 1807 ; educated at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst ; entered the Mexican navy as a midshipman ; appointed commander 
of the Gold Escort, at Melbourne, 1852. Author of ' The Death of Marlowe ; ' 'Orion ; ' 
.'Judas Iscariot,' a miracle play ; and other poetical and dramatic works. 

HORSFAIiL. Thomas Berry. English politician, b. 1805; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of'^Lanca.shire and Staffordshire : was first president of Liverpool Chamber of 
Commerce ; mayor of Liverpool, 1847 ; M.P. for Derby, 1852-53 ; and for Liverpool, 
' 1853-68. 

HORSLBY. John Callcott, English painter, b. in London, Jan. 19, 1817. Exhi- 
bited 'Rent-day at Haddon Hall in the Sixteenth Century;' 'Winning Gloves,' 1842 ; 
and numerous other jMiintings. Elected A.R A. 1864. 

HORSMAN, Ricrht Hon. Bdward, English statesman, b. 1807; educated at 
Rugby ; called to the Scottish bar, 1832 ; a lord of the Treasury, June to Sept. 1841 ; 
chief secretary for Ireland, 1855-57 ; M.P. for Cockermouth, 1836 to 1852, and for Stroud, 
1853-68. 

HOSMBR, Harriett, American sculpto^ b. at Watertown, Massachusetts, Oct 0, 
1830 ; studied at the Medical College of St Louis, and in Rome, under Gibson. Sculp- 
tured * Daphne ' and ' Medusa,' 1852 ; ' Puck,' 1855 ; and other statues and busts. 

HOTHAM, Beaumont, Baron, English administrator, b. Aug. 9, 1794 ; general on 
half-pay, unattached ; served in the Peninsula and at Waterloo ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Leominster, 1820 to 1841, and for 
the East Riding of Yorkshire, 1841-66. 

HOUGHTON, Right Hon. Richard Monckton Milnes, Baron, English 
author, b. 1809; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1831 ; 
D.C.L. Oxford, 1856; M.P. for Pontetetct, 1837 to 1863, when he was elevated to the 
peerage. Author of 'Life of Keats;' 'Poems;' and many articles in the leading 
Reviews. 

HOUSSAYB, Arse^ne^^French dramatist, b. at Bruy^res, near Laon, March 28, 1815 ; 
appointed director of theTh^tre Francaise, 1862 • resigned, 1856. Author of ' Couronne 
de Bluets,' 1836 ; ' History of Dutch and Flemish Painting,' 1846 ; * Le Roi Voltaire, ' 1858 ; 
' Histoire de TArt frangalse,' 1860 ; and numerous other works. 

HOWARD, Hon. Charles IVentvrorth Georse, English politician, b. 1814 ; 
educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1836 ; a 
magistrate for Cumberland ; M.P. for East Cumberland since 1840. 

HOWARD, lK>rd Edward Oeorge, English administrator, b. 1818; educated at 
Trinity CoU^;e, Cambridge ; deputy-lieutenant of Derbyshire ; was vice-chamberlain of 
the Household, 1846-52; M.P. for Horsham, 1848-52 ; and for Arundel, 1852-68. 

HOWARD, Sir Henry Francis, English diplomatist, b. 1809; educated at Stony- 
hurst, and the University of Edinburgh ; secretary of legation at the Hague, 1845 ; 
transferred to Berlin, 1846; envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to the 
Emperor of BrazU, 1882, to Lisbon, 1855, and to Hanover, 1859; made a E.C.B. 
1863. 

HOIXTARDl Hon. Htery Gtoorre, English diplomatist, b. 1818 ; entered the diplo- 
matic service as attach^ to the embassy at Paris, 1838; secretary of legation at the 
Hague, 1846 ; charge d'affaires at Lisbon, 1848 ; secretary of embassy at Paris, 1853 ; 
appointed envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary at Florence, March 1858 ; 
reigned. May 1858. 



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HOWARD, James, partner in the firm of the eminent i^cultural implement 
makers, b. 1821 ; elected M. P. for Bedford, 1868. 

HOIVARD DE IVALDEN, Ricrht Hon. Charles Auenstos, Baron, English 
diplomatist, b. 1799 ; educated at Eton ; was under-secretary of state for foreign affairs 
under Canning ; minister at Stockholm, 1832 : at Lisbon, 1888 ; and at Brussels, 
1846. 

BOWOEN, Riffht Hon. John Hobart, English diplomatist, b. 1799 ; lieutenant- 

feneral in the army; entered the diplomatic service, 1825 ; successively minister at 
tio Janeiro, Monte Video, and Buenos Ayrea ; ambassador at the court of Madrid, 1850 
to 1852 ; M.P. for Dundalk, 1830-82. 

HOWE, Ellas, American mechanician, b. at Spencer, Massachusetts, U.S. 1819 ; inventor 
of the sewing machine, first produced in 1846. 

HOWE, Joseph, British colonial administrator, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1804 ; ap- 
prenticed to a printer, and became editor and proprietor of the Nova Scotia^ 1828 ; 
member of the provincial government, 1840 ; for several years colonial agent in Great 
Britain. Published * Speeches and Public Letters,' 1858. 

HOWE, Saninel Grldley, American oculist, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, Nov. 10, 
1801 ; graduated at Brown University, 1821 ; joined the Greek army as military surgeon, 
1824 ; appointed physician of the Institution for the Blind at Boston, 1831. 

HOWES, Edward, English politician, b. 1818; educated at Trinity College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. 1825; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1839; a J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of Norfolk, and chairman of Quarter Sessions ; M.P. for South Norfolk 
since 1859. 

HOWITT, Mary, English authoress, b. at Uttoxeter, StaflS»rd8hire, 1804 ; married to 
Mr. William Howitt, 1823. Author of ' The Seven Temptations,' 1830 ; * Ballads and other 
Poems,' 1847; the 'Stories of Stapleford,' 1863; 'The Coast of Caergwyn,' 1864; and 
many other works of fiction. 

HOWITT, IVllllam. 

Quakers' school. Aval 
'The Rural Life of Engk.._, 
and numerous other works. 

HOWSON, Rev. John Sanl, English theologian, b. 1816 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1837 ; ordained, 1845 ; principal of the Collegiate 
Institution at Liverpool in 1849 ; dean of Chester, 1867. Author of numerous lectures 
and sermons; contributor to the Quarterly Review. 

HUBBARD, John GllUbrand, English administrator, b. 1805 ; a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of Bucks ; one of the directors of the Bank of England, and chainnan 
of the Public Works Exchequer Loan Commission ; M.P. for Buckingham, 185&-68. 
Author of ' Vindication of a Fixed Duty on Com,' 1842 ; ' The Currency of the Country,* 
1843 ; and other pamphlets. 

HUDDIaESTON, John Walter, English politician, b. 1817 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin; called to the bar of Gray's Inn, 1839; appointed Q.C. 1857; one of 
the members of the CouncU of Legal Education, and a bencher of Gray's Inn; M.P. for 
Canterbury, 1865-68. 

HUDSON. Georire, English railway administrator, b. at York, 1800 ; a magistrate for 
York, and was three times lord mayor of that city ; formerly chairman of t£e Eastern 
Counties, the Midland, and the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railways, and of the Sun- 
derland Dock Company; M.P. for Sunderland, 1845 to 1859. 

HUDSON, Sir James, English diplomatist, b. 1810 ; educated at Rugby and West- 
minster ; was private secretary to King William IV. ; entered the diplomatic service, and 
was appointed secretary of legation at Washington, 1838, to the Hague, and to Rio 
Janeiro ; minister at Rio Janeiro, 1850-51 ; transferred to Florence ; minister-plenipo- 
tentiary at Turin, 1852-63 ; created KC.B. 1855 ; and G.C.B. 1863. 

HUEBNER, Joseph, Baron von, Austrian diplomatist, b. at Vienna, Nov. 26, 1811 ; 
studied at the University of Vienna ; appointed to a post in the ministry of foreign 
affairs, 1833 ; attache to the embassy at Paris, 1837 ; secretaiy to the embassy in Portu- 

Sl, 1840 ; chaig^ d'siffaires at Leipsic, 1844 ; Austrian ambassador to Paris, 1849 ; signed 
e Treaty of Paris, 1856. 

HUOESSEN, Edward Knatchbnll, English administrator, b. 1829; educated 
at Eton, and Magdalen College, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Kent ; 
appointed a lord of the Treasury, 1869 ; M.P. for Sandwich since 1857. 




Hns HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Hnn 

[141 ] ^ 



BUGHSSi Sir Frederick, English diplomatist, b. 1814; entered the Madras Cavalry, 
and served in Persia ; employed on a political mission in Circassla and the Crimea diaring 
the Russian war, 1854-55 ; knighted, 1858. 

HUGHES. Thomas, English author, b. 1823 ; educated at Rugby and Oriel College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1846 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1848 ; M.P. for 
Lambeth, 18d5-68 ; returned M.P. for Frome, 1868. Author of * Tom Brown's School- 
days,' 1856 ; 'Tom Brown at Oxford,' 1861 ; and other works. 

HUGHES. William Bulkeley, English politician, b. 1797 ; educated at Harrow ; 
called to tine bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1825 ; a magistrate of Anglesey, and J. P. and deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Carnarvon ; M.P. for Canyirvon, 1837-59, and since 1865. 

HUGO, Rev. Thomas. English historical writer, b. at Taunton, 1820; educated at 
Worcester College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A, 1842 ; appointed rector of All Saints, 
Skinner-street London, 1858. Author of ' Memoir of Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester,' 
1853 ; and numerous other works. 

HUGO. Victor, French poet and novelist, b. at BesauQon, Feb. 26, 1802 ; admitted to 
the irench Academy, 1841 ; created a peer of France by Louis Philippe ; exiled from 
France and resident in the Isle of Guernsey since 1852. Author of 'Odes and Ballads,' 
1822 ; * Last Days of a Condemned Criminal,' 1829 ; * Hemani,' first played at the The&tre 
Francais, 1830; 'Notre Dame de Paris,' 1831; *Le8Mis6rable8,'1863; ' Les Travailleurg 
de la Mer,' 1866; and numerous other works. 

HUIala, Edv^ardt English geologist, b. 1810 ; employed upon the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain under the late Sir H. de la Beche. Author of ' History, Structure, and 
Resources of the Coal-fields of Great Britain ;' * Geological Survey of the United King- 
dom,' 1860-62 ; and other works on geology. 

HUIiIaAH, John, English musical composer, b. at Worcester, 1812 ; studied music under 
Horsley, 1829, and under Crivelli at the Royal Academy of Music, 1832 ; established the 
system of singing known by his name in 1840 ; professor of vocal music in King's College, 
and in Queen's College, London. Composer of the opera of * The Village Coquettes,' 
and many other musical pieces. Author of * The History of Modem Music' 

HUME, Rev. Abrahain. English writer, b. 1815; educated at Belfast College, at 
Glasgow University, and Trinity College, Dublin ; ordained, 1843 ; appointed incum- 
bent of a parish in Liverpool, 1847. Published * The Learned Societies and Printing Clubs 
of the United Kingdom,' 1847 ; ' Results of the Irish Census, with a special reference to 
the Church in Ireland,' 1864 ; and numerous other works. 

HUME, Hamilton, Australian traveller, b. at Humewood, New South Wales, 1797 ; 
discovered the district of Cowpasture River, 1810 ; led a party across the Blue Mkjuu- 
tains, 1824, and accomplished the first overland journey from New South Wales to Victoria. 
Author of • A Brief Statement of Facts in connexion with an Overland Expedition from 
Lake George to Port Phillip in the year 1824,' 1855. 

HUMPHERY. William Henry, English politician, b. 1828; educated at Winches- 
ter, and at Wacuiam College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1850, and M. A. 1853 ; called 
to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1852 ; M.P. for Andover, 1863-68. 

HUMPHREYS, Henry Noel, English author, b. at Birmingham, 1810 ; educated 
at King Edward's Grammar School, Birmingham, and on the Continent. Author of 
' Literary Sketches ;' * Goethe in Strasburg ;' and other work«. 

HUMPHRY, Rev. WilUani Gilson, English theological writer, b. 1815 ; educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he ^duated B.A. 1837 ; appointed vicar of St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields, 1855. Author of- 'The Doctrine of a Future State,' 1849 ; * The 
Miracles,' 1857 ; and many sermons and lecturesl 

HUNT, RifTht Hon. Georf^e Ward, English statesman, b. 1825; educated at 
Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1848 ; called to the bar of 
the Inner Temple, 1851 ; secretary toi;he Treasury, 1866-68 ; chancellor of the Exchequer, 
Feb. 1 to Dec. 1868 ; M.P. for North. Northamptonshire;since 1857. 

HUNT. Robert. English geologist, b. at Devonport, Sept. 6, 1807 ; keeper of mining 
recorcw at the Museum of PractieatGeology. Author of 'Researches on Light;* 'The 
Poetry of Science ;' and numerous other works. EdibM* of ' Ure's Dictionary of Arts, 
MantdTactures, and Mines.' 

HUNT, Thonias Sterry, American chemist, b. in J^orwich, Connecticut, Sept 5, 
1826 ; was chemical assistant to Professor Silliman in Yale College ; appointed professor 
of chemistry in the University of Quebec, 1857. Author of 'Solution;' 'Cheniic^ 
Changes ;' and other scientific works. 



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HUNT, IVIlliam Holmaa, English painter, b. in London, 1827. Exhibited 'Dr. 
Rochecliffe performing Divine Service in the Cottage of Joceline Joliffe at Woodstock,' 
1847 ; ' Oar English Coasts,' 1853; ' The Us^t of the World/ and the * Awakening Con- 
science/ 1854 ; ^The Scapegoat/ 1856 ; * Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,' 1860 ; and 
numerous other paintings. 

HUNTER, Robert Mercer, American statesman, b. in Essex County, Virginia, 
April 21, 1809 ; graduated at the University of Virgii^ and called to the bar, 1830 ; 
elected to Congress, 1837 ; Speaker in the Congress of 1841 ; elected to the Senate, 1847 ; 
chairman of the Finance Committee, 1850 ; returned for the third time to the Senate, 
1858. 

HUNTINGTON, Daniel, American painter, b. in New York. 1816 ; studied under 
Professor Morse. Painted the ' Toper Asleep ;' the ' Bar Room Politician / ' The Roman 
Penitents,' 1845; *The Communion of the Sick;* * Queen Mary siting the Death War- 
rant of Lady Jane Grey ;' and numerous other, diieHy historical, pictures. 

HURIiSTONS, Frederick Yeates, English painter, b. in London, 1801 ; studied 
at the Royal Academy ; president of Um Society of British Artists. Executed * Arthur 
and Constance,' and ' The Farewell of Bobadil to Granada,* exhibited at the International 
Exhibition at Paris, 1855 ; and numerous other paintings. 

HURST, Robert Henry, English administrator, b. 1817 ; educated at Westminster, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1842 ; deputy- 
lieutenant of Sussex ; recorder of Rye and Hastings, 1862 ; M.P. for Horsham since 1865. 

HUTT, Right Hon. Sir William, English statesman, b 1808 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1827 ; M. A. 1831 ; vice-president of the 
Board of Trade and paymaster-general, 1860-65 ; M.P. for Hull, 1832-41, and for Gates- 
head since 1841. 

HUXIaEY, Thomas Henry. English naturalist, b. at Ealing, Middlesex, 1825 ; edu- 
cated at Ealing School, and stncued medicine at the Medical School of the Charing Cross 
Hospital ; appointed professor of natural history in the Government School of Mines, 
London, 1854. Author of ' Man's Place in Nature ;' and numerous memoirs and papers 
for the Geological and other societies. 

BUXTABIaE, Rev. Anthony, English agricultural writer, b. 1808; studied at 
Trinity Collie, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1833 ; ordained, 1834 ; appointed 

Srebendary of Torleton in Salisbury Cathedral, 1854. Published 'Lectures on the 
cience and Application of Manures,' 1847 ; 'The Present Prices,' 1850. 

HYMER8, Rev. John, English mathematician, b. 1803 ; educiited at St John's 
College, Cambridge, where he (RBduated B.A. 1826; appointed rector of Brandsburton, 
Yorkshire, 1852. Author of ' The Elements of the Theory of Astronomy ; ' ' Treatise on 
Conic Sections ;' and numerous other works. 



I. 

lANKOWITSCH, Alexis, Servian statesman, b. at Teroesvar, 1810 ; entered the 
administration of Servia, 1829 ; secretary to Prince Michel, 1839 ; one of the promoters 
of the Itevolution of 1842 ; chancellor of Servia, 1843 ; minister of justice, 1847-48 ; sena- 
tor and coadjutor of the minister of foreign affairs, 1850 ; chancellor of state, 1855 ; 
resigned, 1856. 

ILCHSSTER, William Strangways, Sari of, English diplomatist, b. 1795 ; 
studied at the University of Oxford ; entered the diplomatic service, 1815 ; secretary of 
embassy at Vienna, 1832 ; under-secretary of state for foreign affkirs, 1835 to 1840 ; 
British envoy at Frankfort, 1840 to 1849 ; succeeded his brother, third earl, 1858. 

INCHIQUIN. landns O'Brien, Baron, Irish administrator, b. 1800 ; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1825, M.A. 1828 ; lord- 
lieutenant of the county of Clare ; M.P. for that county, 1826 to 1830, and fh)m 1847 to 
1852 ; succeeded his cousin, twelfth baron, 185-5. 

INDUNO, Domenlco, Italian painter, b. at Milan, 1815 ; studied at the Academy of 
his native town. Painted 'Samuel and David,' in the museum of Vienna; and many 
others, principally historical pictures. 

INGBIiOW, Jean, English authoress, b. 1830. Author of 'A Story of Doom;* and 
numerous x>oems and works of fiction. 



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—[143] 



INOBRSOIala, Charles Jared. American author, b. at Philadelphia, Oct 3, 1782; 
elected to the House of Representatives, 1812. Author of *Chi8mara,' 1800 ; 'Julian,' 
1831; 'Historical Sketch of the Second War between the United States and Great 
Britain,' 1845 ; and ' History of the Territorial Acquisitions of the United States.' 

INGHAM, Robert. English politician, b. 1798 ; educated at Oriel College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B. A. 1816 ; called to the bar, 1820 ; attorney-general for the county 
of Durham, and recorder of Berwick : sat for the borous^ of Berwick, 1832-41, and for 
South Shields, 1862-68. 

INGLI8. Right Hon. John, Scottish Judge, b. 1810 ; educated at Glasgow, and 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1834 ; called to the Scottish bar, 1835 ; 
nominated solicitor-general for Scotland, 1852 ; lord-advocate, 1852 and 185S; elevated to 
the bench as lord justice clerk of session, 1858 ; sworn privy councillor, 1859. 

INGRAHAM, Duncaat American naval oflBcer, b. 1803 ; entered the United States 
Navy, 1812 ; commanded the frigate Sommers, in ^e war with Mexico ; commander of 
the St. Louis, and stationed in the Mediterranean, 1853 ; joined the South at the outbreak 
of the civil war, 1861, and was apx>ointed commodore by the Government at Richmond. 

INNES, Arthnr CharleiN English politician, b. 1834 ; educated at Eton ; a magistrate 
of the county of Down ; M.P. for Newry, 1865-68. 

IRONS, Rev. William Josiah. English theologian, b. 1812 ; educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1838 ; appointed vicar of Brompton, Middlesex, 
1842. Author of ' An Epitome of the Bampton Lectures of Dr. Hami)den ; ' and numerous 
sermons and lectures. 

IRVING^ Theodore • American author, b. 1810; appointed secretary of embassy in 
London, 1840 ; ordained a minister in the Episcopal Protestant Church, 1854. Author of 
'The Conquest of Florida,' New York, 1885 ; 'The Fountain of Living Waters,' 1849; and 
other works. 

ISABEIjIiEy Charles S'donardi French architect, b. at Havre, Febj^24, 1800 ; studied 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 1818-22. Constructed at Angers the Ecole des Arts et 
Metiers, 1835-42. Published ^Les Edifices circulaires, et les D6mes,' 1843-50 ; and other 
works. 

ISABEYi Euarene, French painter, b. at Paris, July 22, 1804. Exhibited ' La Plage 
de Honfleur ;' * L'Ouragan devant Dieppe,' 1827 ; ' Vue de Boulogne,' 1834 ; * Incendie du 
Steamer r Austria,* 1^9 ; and numerous landscai>es and marine scenes. 

ISEIalNi Henri Fre'de'riC| French sculptor, b. at Clairegoutte, Haute Sadne, 1825 ; 
studied sculpture under Rude, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Executed ' Jean Gou- 
jon ' for the minister of the interior, 1852 ; * Le Genie du Feu,' a group for the new Louvre ; 
* Augujstin Thierry ' for the galleries of Versailles, 1864 ; and numerous groups and busti?. 

ISMAIIa PACHA, Turkish statesman, b. near Smyrna, 1812 ; studied at the School of 
Medicine at Constantinople, and graduated at Pisa, 1840 ; appointed physician-in-chief 
to the Sultan, and member of the council of ministers, 1865. 

ISMAIL PACHA, Viceroy of Egypt, b. 1828 ; succeeded his brother. Said, Jan. 18, 1863. 

ISTURITZ. Xavier d', Spanish statesman, b. at Cadiz, 1790; deputy to the 
Cortes, 1812-18 ; president of the Cortes, 1823 ; minister of state for foreign affairs and 
president of the council, 1836 ; president of Congress, 1832 ; replaced Narvaez as minister, 
Feb. to March 1846 ; ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1856 ; accredited to London, 1858 ; 
Spanish ambassador to France, 1863-64. 

ITIER, Andre' Jules, French author, b. 1805 ; appointed by the ministers of com- 
merce and finance to proceed on a commercial mission to China, 1842. Author of 'Journal 
d'un Voyage en Chine pendant les Annies 1843, 1844, 1845 and 1846,' 1853, in 3 vols. 

IVORY, James, Scottish judge, b. at Dundee, 1792; called to the bar, 1816 ; solicitor- 
genenu for Scotland, 1839 ; one of the senators of the College of Justices, 1840, when he 
took the courtesy title of Lord Ivory ; a lord Justiciary, 1849-62. 



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J. 

JACINI. Pietro, Italian statesman, b. at Milan, 1827 ; minister of pnblic works in 
the cabinet of Count Cavour, July 21, 1860, to Jane 12, 1861 ; reappointed minister of 
public works, 1864 ; resigned, 1867. 

JACKSON, Sir Charles Mitchell, English colonial Judge, b. 1814 ; called to the 
bar of Ldncoln's Inn, 1886 ; advocate-eeneral at Calcutta, 1848 ; puisne judge at Bombay, 
1852 ; judge of the High Court of Judicature of Calcutta, 1862-63. 

JACKSON, Charles Thomas, American geologist, b. at Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
June 21, 1806; graduated M.D. in Havard University, 1829; engaged on a geological 
survey of Maine, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, 1836-40. Author of many works 
on geology and chemistry. 

JACKSON, Rer. Thomas, English divine, b. 1812 ; educated at St. Mary's Hall, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1834 ; nominated to a bishopric in New Zealand, 1849, 
but was not consecrated ; rector of Stoke Newington, and prebendary of St Paul's 
Cathedral. Author of * A Manual of Logic,' and other works. 

JACKSON, IXrilliam, English politician, b. 1805 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
of Cheshire ; formerly a merchant at Liverpool ; M.P. forNewcastle-under-Lyne, 1847-65 ; 
returned for North Derbyshire, 1865. 

JACOBS, Pauls German painter, b. at Leipsic, 1800 ; studied at the Academy of Munich. 
Painted 'The Resurrection of Lazarus ;' 'Sampson and Delilah,' 1850 ; * Luther at the 
Diet of Worms ;' and numerous others, chiefly historical pictures. 

JACOBSON, Heinrich^ German jurist,* b. at Marienwerder, 1804; studied law at 
K5nigsberg, Berlin, and Gottingen ; appointed professor of jurisprudence at Konigsberg, 
1836. Author of *Kirchenrechtliche versuche,' Konigsberg, 1831-33; 'Geschichte der 
Quellen des Kirchenrechts des preussischen Staates,' ib. in 3 vols. 1837-44. 

JACOBSON, Rer. William^, English divine, b. 1805 ; educated at Lincoln College, 
Oxford, and graduated B. A. 1827 ; vice-president of Magdalen HaU, 1832 to 1848, when 
he was appointed regius professor of divinity, and created D. D. by decree of Convocation ; 
bishop of Chester, 1865. Edited, for the Oxford University Press, * The Remains of the 
Apostolic Fathers,' and other works. 

JACOBY, Johann, German politician, b. at Konigsberg, 1806 ; studied medicine at 
Berlin and Heidelbeig; member of the first Parliament of Frankfort, 1848, and of the 
National Assembly at Berlin, 1849 ; retired to Switzerland, 1850 ; re-elected to the Prussian 
Parliament, 1862 ; condemned to imprisonment for his political opinions, 1864. 

JAC QU AND, Clande, French painter, b. at Lyons, 1805 ; studied at the Academy 
of lus native town, and under Fleury Richard. Painted for the H6tel de Ville at Boulogne- 
sur-Mer *Le Maire de Boulogne refusant la Capitulation de Henry VIII. en 1544,' 1852 to 
1855 ; ' The Baptism of Clovis,' 1860 ; ' Dante at Rome,' 1864 ; and numerous other works, 
vChiefly historical 

JACQUES, Axne'de'e Florent, French author, b. at Paris, July 4, 1813 ; studied at 
the Bourbon College ; one of the founders of La Liherti de Penser, 1847. Author of 
'Manuel de Philosophic,' 1847 ; 'Excursion au Bio Salado et dans le Chaco,' 1857 ; and 
other works. 

JADIN . lH>iiis Godeftoy, French landscape and animal painter, b. at Paris, 1805 ; 
studied under Hersent and Abelde Pi:^ol. Exhibited ' Les Plaines de Montfort-l'Amaury ;' 
' La Vision de St Hubert,' 1859 ; ' Douze Chiens, Race de.Virelade,' 1864 ; and many other 
paintings. 

JABGER, GnstaT, German painter, b. at Leipsic, June 12, 1808; studied at the 
Academy of Dresden, and at Munich, under Julius Schnorr, of Carolsfeld, 1830 ; ap- 
pointed to execute a number of firescoes to decorate the new royal palace at MunicL 
Painted ' The Election of Frederick to the Empire ;' ' The Coronation of Cbarlemagne at 
Rome ;' ' The Death of Moses ;' and many other historical pictures. 

JAHN, Otto, German archesologist, b. at Kiel, Holstein, June 16, 1813 ; studied at 
Berlin, 1833, under Lachmann and Gerhard ; graduated Ph.D. 1886 ; appointed professor 
of archaeology and philosophy at Greiflswald, 1842; the same at Leipsic, 1847 ; director of 
the Leipsic Archeeological Museum, 1851-52. Author of • W. A. Mozart^' Leipsic, 1856 ; 
and other works. 



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JAI»f AugTUite, French author, b. at Lyons, April 12, 1796 ; studied at the Ecole de Brest, 
1811-15. Author of * Mes Visites au Mus^e du Luxembourg,' 1818 ; ' Arch^ologie navale/ 
2 vols. 1839 ; ' Glossaire nautique/ 1850 ; and numerous other works. 

JAIiABERTy Charles Francois, French painter, b. at Nimes, 1819 ; studied under 
P. Delaroche. Painted *Viigile lisant ses G^orgiques,' 1847 ; 'Le Christ aux 01i\'ier8,* 
1855 ; * Le Christ marchant sur la Mer,' 1863 ; and many other pictures. 

JAUEYf, lae'on laovis Nicolas, French sculptor, b. at Paris, Jan. 27, 1802; studied 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 1820. Executed 'Le Due d'Orl^ans' for the Chamber of 
Peers, 1844 ; 'La R^y^lation,' 1863 ; and many other statues, busts, and groups. 

JAMAICA, Georse Spencer, Bishop of, English divine, b. 1795; educated at 
Magdalen Hall, Oxfbrd ; was consecrated bishop of Newfoundland, 1839 ; translated to 
Jamaica, 1843. Published a volume of sermons, and contributed poems to BUuHcwood's 
Magazine and other periodicals. 

JAMES, Sir Henry, English military engineer, b. in Cornwall, 1803 ; educated at the 
Royal Military Academv, Woolwich; entered the corps of Engineers, 1825 : colonel, 1867 ; 
successively director of the Geological Survey in Ireland, of the Admiralty engineering 
worlcs at Portsmouth, of the Ordnance Survey of the United Kingdom, and of the topo- 
graphical and statistical department of the War Office ; knighted in 1860. Author of 
several works on geology and engineering. 

JAMES, Sir William MUbonme, English Judge; appointed vice-chancellor, 
Dec. 1868. 

JANET, Panl, French philosophical writer, b. at Paris, April 30, 1823 ; studied at the 
Lyc^e St. Louis, and the Ecole Normale ; appointed professor of history and philosophy 
at the Sorbonne, 1864 ; elected member of the French Academy, Feb. 13, 1864. Author 
of ' Essai sur la Dialectique de Platon,* 1848 ; ' La Philosophie du Bonheur,' 1862 ; and 
numerous other works. 

JANIN, JiileSfl French author, b. at Condrieu, Loire, Dec. 24, 1804 ; studied at the 
College of St Etienne, and in Paris at the College of Louis le Grand ; one of the founders 
of the Revile de Paris. Author of ' L'Ane mort et la Femme guillotin^e,' 1829 ; * Le 
Mariage du Critique,' 1841 ; ' L'Histoire de la Litterature dramatique,' 6 vols. 1850 ; and 
numerous other works. 

JANMOT, Jean lapnis, French painter, b. at Lyons, May 2, 1814 ; studied under 
Victor Orsel, at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, and under Ingres. Painted ' La 
C^e ' for the chapel of the Hospice de I'Antiquailie, 1845 ; ' La Resurrection du Fils de 
Nairn,' 1849; 'Oph^lie,' 1863; 'Eve,' 1864; and many other, principally religious and 
historical, pictures. 

JANZB, Charles, Baron de, French politician, b. at Paris, Aug. 15, 1822; member 
of the Gteneri Council for the canton of Loud^ac ; member of the Corps L^slatif for 
the fifth circonscription of the department des Cdtes du Nord since 1863. 

JARDINE, Robert. English politician, b. 1826 ; educated at Edinburgh ; formerly a 
merchant in China ; elected M.P. for Ashburton, 1865. 

JARDINE, Sir William, English naturalist, b. 1800; educated at Edinburgh; a 
magistrate of DumfWesshire. Edited Wilson's 'North American Omitholo^; the 
'Naturalist's Library,' in 40 vols. ; editor of the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 

JARRETT, Rer. Thomas, English divine, b. 1805 ; educated at St Catherine's 
College, Cambridge, where he ^aduated B.A. 1827 ; appointed professor of Arabic in the 
University of Cambridge, 1831 ; regius professor of Hebrew, and canon in Ely Cathedral, 
1854. Author of a ' Grammatical Index to the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis ; ' and 
other works. 

JAUCOURT, Francois, Connt de, French politician, b. 1825 ; formerly secretary 
of embassy, and secretary to M. de Persigny ; minister of the interior ; elected to the 
Corps Legislatif for the second circonscription of the department of Seine-et-Mame, 
1863. 

JAVAIi, IiO'opold, French politician, b. at Mulhouse, Deo. 1, 1804 ; took part in the 
campaign in Algeria of 1830, as second Ueutenant ; member of the Corps L^i^^latif for 
the department of the Tonne since 1857. 

JEAFFRESON, John Cordy, English author, b. at Framlingham, Suffolk, Jan. 10, 
1831 ; studied at Pembroke College, Ouord, where he graduated B.A. 1852 ; called to the 
bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1859. Author of ' Crewe Rise,' 1854 ; 'Novels and Novelists from 
Elizabeth to Victoria;' 'Live it Down,' 1863; 'Not Dead Yet;' and numerous other 
works. 



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JEANRON^ Plillil>pe Avsoste^ French painter, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, May 10, 
1809. Painted * Lea petits Patriotes,' 18S1 ; * Les Criminels cneillant le Poison de TUpas,' 
1840 ; * i Holferino,' 1861 ; 'Bains des Bonnettes,' 1868 ; 'Le Phare,' view near Marseilles, 
1864 ; and many other pictures. 

JEBB, Rev. John^ English theologian, b. 1805 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he graduated B. A. 1826 ; rector of Peterstow, Herefordshire, and prebendary of 
Hereford Cathedral Aijthor of 'The Divine Economy of the Church ;* * Six Letters on 
the Present State of the Church,' 1851 ; and other theological works. 

JImImF, Rev. Richard William^ English divine, b. about 1799 ; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1820; precqptor to Prince George of Cumberland, 
1826-30 ; appointed canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 1839, and principal of King's College, 
London, 1844-64. Author of 'The Means of Grace,' 1844 ; and several sennons. 

JEIaF, Rev. WUliam EdTvard^ English divine, b. at Gloucester, 1811 ; educated at 
Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1833 ; one of the pi'eachers at 
Whitehall, ;i846-48 ; preached the Bampton Lectures before the University, 1857. Author 
of a • Greek Grammar,* 1861 ; and other works. 

JEIalalNEK* Adolph; German author, b. at Orslowitz, Moravia, June 26, 1820; 
studied at the University of Prague ; appointed Rabbi to the Jewish community of 
Leipsic,1846. Author of ' Beitrage zur G«schichte der Kabbala,' Leipsic, 1851-52 ; ' Zur 
Geschichte des Kreuzzuge,' 1854 ; and numerous other works. 

JENKYNS. Rev. Henry^ English divine, b. 1795; educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and graduatiBd B.A. 1816; appointed professor of Greek language and 
literature in the University of Durham, 1833 ; canon in Durham Cathedi-al, 1839 ; and 
professor of divinity in the same University, 1841. Edited 'Cranmer's Remains,' 4 vols. 

JENNER^ William^ English physician, b. at Chatham, 1815 ; educated at University 
College, London, and graduated M. D. 1844 ; became a member of the Royal College of 
Physicians, 1848 ; elected fellow of the same, 1852 ; appointed physician extraordinary to 
the Queen, 1861, and in ordinary, 1862. Author of <several publications on fever and 
other diseases. 

JEREMTB. Very Rev. James Amiranx. En^ish divine, b. 1802 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated in 1824 ; ordained, 1830 ; professor of classical 
literature in the East India College, Haileybury, 1830 ; elected regius professor of divinity 
at Cambridge, 1849 ; appointed dean of Lincoln, 1864. Author of articles on the * History 
of Rome from ConstaiUime to the Death of Julian,' • History of the Church in the second 
an4 third Centuries,' in the * Encyclopsedia Metropolitana ;' and numerous sermons and 
pamphlets on theological and ecclesiastical subjecte. 

JERICHAUy Adam. Danish sculptor, b. 1815 ; studied under Tliorwaldsen at Rome, 
1839. Executed 'The Marriage of Alexander with Roxana,' a bas-relief for the frieze of 
the royal castle at Copenh^en ; * Hercules and Hebe,' a colossal group, 1846 ; and other 
works. 

JERROIaD. William Blanchard^ English author, b. in London, 1826. Author of 
'The Disgrace to the Family,' 1847 ; * The Chronicles of a Crutch,' 1860 ; * The Children 
of Lutetia,' 1863 ; and many other works, chiefly of fiction. 

JERVIS; Henry VHiite, English politician, b. 1825; educated at Harrow and 
Woolwich ; a captain R.A. and former director of the Great Eastern Railway ; M.P. for 
Harwich since 1859. 

JERVISWOODE^ Hon. Charles BailUe, Scottish judge, b. 1804 ; caUed to the. 
Scottish bar, 1830 ; appointed solicitor-general for Scotland and lord-advocate, 1858 ; 
appointed judge of the Supreme Court in Scotland, 1859, when he took the courtesy title 
of Lord Jerviswoode; was M.P. for Linlithgowshire, 1859. 

JERVOISy William Francis Dmmmond^ English military engineer, b. 1822; 
studied at Woolwich, and entered the Royal Engineers, 1839 ; major of brigade to the 
garrison of Cape Town, 1846 ; major in the army, 1852 ; appointed assistant inspector- 
general of fortifications, 1856. 

JERVOISEj Sir Jervoiee Clarke, English politician, b. 1804; a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of Hants ; M.P. for South Hants since 1857. 

JESSE, John Heneaffe, English historical writer, b. 1815. Author of ' Memoirs of 
the Court of England during the Reign of the Stuarts,* 1839 ; ' Memoirs of the Pretenders 
and their Adherents,' 1845 ; ' London and its Celebrities,' 1847-50 ; ' Memoirs of King 
Richard III. ;' and other works. 

JEWSBURY, Geraldine, English authoress, b. at Measham, Warwickshire, 1820. 
Author of * Zoe, or the History of Two Lives,' 1845 ; *The Half-Sisters,' 1848 ; 'Right or 
Wrong,* 1859 ; and other works of fiction. 



Jo a HANDBOOK OF CONTBMPORART BIOGRAPHY. J Oh 
C U7 ] 



JOANNE. Adolphe^ French topographical writer, b. at D^on, Sept. 15, 1813 ; studied 
at the Cou^e Charlemagne ; called to ^e bar at Paris, 1836 ; was one of the founders of 
L'lUustratum, 1843. Author of * Les Bords du Rhin illustr^,' 1868 ; ' La Suisse,' 1865 ; 
and many other works. 

JOBBE-DXTVAIa. Amaad, French painter, b. at Carhaix, Finist^re, July 16, 1821 ; 
studied under Paul Delaroche, and at the £cole des Beaux Arts. Exhibited ' Marguerite 
dans le Jardin de Marthe,' 1845 ; ' Marthe et Marie Madeline au Tombeau du Christ,' 1863 ; 
and many other, chiefly religious and historical, paintings. 

JOBERT DE laAMBAIaliEi Antoine^ French physician, b. at Lamballe, Cdtes du 
Nord, 1799; graduated M.D. in Paris, 1828; surgeon in ordinary to the Emperor 
Napoleon III.; elected member of the French Academy, March 31, 1856. Author of 

* Etudes sur le Systeme nerveux,' 1838 ; ' Traits de la Reunion des Plaies dans tons les 
Organes,' 1864 ; and other medical works. 

JOCHMUS; Adolphy German military commander, b. at Hamburg, 1808 ; entered the 
Greek army as a volunteer, 1828 ; staflF-major, 1832 ; colonel, 1836 ; general-in-chief at the 
siege of Acre, Dec. 1840 ; under-secretary of state to the minister of war at Constanti- 
nople, 1841 to 1848 ; returned to Germany at the Revolution of 1848 ; appointed chancellor 
of the empire ; minister of foreign affairs, and of the navy, May 17, 1849 ; resigned, Dec. 
1849. 

JOHANN I.^ Kinir of Saxony, b. Dec. 12, 1801 ; second son of Duke Maximilian 
of Saxony, and of Princess Caroline of Parma ; studied jurisprudence, and in 1822 
entered the ministry of finance, Of which he was nominated president in 1830 ; commander- 
in-chief of the National Gua^s of the kingdom, 1831-46 ; travelled in Italy, and pub- 
lished under the name of Phildlethes a-Qerman translation of Dante's 'Divina Commedia,' 
3 vols. Leipaic, 1839-49 ; succeeded to the throne at the death of his brother, King 
Frederick Augustus II., Aug. 9, 1854. 

JOHNS^ Rev. Beanet Georcre. English historical writer, b. 1820; appointed 
chaplain of the Blind School in St George's-in-the-Fields, 1841. Author of ' History 
of Spain ;' * History of the Jews between thei Old and New Testament ;' ' History of 
England ;' and other writings. 

JOHNS; Rev. Charles Alexander, En^sh botanist, b. 1811 ; educated at Trinity 
College, DuUin, where he graduated B. A. 1841. Author of ' Botanical Rambles ;' * The 
Forest Trees of Britain ; ' * British Birds in their Haunts ;' and other works. 

JOHNSON; Andrew, American statesman, b. at Raleigh, North Carolina, Dec. 29, 
1808 ; apprenticed to a liailor at Raleigh, 1818-24 ; established himself as master tailor at 
Greenville, Tennessee, 1827 ; elected sdderman of Greenville, 1828, and mayor, 1830 ; 
member of the State Legislature, 1835-37, and 1839-41 ; elected member of the State 
Senate, 1840 ; member of the Lower House of Congress of the United States, 1S43 ; elected 
governor of Tennessee, 1858, and re-elected, 1855 ; senator of the United States, 1857-63 ; 
elected vice-president of the United States, Nov. 8, 1864 ; president from April 14, 1865, 
to March 4, 1869. 

JOHNSON, Cntbibert Williauiy English agricultural writer, b. Sept. 28, 1799: called 
to the bar, 1836. Ec^tor of J%e Farmer's Almancuik, commenced 1841 ; *0n the Uses of 
Salt for Agricultural Purposes,' 1820; 'The English Rural Spelling-Book,' 1846; and 
other works on agriculture. 

JOHNSON, Very Rev. Georire Sachererell, English divine, b. 1807 ; educated at 
Queen's CoUege, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1828 ; appointed dean of Well's, 1854. 
Author of a 'Treatise on Optics ;' and a volume of sermons. 

JOHNSTON, Alexander, English painter, b. in Edinbur^, 1816 ; studied at the 
Royal Academy. Exhibited 'The Gentle Shepherd,' 1840 ; 'The Covenanter's Burial,' 
1862 ; * Lord and Lady Russell receiving the Sacrament in Prison,' 1846 ; * Tyndal Trans- 
lating the Bible,' 1856 ; and other paintings. 

JOHNSTON, Alexander Keith, English geographer, b. at Eirkhill, near Edin- 
bur^, Dec. 28, 1804 ; educated at the High School, and was apprenticea to an engraver. 
Published his 'National Atlas,' 1843; 'Physical Atlas of Natural Phenomena,' 1848; 

* The Dictionary of Geography,' 1850 ; * General and Geological Maps of Europe,' 1866 ; 
and other works. 

JOHNSTON. Joseph Eccleston, American general, b. in Virginia, Feb. 1807; 
admitted to the U.S. Military Academy, 1825 ; lieutenant, 1829; captain, 1838; migor, 
1847: colonel, 1847; quartermaster-general of the U.S. army, June 1860; joined the 
South on the outbreak of civil war ; general in the Confederate army, 1861-66. 

JOHNSTONE, Henry Bntler, English politician, b. 1837; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated RA. 1860; M.P. for Canterbury since 1862. 



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JOIGNEAUX^ Pierre^ French author, b. at Yarennes, Cdte d'Or, 1815 ; member of the 
Constituent Assembly and Legislatiye Assembly, 1848-49 ; exiled after the coup d'etat 
of Dec. 2, 1851. Author of ' Les Prisons de Paris,' Paris, 1841 ; * Le Liyre de la Ferme 
et des Maisons de Campagne/ 1861-64 ; and other works. 

JOIaltlFFE, Hed^rortlk Hvlton. English politician, b. 1^39; educated at Eton, and 
Oriel College, Oxford ; a magistrate of Surrey, Sussex, and Somerset, and captain of North 
Somerset Teomaniy ; fcMrmerly lieutenant in the 4th Light Dragoons ; served in the 
Crimea, 1854-65 ; M.P. for Wells since 1855. 

JOIalilFFE^ RiiTht Hon. Sir 'WlllUm Hylton, English politician, b. 1800 ; a 
magistrate of Surrey, Sussex, and Hants ; under-secretary of state for the Home Depaxt- 
meut, 1852, and 1858-59; M.P. for Petersfleld, 1830-82, and 1837-38, and since 1841. 

JOIalalVET; Pierre JnleSy French painter, b. at Paris, June 27, 1803 ; studied under 
Baron Gros, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 18S2-25. Exhibited 'Le Massacre des 
Innocents,' 1845 ; * L'lnstallation de la Magistrature en 1849,' 1861 ; and numerous other 
religious and historical paintings. 

JONESy DaTldy English politician, h. 1810; educated at Charterfaonae, and Christ 
Church, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Middlesex, Brecon, and Carmar- 
then ; high sheriff, 1845; M.P. for Carmarthenshire since 1852. 

JONES; Oeorire> English painter, b. 1786 ; admitted as student of the Royal Academy, 
1801 ; served as captain in the Peninsular war in France, 1808-15 ; resumed his practice 
as a painter after the war; elected A.R.A. 1822; RA. 1824: librarian to the Royal 
Academy, 1834 to 1840, and keeper from 1840 to 1850. Painted * The Battle of Waterloo ;' 
' The Battle of Borodino ;' and many other pictures. 

JONES. Rev. Harr^ iKinfcnerille; English archaeologist, b. 1806; educated at 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1828, andM.A. ; appointed one of 
her Mivjesty's inspectors of schools, 1848. Edited * Archseologia Cambriensis.' 

JONESy Sir Harrj DaTld, English general, b. 1792 ; educated at Woolwich ; entered 
the Royal Engineers, 1808 ; served in the campaign in Spain, 1810-14 ; chairman of the 
Board of Works in Ireland, 1845-50 ; commanded the En^ish forces at Bomarsund, 1854, 
and the engineering operations at Sebastopol, 1855 ; appointed governor of the Militaiy 
College at Sandhurst, 1856 ; president of the Royal Commission on National Defences, 
1859. 

JONES, Henry Bencei English physician, b. 1814; educated at Harrow, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B. A. 1886 ; appointed physician to St. George'a 
Hospital, 1840. Author of ' Animal Chemistry ;' ' Animal Electricity ;' and other medical 
works. 

JONES, John Winter, English bibliographer, b. in Lambeth, 1805 ; educated at 
St. Paul's School, and studied for the bar; appointed assistant keeper of the printed 
books in the British Museum, 1850, and keeper, 1856, principal librarian, 1866. Edited for 
the Hakluyt Society 'Divers Voyc^es touching the Discovery of America,' 1850; trans- 
lated * The Travels of Ludovico di Yarthema in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Felix, 
in Persia, India, and Ethiopia, a.d. 1503 to 1508,' 1863 ; and other works. 

JONES, Oviren, English architect, b. 1809 ; decorated the interior of the Oreat Exhibi- 
tion building in Hyde Park, 1851 ; and the Crystal Palace at Sydenham ; designed and 
erected St. James's Hall, Piccadilly. Author of * The Grammar of Ornament,' 1856 ; ' An 
Attempt to define the Principles which should regulate the Employment of Colours in 
Decorative Art,' 1851 ; and other works. 

JONES, Thomas Rymer, English anatomist, b. 1809 ; studied medicine in London, 
and became a member of the College of Surgeons, 1833 ; appointed professor of compara- 
tive anatomy in King's College, London, on its establishment ; Fullerian professor of 
physiology in the Royal Institution, 1840. Author of * A General Outline of the Animal 
Kingdom,' 1838 ; and other scientific works. 

JONES, Thon&as Wharton, English oculist, b. at St Andrew's, 1808 ; educated at 
the University of Edinburgh ; professor of ophthalmic medicine and surgery in Uni versify 
College, London, and surgeon to the Ophthalmic Hospital Author of 'The Physiology 
and Philosophy of Body, Sense, and Mind ;* and other works. 

JONES, Rev. WUliani Basil, English divine, b. 1822; educated at Shrewsbury 
School, and Trinity College, Oxford ; elected fellow and tutor of University College, 1861 ; 
inciunbent of Haxby, Yorkshire, and examining chaplain to the Archbishop of York. 

JOSIKA. Nicholas, Baron, Hungarian novelist, b. 1796. Author of *Irany;' 'The 
Last Bathori ;' and many other worlds of fiction. 



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'. [ 149 ] 



JOUAOE, Ce'sari Comte de^ French politician, b. April 24; 1798 ; stndied at the 
College of Toumon, and served in tiie aimy until 1830 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif 
for the department de I'Ain since 1852. 

JOUFFROY, FranffolS; French sculptor, b. at D^jon, Feb. 1, 1806; studied under 
Ramey, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts ; appointed professor of sculpture to the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts, Dec. 1863. Executed * Cain maudit,* 1838 ; * La Reverie,' 1848 ; * L' Aban- 
don,' 1853 ; * Ch&timent,' and ' La Protection ;' and many other statues and busts. 

JOURDAIN; Clutrles Gabriel, French author, b. at Paris, Aug. 24, 1817 ; studied 
law and obtained the diploma of LL.D. 1838 ; appointed minister of public instruction, 
1849. Author of ' Notions de hogique,' 1852-63 ; ' Histoire de F University cle Paris aux 
XVII. et XVIIL Si^cles,' 1862-64 ; and many other works. 

JOURDAN. laouis, French novelist, b. at Toulon, 1810 ; studied at Aix. Author of 
* Contes industriels,' 1859 ; * Hermaphrodite,' 1861 ; * Les Martyrs de I'Amour,' 1862 ; and 
other works of fiction. 

JO'WETT. Rev. Bei^amliiy English divine, b. at Camberwell, 1817 ; educated at St. 
Paul's School ; elected scholar of Balliol College, Oxibrd, 1835, and fellow, 1838 ; tutor 
6f Balliol College since 1842 ; regius professor of Greek at the University, ] 855. Author 
of ' Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Thessaloniims, Galatians, and Romans,' 
1855 ; second edition, 1859 ; contributed an essay on the ' Interpretation of Scripture ' 
to the ' Essays and Reviews.' 

JUAREZy Benito. Mexican general and statesman, b. at Ixtlan, State of Oaxaca, in 
1807, descendant of the Indian race of Tapatecos ; studied jurisprudence, and became 
advocate at Ixtlan, 1830 ; elected d^uty to the House of Representatives, 1846 ; governor 
of the State of Oaxaca, 1848-52 ; exiled by President Santa Anna, 1853 ; returned to 
Mexico, 1855 ; minister of justice under President Alvarez, 1866-58 ; minister of the 
interior under President Comonfort, 1858 ; head of the insurrectionary forces of the Con- 
stitutional party against President Zuloaga, 1858-59, and against President Miramon, 
1859-61 ; entered the city of Mexico, Jan. 12, 1861 ; elected president of the Republic, 
June 11, 1861 ; driven fh>m the city of Mexico by French troops, May 81, 1863 ; ordered 
the execution of the Emperor Maximilian, June 16, 1867 ; re-entered the city of Mexico, 
July 10, 1867 ; re-elected president of the Republic, Nov. 1867. 

JUBINAIi. ICichel iKmis A^hille, French author, b. at Paris, Oct. 24 1810 : 
studied at uie Ecole des Chartes ; appointed professor of foreign literature to the Faculte 
des Lettres de Montpellier, 1839 ; member of the Corps L^:i8latif for the district of 
Bagn^res since 1852. Author of ' Jongleurs et Trouv6res,' 1835 ; and other works. 

JUGEIaETy Jean, French marine painter, b. at Brest, 1805 ; studied at Paris imder 
M. Gndin. Exhibited 'Environs de Brest,' 1833; * J^sus-Christ apaisant la Temp6te,' 
1845 ; * Environs d'Alassio prte Nice,' 1852 ; * Italie,' 1863 ; and numerous other paintings, 
chiefly sea views. 

JUKESj Joseph, English geolngist, b. near Birmingham, Oct 1811 ; educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A 1836, and M.A. 1841 ; appointed 
lecturer on geology to the Irish Museum of Industry, 1854. Author of ' Report on the 
(}eology of Newfoundland ;' * Sketch of tbe Physical Structure of Australia ;' and many 
ol^er geological works. 

JUIalEN. Btaaislas Aicnan, French philologiflt, b. at Orleans, Sept. 20, 1799 ; 
educatedat a seminary in Orteans, and in the College of France, 1828 ; appointed assistant 
curator to the Imperial Library, 1839 ; professor at the College of France, 1832. Trans- 
lated from the Chinese 'The Book of Rewards and Punishments,' 1835; 'The Book of 
the Way of Virtue,' 1841 ; and numwous other Chinese works. 

JURIEU laA GRAVIERE, Jean Pierre, French admiral, b. Nov. 19, 1812 ; 
altered the navy, 1828 ; captain, 1841 ; employed in the Black and Adriatic seas, and 
promoted rear-admiral, Dec. 1, 1855 : vice-admiral, Jan. 15, 1862 ; appointed aide-de- 
camp to the Emperor, and member of the Board of Admiralty, June 29, 1863. Published 
' Souvenirs d'un Amiral,' 1860 ; ' Voyage en Chine pendant les Ann^, 1847, 48, 49, and 50;' 
1864 ; and other works. 



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K. 

KAHNI8. Karl Annate^ German theologian, b. at Greiz, Dec. 22, 1814; studied 
at the University of Halle, and graduated at Berlin, 1842 ; professor of theology At 
Breslau, 1844 ; appointed professor of theology at Leipsic, and vice-president of the Mis- 
sionary College, 1860. Author of 'Ruge und Hegel,' Guedlinbourg, 1838; *Der Gang 
des deutschen Protestantismus,' 1864 ; and other theological works. 

KAIiERGISy De'me'^triaa, Greek statesman, b. at the Isle of Candia, 1803 or 1804 ; 
took part in the Greek war of independence ; one of tBiB promoters of the Revolution of 
September 3-16, 1843 ; general and aide-de-camp to King Otho, 1844-46 ; minister of 
war, 1864-66 ; api>ointed minister-plenipotentiary to Paris, 1861. 

KANARI8* Conatantintf, Greek statesman, b. at the isle of Ipsara, 1796 ; served 
as captain m the Greek war of independence, and commanded the frigate Hellas, 1826 ; 
represented Ipsara in the Greek National Assembly, 1827 ; minister of marine, and 
president of the council, 1848-49 ; and again May 26, 1864, to May 1866 ; prime minister, 
1862-64 ; minister of marine, 1864-66. 

KANB, Sir Rob6rt| English administrator, b. in Dublin, 1810 ; studied at Trinity 
College, and graduated, 1832 ; fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians, Ireland, 
1841 ; knighted, 1846 ; appointed member of the Irish Relief Commission, 1846 ; pre- 
sident of Queen's College, Cork. Author of * The Elements of Chemistry,' 1841-42. 

KARRy AlphonaCy French author, b. at Paris, Nov. 24, 1808 ; studied at the College 
Bourbon. Editor-in-chief of Figaro^ 1839, and foimded Les Gvipes, 1839; author of 

* Sous les TilleulB,' 1832 ; * Une Heure trop tard,' 1833 ; * La P6n61ope Hormande,' 1868 ; 
and numerous other novels; contributor to the Rewsdu Dtux Mondea, and other French 
periodicals. 

KASTNER. Jean Oeorir^a^ French musical composer, b. at Strasbuig, 1812 ; elected 
member of the Institute, 1869. Composed ' Gustave Wasa ;' * Le Sarrazin;' ' La Danae 
de Morts,' 1862 ; published 'Histoire musicale des Cris de Paris,' 1866 ; and other works. 

KAULBACH^ WUhelm TOn. German painter, b. at Arolsen, Westphalia, Oct. 15, 
1805 ; studied at the Academy or Dusseldoi^ and at Munich ; appointed director of the 
Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, 1849. Painted the 'Madhouse,' 182S-2i.; 
' Battle of the Huns,' 1837 ; ' Bedouins,' the * Fall of Jerusalem,' and many others ; also 
executed a series of frescoes for the Museum of Berlin and new palace at Munich. 

KAVANAGHy Julia^ En^sh authoress, b. at Thurles, county of Tipperary, 1824. 
Author of ' The Three Paths,^ 1847 ; ' Women in France during the Eighteenth Century,* 
1850 ; * Daisy Bums,' 1863 ; * Rachel Gray,' 1866 ; * French Women of Letters ,•* and 
many works of fiction. 

KAYE, John William^ English historical writer, b. 1814 ; served as lieutenant of 
Artillery in the East India Company's service, Bengal, 1835-45 ; entered the Home Civil 
Service of the same Company, 1866 ; appointed secretary to the Political and Secret 
Department of the India Office. Author of * The History of the War in Affghanistan ;* 

* Christianity in India ;' ' History of the Indian Mutiny ;' and other works. 
KEANEy Ed^virard Arthur, Baron, b. 1815 ; entered the army, 1833 ; aide-de-r^amp 

to his father during the campaign in iJfghanistan, 1839 ; and retired with the rank of 

captain ; took his seat in the House of Lords, 1844. 
KEARSIaEY, Robert, English politician, b. 1822 ; a magistrate for Ripon, and thrice 

mayor of that borough ; captfdn in the Ist West Yorkshire Rifle Volunteers, 1864 ; elected 

M.P. for Ripon, 1865. 
KEATING* Sir Henry Sinirer, English judge, b. near Dublin, 1804 ; educated at 

Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated M. A. ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 

1832; M.P. for Reading, 1862; solicitor-general and knighted, 1857; judge of the 

Common Pleas. 

KEATINGE, Rlgrht Hon. Richard, Irish judge, b. 1793; called to the bar at 
Dublin, 1813 ; judge of the Pterogative Court of Ireland, and sworn privy councillor, 
1843 ; appointed judge of the Court of Probate in Ireland, 1868. 

KEIGHTIaY, Thomas, English historical writer, b. in Dublin, 1789 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin. Published a * History of Rome ;' ' History of England ;' * The 
Mythology of Greece and Italy,' 1854 ; * History of India ;' and other works. 



Kei 



HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. 



Ken 



-[ 151 ] 



KEITH^ Rev. Alexander, English theologian, b. at EeithaU, N.B. 1791; educated 
at MariBchal College, Aberdeen; minister of the Established Church of Scotland at 
St. Cyrus, Kincardineshire, 181tt-43. Author of ' The Signs of the Times,' 1831 ; * The 
History and Destiny of the World and of the Church, according to Scripture,' Part I. 
1861 ; ' A Narrative of the Mission to the Jews ;' and other theological works. 

KEKEWICH, Saninel Trehawke, English politician, b. 1796 ; educated at ^on, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Devon ; high sheriff, 
1834 ; M.P. for Exeter, 1826-80, and for South Devon since 1858. 



.., John, EngUsh politician, b. 1816; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for Middlesex, 
and a railway contractor; returned M.P. for Harwich, 1865. 



i, Emile, French politician, b. 1828 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique ; 
elected to the Corps- Legislatif for the third circonscription of the department of the 
Haut Rhin, 1857, and re-elected for the fourth circonscription of the same department, 
1863. Author of 'L'Encyclique et les Libert^ de I'EgUse g^cane,' 1860; and other 
works. 

KEIalaER, Joseph, German engraver, b. at Lin2-on-the-Rhiney 1815 ; studied at the 
Academy of Diisseldorf. Executed * The Madonna ' of Deger ; ' The Evangelists,' after 
Ary Scheffer ; * The Trinity/ after Rafikelle ; and numerous other engravings after 
celebrated x>aintings. 

KEIaLER VON 8TEINBOCK, Friedrich landwiff, Swiss jurist, b. at Zurich, 
Oct 17, 1799; studied at the University of Gottingen, and graduated LL.D. 1822 ; pro- 
fessor of law at Zurich, 1825 ; judge and president of the Superior Court ; professor of 
law at Halle, 1843, and at Berlin, 1847 ; member of the second Prussian Chamber. 
Author of several legal works. 

KEIalaY, Sir Fitsroy, English judge, b. 1796 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 
1824 ; lung's counsel and bencher of Lincoln's Lin, 1835 ; a deputy-lieutenant of Suffolk ; 
solicitor-general, 1845-46, and in 1852 ; attorney-general, 1858-^9 ; chief baron of the 
Exchequer, 1866. 



■'MAIa, Effendi, Turkish diplomatist, b. at Constantinople, 1809; entered the 
department of finance, 1828; member of the Council of Education, and inspector- 
general of schools of the empire, 1839-49 ; ambassador to Berlin, 1854-57. Author of 

* Guide to Conversation in Persian and Turkish,' Constantinople, 1842 ; and several 
elementary works for schools. 

KEMBIiE, Adelaide, English actress, b. 1816, younger daughter of the late Charles 
Kemble; sang at the York festival, 1834; made her d^but in Italy, at Venice, as 

* Norma;' appeared in London, in 'Norma,' in 1841, and numerous other operas. 
Married to Mr. Frederick N. Sartoris, 1843. Owv.ZV )«o 

KEMBIiE. Frances Anne, English actress and authoress, b. in London, -mH; 
sister of the preceding; made her d^but at Covent Garden Theatre, Oct. 5, 1829. 
Authoress of ^Francis I.* a tragedy, 1828 ; 'Journal,' 1835 ; 'A Year of Consolation ;' a 
volume of poems, and several translations. Married to Mr. Pierce Butler, 1835, from 
whom she obtained a divorce, 1849. 

KE'ME'NY. Siirisninnd. Baron, Hungarian statesman, b. in Transylvania, 1816 ; 
studied at the Catholic ana the Reform Colleges ; member of the Diet of Clausenbuig, 
1834 ; deputy to the National Hungarian Assembly, 1848 ; councillor and minister of the 
interior, April 1849; chancellor of Transylvania, 1859 ; resigned, Sept. 1861. Author of 

* After the Revolution,' Pesth, 1850 ; * Men and Women,* lb. 1852 ; and other works. 

KBNDAIiIa, Georire Wilklns. American author, b. at Vermont, 1810. Author of 
' Narrative of Texan Expedition,' New York, 1844 ; ^ History of the War between the 
United States and Mexico,' ib. 1850 ; and several works of fiction. 

KENDAIiIa, Nicholas, English politician, b. 1800; educated at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1830 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Cornwall, 
and special deputy-warden of the Stannaries ; M.P. for East Cornwall since 1852. 

KENNARD, Robert WlUlam, English politician, b. 1800 ; commissioner of lieu- 
tenancy of London, and a magistrate of Westminster, Middlesex, and Herts ; was sheriff 
of London and Middlesex, 1846-47 : en^ayged as an ironmaster in South Wales and 
Scotland; M.P. Newport, Isle of Wight, since 1859. 

KENNEDY. Rev. BeASamln. English author, b. at Summer Hill, Birmingham, 
Nov. 6, 1804; educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A 1827; 
appointed head-master of Shrewsbury School, 1836 ; prebendary of Lichfield, 1841 ; and 
select preacher to the University of Cambridge, 1860 ; president of the Royal College of 
Preceptors. Author of a * Latin Vocabulary ;* and other educational works. 



Ken HANDBOOK OP CONTEMPORART BIOGRAPHY. Key 
[ 152 ] 




1840 ; * The Life of William Wirt,' 1849 ; and other woilcs. 

KENNEDY, Tristram, English pollticiaiL b. 1805; called to the Irish bar, 1834; 
high sheriff of Londonderry, 1828 ; founder of the Dublin Law Institate ; retnmed M.P. 
for the county of Louth, 185a-«7, and 1866. 

KENRICK, Francis Patrick, American Catholic theologian, b. in Dublin, Dec. 8, 
1797 ; entered the College of the Propaganda of Rome, 1815, and was ordained a priest, 
.1821 ; appointed professor to the College of St. Joseph, at Bardstown, Kentucky, U.S. 
1821 ; consecrated bishop of Philadelinia, 1830 ; and archbishop of Baltimore, 1851. 
Author of 'Theologia Dogmatica,' 1839-40; *A Vindication of the Catholic Church,' 
1850 ; and numerous theol^cal works. 

KENT, WilUam Charles Mark, Engli&lh poet, b. in London, Nov. 1823 ; educated lit 
Prior Park and Oscott Colleges ; called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1859. Author of 
' Aletheia ;' * The Vision of Cagliostro, a Tale of the Five Senses ;' and other works. 

KEOOH, RiiTht Hon. Willlani, Irish Judge, b. at Oalway, 1817; educated at 
Trinity Collie, Dublin ; entered as a student at Lhicolu's Inn ; was caUed to the Irish 
bar, 1840 ; appointed Q.C. 1849 ; solicitor-general, 1852, attorney-general, and sworn a 
privy-councillor, 1855 ; appointed one of uie Judges of the Common Pleas in Ireland, 
1856. Author of some political pamphlets, and a work on the ' Practice of the Court of 
Chancery in Ireland.' 

KEPPEIa, Hon. Sir Henry, English naval commander, b. 1809 ; entered tiie navy, 
1828 ; served on the East India, Mediterranean, and Cape of Ck>od Hope stations, and on 
the coast of China, where he commanded the Dido, 1841-45 ; commanded the St. Jean 
cTAcre in the Baltic during the Russian war, and the forces in China, 1857-58 ; attained 
flag rank, 1857. Author of ' An Expedition to Borneo ;' and other works. 

KEPPIiE, Hon. Oeorre ThomaSi English author, b. 1799 ; entered the army ; 
fought at Waterloo, and in India; ueutenant-colonel, 1841; M.P. for Lymington, 
1832-35, and 1847-^2. Author of 'Journey across the Balkan ;* 'Journey from Inc^ to 
England.' 



BR. DaTld Stnart, English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1841 ; a magistrate for Down and Antrim, and deputy- 
lieutenant for Down; M.P. for county of Down, 1852-57, for Downpatrick, 1841-47, and 
since 1859. 

KERCADO, Alexis Thomas, French politician, b. Aug. 81, 1809 ; mayor of Roche 
Bernard, and member of the general council of the same canton ; elected to the Corps 
L^gislatif for the first drconscription of the department of Morbihan, 1803. 

KERN, Conrad, Swiss statesman, b. at Berlingen, near Arenenbeig, 1808 ; studied at the 
Universities of Berlin. Heidelbeig, and Paris ; appointed president of the Supreme Court 
of Judicature, and oi the canton of Thurgau, 1837 ; member of the Diet ror the same 
canton, 1833 ; Swiss plenipotentiary at the Court of France, 1861. 

KERRI80N, Sir EdTvard Clarence, Bart., English politician, b. 1821 ; lieu- 
tenant of Suffolk Yeomanry Cavaliy ; M.P. for Eye since 1862. 

KERVE'OUEN, Philippe Ansoste, Vicomte de, French politician, b. at 
Toulon, Nov. 17, 1811 ; served in the French navy; member of the general council of the 
canton of Toulon ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the depiStment of Yar since 
1852. 

KETTEIiER, WUhetan Emmanuel, Baron Ton, German Catholic theologian, 
b. at Miinster, 1811 ; admitted to the bar, out entered the Church, 1837 ; ordained priest, 
and appointed to the parish of Hopster, in Westphalia, 1838 ; deputy to the National 
Assembly at Frankfort, 1848 ; consecrated bishop of Mayence, 1850. Author of ' Liberty 
and Authority of the Church,' 1861 ; and numerous sermons. 

KEY, Thon&as Hewitt, English philologist, b. 1799 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated, 1821 ; professor of comparative grammar and head- 
master of the junior school in London University. Author of a * lAtin Grammar;' and 
contributed numerous articles to the Penny CyclapaBdia. 



I, Nieaise de, Belgian painter, b. at Sandvliet, province of Antwerp, 
Aug. 2tJ, 1813 ; studied at the Academy of Antwerp ; director of the Academy of Antwerp. 
Painted • Christ on the Cross,' for the Catholic Church of Manchester, 1834 ; *The Battle 
of Woringen,' in the National Pidace at Brussels, 1839 ; and numerous other paintings. 



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*f Helarieh^ Oerraan geographer, b. at Berlin, July 31, 1818; stndied 
under Carl Ritter ; appointed director of the Geographical Institute of Weimar, 1845. 
Published * Atlas of Greece and her Colonies,' Berlin, 184(M6 ; second edition, 1861 ; 
'Historical Atlas of the Ancient World,' Weimar, 1848; 'Atlas of Asia,' Berlin, 1858; 
and numerous niaps and geographical works. 

KIIiIAN, Hermaany German physiciaa, b. at Leipsic, Feb. 5, 1800 ; studied medicine 
at Wilna, and in England and Scotland; appointed professor of medicine to the 
University of Bonn, 1828 ; doaa of the faculty, 18d8. Author of numerous medical 
works. 

KIIaLAIK>E, Rlgrht Rev. WilliBm TitrngenAd, Bishop of, Irish divine, b. in 
Ireland, 1815; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B. A 1887 ; con- 
secrated bishop of Cork, 1857 ; translated to Killaloe, 1862. Edited Constable's 'Ethics ;' 
Butler's ' Analogy ;' and other works. 

KIIiMORE, Riarlit Rev. Hamilton Verschoyley Bishop of, Irish divine, 
b. 1803 ; educated at Trinity College. Dublin ; ordained, 1829 ; chancellor of Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dublin, 1855; dean of Ferns, 1862; consecrated to the see of 
Kilmore, Elphin, and Ardagh, Dec. 1862. 

KIMBAIaL. Richard. American noveh'st, b. at Lebanon, New Hampshire, 1815; 
studied at the CoU^e of Dartmouth, where he graduated, 1834. Author of ' St Leger, 
or the Threads of Life,' 1849; 'Cuba and the Cubans,' 1849; 'Student life Abroad,' 
1853 ; and other works of fiction. 

KINDERSIaEY, Sir Richard Torin, English judge, b. 1792 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1814; called to the bar of Lineoln's Inn, 
1818 ; master in Chancery, 1848-51 ; one of the vice-chancellors, 1851 ; retired, 1866. 

KINOy James Kinar, English politician, b. 1806 ; educated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. 1829 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Herefcwd; high 
sheriff, 1845 ; M.P. for Herefordshire since 1862. 

KINO. John. GMlbert, English politician, b. 1828; edueated at Trinity College, 
Dublm; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for Kiag*s County; high sheriff, 1852; returned 
M.P. for King's County, 1865. 

KINOy Hon. Peter John lK>cke. English politician, b. at Ockham, Surrey, 1811 ; 
educated at Harrow, and Trinity Collie, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1833 ; 
a magistrate of Surrey ; M.P. for East Surrey since 1847. 

KINOI«A.KE. Alexander Williaxn, English author, b. near Taunton, 1811 ; 
educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1832; 
called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1837 ; retired, 1856 ; a deputy-lieutenant for Somerset ; 
M.P. for Bridgewater, 1857 ; unseated, 1869. Author of * Eothen,' 1849 ; 'History of the 
Bussian War of 1854-66,' vols. I. 11. in 1863, III. IV. 1868. 

KINOIiAKEy John Alexander, English politician, b. 1806 ; educated at Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A 1826 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's 
Inn, 1830 ; seijeant-at-law ; recorder cf Bristol ; M.P. for Rochester since 1857. 

KIN08COTE, Robert Niarel Fits-Hardinye, English politician, b. 1830; 
formerly lieutenant-colonel Scora Fusilier Guards, and was aide-de-camp to Lord Raglan 
in the Crimea, 1854-55 ; M.P. for West Gloucestershire since 1852. 

KINOSIaEY, Rev. CharleSy English author, b. at Dartmoor, Devon, June 12, 1819 ; 
^ucated at King's College, London, and Magdalen College, Cambridge ; appointed pro- 
fessor of XBodem history in the University ot Cambridge, 1859. Author of * Alton 
Locke,' 1850 ; 'Saint's Tragedy,' 1846 ; 'Alexandria and her Schools,' 1854; 'Westward 
Ho I' 1854 ; and nuiuerous other wor^ of fiction. 

KZNOBIiEY, Henrjy English author, b. 1830, brother of the preceding j educated at 
King's College, X^ondon, and Worcester College, Oxford. Author of * Geofiry Hamlyn,' 
' Ravenshoe,^ and other works. 

KZNKEIa* Johann Oottflriedy G^man poet and political writer, b. at Obercassel, 
Rhenish Prussia, Asig. 11, 1815 ; studied at the University of Bonn ; elected to the 
Berlin Parliament 1848 ; joined the Badish insurrection, was taken prisoner by the 
Prussian troops, tried ana sentenced to imprisonment in a fortress for life, 1849; 
escaped, 1860 ; appointed professor of literature at the University of Berne, Switzer- 
land, 1867. Author of * Otto der Schutz,* 1846 ; and numerous other works. 

KXNNAIRD/Hon. Arthur Fits8rerald| English politician, b. 1814 ; a J.P.Iand 
deputy-lieutenant for the county of Perth ; a partner in Messrs. Ransom's bank, London ; 
formerly held a diplomatic appoiatment ; M.P. for the borough of London, 1837-39 ; 
returned for Pwth, 1852. 



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[ 164 ] 



KINNOUIiy Thomas Robert Hay Drammond, Earl of, English adminis- 
trator, b. 1 785 ; Lord Lyon king-at-arms ; lord-lieutenaut of Perthshire and colonel of the 
Perthshire MUitia. 

IP. RiflTlit Rev. IXmiiamy American author, b. at New York, Oct. 3, 1811 ; entered 
holy orders, 1832 ; consecrated missionary bishop of California, 1853. Author of * History 
of the Early Jesuits;* *The Double Witness of the Church,' New York, 1844; 'The 
Catacombs of Rome,' 1864 ; and other works. 

KIRVTAN. Andrew Valentine, English author, b. 1804 ; called to the Irish bar, 
1826, and to the English. bar, 1828. Author of the 'Ports, Arsenals, and Dockyards of 
Prance,' 1839 ; * Army and Garrisons of France,' separately, 1841 ; * Modem France : its 
Journalism and Literature,' 1863 ; and other works. 

KISS, Angniat, German sculptor, b. at Pless, Upper Silesia, Oct. 11, 1802 ; studied 
under Ranch, at Berlin, 1822. Executed a colossal model of an 'Amazon on horseback 
attacked by a Panther,' 1839 ; an equestrian group of ' St George and the Dragon ;* and 
numerous other works. 

KISSEIaEFF, Nicholas de^ Russian diplomatist, \>. 1800 ; entered the diplomatic 
service, 1824 ; secretary of legation at Berlin and at Paris, 1826 ; charge d'alfiiires in 
Paris ; Russian ambasi^or in France, 1862-54. 

KI&APKA, Georire. Hungarian general, b. at Temeswar, April 7, 1820 ; entered the 
military ^service, 1838 ; took part in the Revolution of i848 ; chief of the staflf of General 
Kis, 1848 ; minister at war under Kossuth, 1849 ; commander of Komom, 1849. Published- 
'Memoirs,' Leipsic, 1866 ; ' The National War in Hungary and Transylvania,' 1851. 

KNAUS. laTLdwiiTt German painter, b. at Wiesbaden, Nasssu, Oct. 6, 1829 ; studied at 
Diisseldorf under Schadow. Exhibited ' The Rustic F6te,' 1847 ; ' Gipsy Encajnpment^' 
1867 ; and numerous other paintings. 

KNIGHT, Charles. English author and publisher, b. at Windsor, 1790. Author of 
' Knowledge is'Power;* * Once upon a Time ; ' ' Popular History of England ;' 'Passages 
of a Working Life during Half a Century ;' and numerous other works. 

KNIGHTy Frederick Winn, English administrator, b. 1812 ; educated at the Charter- 
house ; a family trustee of the British Museum ; parliamentary secretary to the Poor 
Law Board, 1852 ; M.P, for West Worcestershire since 1841. 

KNIGHTi John Prescot, English portrait-painter, b. at Stafford, 1803 ; appointed 
secretary to the Royal Academy ; exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1827 ; elected 
A.RA. 1836; R.A. 1844. 

KNIGHTIaE'Y^ Sir Rainald, English politician, b. 1819 ; a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant for Northamptonshire ; M.P. for South Northamptonshire since 1862. 

KNOX, Brownlovr, English politician, b. 1806; a lieutenant-colonel unattached; 
formerly major 2d Bucks Yeomanry ; M.P. for Great Marlow, 1847-68. 

KNOX, Hon. William Stuart, English politician, b. 1826 ; major in the 61st Foot^ 
and a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Tyrone ; M.P. for Dungannon since 1861. 

KOBEIaL, Frans von, German mineralogist and poet, b. at Munich, July 19, 1803 ; 
educated at Munich University; appointed assistant professor of mineralogy at the 
University, 1828 ; head keeper of the mineralogical ccdlection at Munich. Author of 
•Characteristics of Minerals,' 1830-31; * Hochdeutsche Gediehte/ 1862; and numerous 
poems and works on mineralogy. 

KOCH, Karl Heinricli, German naturalist, b. at Weimar, 1809; studied medicine at 
Wiirtzburg and Jena. Author of 'A Journey across Russia to the Isthmus of the 
Caucasus,* 2 vote. 1842-48 ; ' Wanderings in the East,' 1846-7 ; 'The Crimea and Odessa,' 
1864 ; and numerous other works of travel and natural history. 

KOCK, Charles Panl de^ French novelist, b. at Passy near Paris, 1794. Author of 

* L'Enfent de ma Femme,' 1811 ; * Le Muletier,' 1823 ; * La Fille aux trois Jupons," 1863 ; 
' Enfants du Boulevard,' 1864 ; and a vast number of other works of fiction. 

KOCK, Henri de, French novelist, son of the preceding, b. 1821. Author of 

* L'Amant de Lucette ;' * Les Buveurs d' Absinthe ;' and many other novels. 

KOECHIaY. Hermann Aagnatj, German philologist, b. at Leipsic, Aug. 5, 1816 ; 
studied at Berlin ; professor at the Kxinigschule of Dresden, 1840 ; member of the second 
Chamber of Dresden, 1849 ; professor of Greek and Roman languages and literatures at 
Zmich, 1861. Editor of ' Quintus Smymceus,' Leipsic, 1850 ; and other works. 

KOELIalKER. Albert, German anatomist, b. 1817; professor of anatomy and 
physiology at the University of Wiirtzburg. Author of ' Handbuch der Gewebelelure des 
Menschen,' 1852-66 ; and numerous other works on anatomy. 



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KOENIG; Heinrich Josepli, German novelist, b. at Fulda, Hesse Cassel, March 19, 
1790 ; appointed secretary to the superior tribunal at Fulda, 1835. Author of ' Die hohe 
Braut,' Leipsic, 1833; *Auch eine Jugend,' ib. 1852; 'Konig Jerome's Camaval/ lb. 
1853 ; and numerous other works of fiction. 

KOENIG-BEY^ Mathien Augnstei Egyptian statesman, b.at Paris, 1802 ; studied 
rhetoric and Onental languages at the College of Henry IV. ; appointed professor of 
French language at the school of Djihad-Abad near Cairo, 1827 ; charged by Mehemet AM 
with the education of the young princes of his family, 1834 ; member of the Egyptian 
council of ministers, 1862. 

KOHL; Joliann Georgr^ German traveller and geographical writer, b. at Bremen, 
April 28, 1808 ; studied at the Universities of Heidelberg and Munich. Author of 

• Sketches and Pictures in St. Petersburg,' 1846 ; ' British Isles and their Inhabitants,' 
1842 ; * Kitchi-Gami,^ or Tales from Lake Superior,' 1857 ; * Geographical History of 
America,' 1866 ; and numerous other works of traveL 

KO LB-BERNARD, Charles, French politician, b. at Dunkirk, Jan. 16, 1798; 
member of the municipal council of Lille, and president of the Chamber of Commerce 
for the same town ; member of the Corps L6gislatif for the second circonscription of the 
department du Nord since 1859. 

KOSSUTH, Louis, Hungarian statesman, b. at Monok, county of Zemplin, April 27, 
1802; educated at the Protestant College of Sarospatak, where he studied law and 
became an advocate, 1826 ; sat in the National Diet, 1832 ; imprisoned, 1837 ; minister of 
finance, March 17, 1848 ; governor of Hungary, May 14 to Aug. 11, 1849 ; took refuge in 
Turkey, Aug. 17, 1849 ; took up his residence in England, June 1852. 

KRASZEWSKI, Joseph Igrnas, Polish author, b. at Varsovia, July 26, 1812 ; 
studied at Wilna. Author of • Literary Studies,' Wilna, 1842 ; ' Voyage to Odessa,* ib. 
1845 ; * Pod wloskiem Niebem,' Leipsic, 1846 ; and other works in prose and verse. 

KUECKEN, Friedrich Wilhelm, German musical composer, b. at Blekede, Liine- 
burg, Nov. 10, 1800 ; studied under Rombach at Berlin, and Hal6vy at Paris ; composed 
' The Swiss Flight ;' ' The Pretender ;' and numerous operas, sonatas, songs, and ballads. 

KUEHNE^ Gustav/ German author, b. at Magdebui-g, Prussia, Dec. 27, 1806 ; studied 
at the University of Berlin, where be graduated Ph.D. 1825. Author of 'Die beiden 
Magdalenen,' Leipsic, 1833 ; * German M«n and Women,' ib. 1851 ; * Death of Frobel, 
and Continuation of his Doctrine,' 1852 ; and numerous other works. 

KUETZIN6, Friedrich Trauirott, German naturalist, b. at Rittebni^g, Thnringia, 
Dec. 8, 1807 ; studied at the University of Halle ; professor of natural sciences at the 
College of Nordhausen. Author of 'Compendium of Natural History,' Nordhausen, 
1837 ; * Elements of Gec^raphy,' ib. 1853 ; ' Elements of Philosophical Botany,' Leipsic, 
1851-62 ; and other works. 

KUHLMANN, Carl Friedrich, French chemist, b. at Colmar, May 22, 1803 ; 
studied chemistry at the University of Strasbourg; president of the Chamber of 
Commerce of Lille, and member of the sanitary committee, and of the General Council 
du Nord. Author of * Exp6riences chimiques et agronomiques,* 1847 ; * Application des 
Silicates alcalins solubles au Durcissement des Pierres calcaires poreuses, 4 la Peinture 
et 4 1'lmpression/ 1855 ; and numerous papers on chemistry. 

KUPER, Sir Augustus Leopold, English naval commander, b. 1809 ; entered the 
Royal Navy, 1823 ; served in South America, the Mediterranewi stations, and in China ; 
attained flag rank, 1861 ; appointed commander-in-chief on the East India and China 
stations, with the rank of vice-admiral, 1862. 

KURTZ, Johann Heinrich, German theologian, b. at Mon^oie,Rheni8h Prussia,1809 ; 
studied theology at Halle and Bonn ; appointed professor of ecclesiastical history at the 
University of Dorpat, 1850. Author of • The Bible and Astronomy,' Mittau, 1842 ; 

* Introduction to the History of the Church,' ib. 1862 ; third edition, 1856 ; and other 
theological works. 

KYN ASTON, Rev. Herbert. English divine, b. at Warwick, 1809 ; educated at 
Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1831 ; ordained, 1834 ; 
appointed head-master of St. Paul's School, London, 1838 ; prebendary of St. Paul's 
Cathedral Author of ' Miscellaneous Poems/ and translator of Damiani's ' Gloiy of 
Paradise.' 



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L. 

UIBARRE, FraaQOis Theodore, French ransical composer, b. at Paris* April 8, 
1806 ; studied under Oousineau, Bochsa, and Naderman, 1812-20 ; entered the Conser- 
vatoire, 1820. Composed ' Les Deux Families,' performed 1831 ; ' L' Aspirant de Marine/ 
1884 ; * Graziosa,' 1861 ; and numerous pieces of music, chiefly for the harp. 

laABARRE. lK>«iBy Belgian journalist, b. at Dinan, Namur, 1810. Edited the Belgian 
Charivari, the Tribune of Li^, and the Nation of Brussels. Author of * Satires and 
Elegies,' 1836 ; ' Souvenirs du Drapeau,' 1855 ; and other works. 

LA BE'DOIiLI^'REy EmUe Oi^vlt de, French author, b. in Paris, 1814. 
Author of ' Vie politique du Marquis de la Fayette,' 1833 ; ' Histoire de la Garde 
nationale,' 1848 ; ' Histoire de la Guerre du Mexique,' 1863 ; and numerous other his- 
torical and political works. 

LABICHE, Euare'ne Maiimy French dramatist, b^ at Paris, May 5, 1814 ; studied at 
the Bourbon CoU^e, the Lyc6e Bonaparte, and the Ecole de Droit. Author of * Deux 
Papas ti^-bien,' 1845 ; 'En avant les Chinois 1' 1858 ; ' Un Mari qfii lance sa Femme,' 
1864 ; and numerous other comedies. 

IJVRINTZOFFy Ivan; Russian military commander, b. at Toula, 1800 ; entered the 
Caucasian army, 1826 ; lieutenant, 1828 ; mt^or-general, 1839 ; lieutei&ant-general, 1845 ; 
appointed to the chief command of ihe forces in the Caucasus, 1856. 

laABORDE. Emmanuel Joseph, Comte de, French archaeologist, b. in Paris, 
June 12, 1807 ; studied at the University of Gottingen ; elected member -of the Ft>ench 
Academy, 1842 ; appointed curator of the museum of antiquities in the Louvre, 1847. 
Author of ' Voyage en Orient,' 1838-55 ; 'Athens in the XV. XVI. and XVII. Centuries,* 
1864 ; and numerous other works. 

XiABORDE. Henri, Vicomte de, French painter, b. at Rennes, May 2, 1811 ; 
studied under Paul Delaroche. Pais^^ed ' Hagar in the Desert,' in tibe museum of Dijon« 
1836 : * Xrft Passion du Christ,' in the Cathedral of Amiens, 1848^ and /othex historical 
paintings. 

IJVBORDE. iKmUi Jnles, Comte de, French jurist, b. in Paos, Jw. 13, 1806, 
brother of the preceding ; admitted as an advocate at the Court of Cassation, 1836 ; pre- 
sident of the Order of Advocates, 1853-56. Published ' Trait^ des VLraries particulilres 
sur Merchandises,' 1836 ; and other works. 

IJIBOUCHERE, Henry^ English politician, b. 1831; educat€<&t MofX, (md Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; was in the diplomatic service, 1854-64 ; M.P. W Windsor, 1865-66 ; 
for Middlesex, 1867-68. 

IJVBOUIaAYE, Edonard Rene', French jurist, b. at Paris, Jan. 18, 1811 ; studied 
law, and was admitted as advocate at the Royal Court of Paris, 1842 ; appointed pro- 
fessor of legislation to the College of France, 1849. Author of * Etudes sur la Propri^te 
litt^raire en Prance et en Angleterre,' 1858 ; * Paris en Am^rique,' 1868 ; * Abdollah,' 
1850 ; * Contes bleus,' 1863 ; and other works. 

I&ABROUSSE, Fabriee, French dramatic writer, b. 1810. Author of ' Fleurette/ 
1833; ' PauUne,' 1841 ; ' Un Enfant du Peuple,' 1847 ; 'Consulate* I'Empire,' 1853; 
' L'Arm^e d'Orient,' 1856 ; and other works. 

laABROUSTE, Frangola Marie Theodore, French arehitect, b. in Pari«, 
March 21, 1799, brother of the following ; studied under Vaudoyer and Hippolyte-Lebas, 
and at the l^cole des Beaux Arts ; architect to the Government, and to the College of 
St. Barbe. 

IJVBROUSTE, Pierre Victor Alexandre, French administrator, b. in Paris, 
March 4, 1796 ; studied at the CoU^e of St. Barbe, and the School of Law, and called to 
the bar ; appointed director of the College of St. Barbe, 1838. 

IJIBROUSTE. Pierre Francois Henri. French architect, b. in Paris, May 11, 
1801, brother or the two preceding ; studied at the College of St. Barbe, and the £cole des 
Beaux Arts ; appointed architect of the Biblioth^que St. Gtenevi^ve, 1838 ; architect of 
the new Biblioth^que St. Gtenevifeve, commenced 1843, and finished 1849 ; vice-president 
of the Central Society of Arehitects. 

laACAUSSADE, Ausuate, French writer, b. at the He Bourbon, 1820 ; studied at 
Nantes. Published a translation of * Ossian,' 1842. Author of ' Poemes et Paysages,' 
1852 ; * Les Epaves,' 1861. Founder of the Revue Europime, 1859. 



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ImACOK, Sir Edmiind KnoTVles, English politician, b. 1807; educated at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1828; a deputy-lieutenant of 
Norfolk, and nugor in the Norfolk Militia ; M.P. for Yai-mouth, 1852-57, and 1359-68. 

UlCROIXy JnleS; French writer, b. in Paris, May 7, 1809, brother of the following. 
Author of ' Une Grossesse,' 1838 ; ' Le Maurais Ange ;' * La Testament de C^sar,' 1849 ; 
and numerous romances and dramatic works. 

LACROIX, PaiU; French author, b. at Paris, Feb. 27, 1806 ; studied at the Collie 
Bourbon ; appointed curator of the library of the Arsenal in Paris, 1855. Author, as 
Bibliophile Jacob, of ' Dissertations sur quelques Points curieux de I'Histoire de France, 
et de I'Histoire litt^raire,' 1884-38 ; and numerous other works. 

IJICROIX. PaiU Engre'ney French architect, b. at Paris, March 19, 1814 ; studied at 
the £cole aes Beaux Ans ; appointed architect of the ^ys^e Imperial, 1852 ; architect to 
the Tuileries ; and inspector of imperial palaces. 

LACROIX ST. PIERRBy Pierre Henri, French politician, b. Aug. 9, 1817 ; 
member of the Administrative Council of the Railways of Guest ; elected to the Corps 
L^gislatif for the department de la Dr6me, 1863. 

XiADOUCETTE^ lK>iiis Charles de, French politician, b. at Gap, Feb. 11, 1809 ; 
studied at the Military School of St. Cyr ; left the army as officer of cavalry, 1837 ; 
apitointed senator, Jan. 27, 1852. , 

XiADREITT DE IiA CHARRIE'RE, Jules, French military commander, b. st 
Coux, Ard^che, March 30, 1806 ; entered the Military School of St. Cyr, 1826 ; lieutenant, 
1831 ; captain, 1827 ; chef de bataillon, 1844 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1848 ; colonel, 1851 ; 
brigadier-general, 1855 ; commanded in Italy, at Magenta and Solferino, 1859. 

XAFOND DE laURCY, Gabriel, French traveller, b. at Lurcy L^vy, AUier, 
March 25, 1802 ; studied at the Lyc^e of Nantes. Published ' Quinze Ans de Voyages 
autour du Monde,' 1839 ; ' Voyag^ autour du Monde et Naufrages c^^bres,' 1842 ; and 
other works. 

I&A.FOND DE 8AINT-MUR, Remi, French politician, b. at Roche Cavillac, near 
Tulle, Dec. 8, 1817; councillor, and secretary-general to the prefecture of Corr6ze, 
1847-57 ; member of the Corps L^slatif for the department of Corr^ze since 1857. 

Ul GRANDIERE, Paul Pierre Marie de, French naval commander, b. June 
28, 1807; entered the navy, 1820; ensign, 1827; lieutenant, 1833; captain. May 1, 1849; 
rear-admiral, Dec. 24, 1861 ; vice-admiral, Dec. 5, 1865. 

XiAGRANGB, Fre'de'ric, Ck>inte de, French politician, b. 1816 ; member of the 
General Council of the Eure for the canton of Gisors ; deputy to the Corps L^gislatif 
for the department of Gers since 1852. 

XiA ORANGE ET DE FOURIIiIiES, Edouard, Marquis de, French diplo- 
matist, b. Dec. 18, 1796 ; studied at the Lyc^ Napoleon, and entered the diplomatic 
service ; successively attach^ at Madrid, secretary of legation at Carlsruhe ana Vienna, 
and charge d'affaires in Holland, 1821-30; made a senator, 1852. Author of *La Deli- 
verance de Bude,' 1829 ; and other works. 

XiA OUE'RONNIE'REf lK>uis Etieni&e Arthur, Vicomte de, French states- 
man, b. 1816 ; held a post in the ministry of foreign affairs, 1848 ; appointed editor of 
the PaySf 1850 ; made a senator, 1861 ; ambassador at Brussels, 1868. Author of ' De la 
Politique int^rieure et exterieure de la France,' 1862 ; and numerous other works. 

ItAINE', Pierre Jean, French naval commander, b. Dec. 4, 1796; studied at the 
Naval School of Brest ; ensign, 1817 ; lieutenant, 1821 ; captain, 1831 ; rear-admiral, 
1840 ; commander-in-chief of the navy at Algiers, 1841 ; pr^fet of the arrondissement of 
Cherboui^, 1842 ; member of the Imperial Council of Admiralty. 

XiAXNG, Samuel, English politician, b. 1812 ; educated at Harrow, and St John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1882 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 
1840; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for the Isle of Orkney; M.P. for Wick, 1852-57, 
1859--61, and 1865-68 ; appointed financial secretary in India, 1860 ; chairman of the 
London and Bri^^ton Rauway. 

IJkIRD, John, English politician, b. at Greenock, Scotland, 1805 ; a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant for the county of Chester ; formerly head of the firm of L^rd and 
Sons, shipbuilders of Birkenhead ; M.P. for Birkenhead since 1861. 

XiAITY, Armaud Fraagois Rupereli, French naval officer, b. at Lorient, 1812 ; 
admitted to the Ecole Polytechnique ; lieutenant, 1836 ; appointed prdfet of the Basses 
Pyr6n^, 1854 ; made a senator, 1857. 



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laAKE. Colonel Henry Atrirelly English military engineer, b. 1809 ; appointed to 
the Madras Engineers, 1826; captain, 1842; lieut -colonel, Nov. 1855; served in Turkey 
during the Russian war; nominated aide-de-camp to her Majesty, and appointed to a 
military command in Ireland, 1857. Author of ' Kars, and our Captivity in Russia.' 



ftn.u. Rev. William^ English educational writer, b. June 1817 ; educated at Rugby, 
and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1835 ; appointed to report on 
Popular Education in England, 1858 ; rector of Huntspill, Somerset, and preacher at 
the Chapel Royal of Whitehall. 

laAKEM AN. Sir Btenlien Bartlett, Turkish military commander, b. in England, 
1825 ; educated at the College of Louis le Grfuvd, in Paris : knighted, 1853 ; entered the 
Turkish army and served in the Crimean war, 1854-^5; lieut -general in the Turkish 
service, under the title of Misa Pasha. 

ImA MARMORAy AlplionsOy Marquis de^ Italian general and statesman, b. Nov. 
17, 1804 ; entered the Military Academy at Turin, 1816 ; lieutenant of artillery, 1823 ; 
captain, 1831 ; m^or, 1845 ; general of brigade, Oct. 27, 1848 ; appointed minister of 
war, Nov. 3, 1840 ; resigned, Feb. 1855 ; commander-in-chief of ttie Italian army in the 
Crimea, 1855 ; minister of war, Oct 81, 1856 ; president of the Council of Ministers, 
July 19, 1859, to July 21, 1860 ; minister of forei^ affairs, and president of the Council 
of Ministers, Sept. SO, 1864, to.June 16, 1806. 

IiAMBINET^ Emllei French painter, b. at Versailles, near 1808 ; studied under Drol- 
ling and Horace Vemet Exhibited * Sites du Dauphin^,' 1837 ; * Les Bords de la Seine k 
Bougival,' 1861 ; * Le Matin 4 Yor6-l'Bveque,' 1864 ; and many other landscapes. 

IiAMBRECHT^ Felix, French politician, b. April 4, 1819 ; elected to the Corps 
L^gislatif for tiie fifth circonscription of the department du Nord, 1863. 

IiAME'i Oabriely French mathematician, b. at Tours, July 22, 1795 ; studied at the 
Ecole Polytechnique, 1817 ; appointed professor of physics in the same school, 1832, and 
examiner in the same, 1845 ; resigned, 1863. Author of • Legons sur la Th6orie matb6- 
matique de I'Elasticit^,' 1852 ; and other mathematical works. 

laAMONT^ James. English politician, b. 1830 ; educated at Rugby ; a magistrate for 
the county of Argyll, and a deputy-lieutenant for the ceunty of Bute ; M.P. for Bute- 
shire, 1865-68. Author of * Seasons with the Sea-horses.' 

liA MOTTE ROUGE. Joseph Edonard de^ French military commander, b. Feb. 
3, 1802 ; entered the College of St Cyr, 1819 ; lieutenant, 1830 ; captain, 1832 ; chef de 
bataillon, 1841; colonel, 1848; general of brigade, 1852; served in the Crimea, and 
nominated general of division, June 22, 1855. 

XiANCE; Adolphe^ French architect, b. at Littry, Calvados, Aug. 3, 1813 ; studied at 
the :^cole des Beaux Arts ; appointed inspector of works for the restoration of the Abbey 
of St Denis, 1850 ; member of the Commission of Historical Monuments, 1854. Author 
of several works on architecture. 

laANDSEERy Cliarles^ English painter, b. 1709; studied under Haydon, and 
entered as student at the Royal Academy, 1816. Exhibited * Dorothea,' 1828 ; • The Monks 
of Melrose,' 1843 ; * Return of the Dove to the Ark,* 1842 ; and other paintings. Elected 
A.R.A. 1837, and R.A. 1845; appointed * Keeper' of the Royal Academy, 1851. 

XiANDSEER, Sir Ed'win, English painter, b. in London, 1802, brother of the pre- 
ceding; entered as student at the Royal Academy, 1816. Exhibited at the Academy 
♦The Dog and the Shadow,' 1826; *A Highland Breakfast,' 1834; 'The Old Shepherd's 
Chief Mourner,* 18S7; 'Deer Stalking,' 1858; 'Doubtful Crumbs,' 1859; 'The Shrew 
Tamed,' 1863; 'Man Proposes and God Disposes,' 1864; and numerous other paintings. 
Elected A. R. A. 1827; and R.A. 1830; knighted, 1860. 

XiANE, Ed'Virard William, English philologist, b. at Hereford, 1801. Translated 'The 
Thousand and One Nights, ' 1841. Author of an ' Arabic Lexicon,' first part published 1863. 

I&A.N6AIaERIE, Pierre Henri de. French theologian, b. at St Foy, Gironde, 
1810 ; was professor of physics and mathematics to the Grand Seminary of Bordeaux ; 
professor of law and canon to the Faculty of Theology ; appointed vicar-general to the 
Archbishop of Bordeaux, 1852 ; consecrated bishop of Belley, 1857. 

XiANGENN, Friedricta von, German author, b. at Merseburg, Saxony, Jan. 26, 
1798 ; studied at the University of Leipsic, and appointed professor, 1820 ; commissioner 
of the Gtovemment at Leipsic, 1831 ; president of the High Court of Appeal at Dresden, 
1849. Author of * Life of Albert the Brave,* 1838 ; and other works. 

laANGIEWICZ; Manran, Polish general, b. at Krotnsczin, grand duchy of Posen, 
Aug. 6, 1827 ; studied at the University of Breslau ; appointed Dictator by the Pro- 
visional Government of Poland, 1862-63 ; defeated by the Russians in the battle of 
Chrobrze, March 18, 1863, and took refuge in Au8tria,retiring subsequently to Switzerland. 



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LANGIiAIS; JacqneSy French politician, b. at Mamers, Sarthe, Feb. 27, 1810; 
educated at the Seminary of Mans ; studied law in Paris, and called to the bar, 1837 ; 
elected member of the Legislative Assembly for Mamers, 1862-57 ; councillor of state, 
1857 ; minister of finance of the Mexican empire, 1865-66. 

IiANGIaOISy CliarleBj French painter, b. at Beaumont-en-Ange, Calvados, July 22, 
1789 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, and under Girode, Baron Gros, and Horace 
Vemet ; entered the army, 1830 ; colonel, 1849. Painted ' La Bataille de la Moskowa,' 
1835 ; * Le Combat des Pyramides,' 1849 ; * La Bataille de Solferino,* 1864 ; and numerous 
other battle scenes. 

LANGSDORFFy E'mile, Baron de^ French diplomatist, b. at Fumel, Lot-et- 
Garonne, 1804 ; studied at the College of Henri IV.; attach^ to the Legation at Florence, 
1828 ; secretary to the embassies at Rome, Turin, Munich, and Constantinople, Berlin, 
and Vienna, 1830-40 ; minister plenipotentiary to. Brazil, 1841 ; minister at Baden and at 
the Hague, 1842-48 ; retired into private life after the Revolution of Feb. 1848. 

IiANJUINAIS^ Victor Ambrose, Vlcomte, French politician, b. Nov. 5, 1802 ; 
studied law at Paris, and was called to the bar, 1821 ; member of the Chamber of Depu- 
ties, 1837-39, 1842, and 1846 ; and of the Constituent Assembly for Loire Inferieur, 1849 ; 
elected to the Corps L^gislatif for the department of the Loire Inf6rieur, 1863. Author 
of 'Nouvelles Recherches sur la Question de I'Or,' 1855 ; and other works. 

IiANKESTER, Edwin, English author, b. at Melton, Sufiblk ; educated at Wood- 
bridge, and studied medicine at University College, London, 1884-37 ; member of the 
Collie of Surgeons, 1837 ; graduated M.D. at Heidelberg, 1839 ; appointed professor of 
natural iiistory at the New College of London, 1850 ; elected coroner for Central Middle- 
sex, 1862. Author of ' Lives of Naturalists,' 1842 ; Lectures on Animal Food ;* and 
numerous other works. 

IiANNO, FraagoiB Gaspard. French sculptor, b, at Rennes, Jan. 7, 1800 ; studied 
under Frederic Lemot, 1818, Cartillier, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Executed 
' Prom6th6e enchaln6,' 1825 ; ' Le Mar6chal Brune,' 1843 ; a bronze bust of Montaigne, 
1864 ; and other statues and busts. 

laANNOY, Antoine de, French architect, b. at Paris, June 28, 1800 ; studied under 
Vandoyer, Delespine, and M. H. Lebas ; architect of the Banque de France, 1649. TnHf^ 
lished * Projet d'Agrandissement de la Biblioth^que royale,' 1827 ; ' Le Tombeau de 
Robert de Naples,' 1852 ; and other works on architecture. 

I&ANOUE, Felix Hippolyte, French painter, b. at Versailles, Oct. 14, 1812; studied 
under Victor Bertin, 1830, Horace Vemet, and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Exhibited 
* Saint Benoft fondant ses Monast^res dans les Deserts du Subiaco,' 1853 ; ' Les Bords de 
la Nerva,* 1861 ; * Vue du Tibre,' 1864 ; and many other paintings, chiefly landscapes. 

liANZA, FederiCO, Italian statesman, b. 1814 ; studied medicine ; appointed minister 
of finance in the cabinet of Count Cavour, 1859 ; minister of the interior. Sept 30, 1864 ; 
resigned, Oct. 20, 1865. 

XiAPIaACE, Cliarles E'mile, Marquis de, French general, b. at Paris, April 15, 
1789 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole de Metz ; entered the army, 1809 ; 
took part in the wars with Spain, Russia, and Germany; lieutenant-general, April 9, 
1843 ; made a senator, Dec. 31, 1852. 

IiAPIaACE, Cyrille Pierre The'odore,,French naval commander, b. Nov. 7, 1793 ; 
entered the Imperial Nax^y as ensign, 1812 ; lieutenant, 1819 ; captain, 1828 ; rear-admiral, 
1841 ; vice-admiral. June 11, 1853 ; member of the Council of Admiralty, 1857 ; appointed 
maritime pr^fet of Brest, and placed on half-pay, 1858. Author of ' Voyage autour du 
Monde par les Mers de I'lnde et de la Chine,' 1833-39 ; and other works. 

LAPRADE, Pierre Ricliard de, French poet, b. at Montbrison, Loire, Jan. 13, 
1812 ; studied at Lyons, and was called to the bar. Author of ' Les Parfumes de Made- 
leine,' 1839 ; 'Poemes 6vang61iques,' 1852 ; ' Les Symphonies,' 1855 ; ' Questions d'Art et 
de Morale,' 1861 ; and other works. 

laARABIT, Denis, French politician, b. at Roye Somme, Aug. 15, 1792 ; studied at 
the Ecole Polytechnique, and served in the French army ; represented the department 
of the Tonne at the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; appointed senator, March 4, 1853. 

XiARCHEY. Fraagois E'tienne, French general, b. at Cambrai, Jan. 20, 1795 ; 
studied at the School of St. Cyr ; lieutenant, 1814 ; mtgor, 1843 ; general of brigade, 1852 ; 
general of division, 1855 ; entered the reserve, 1860. 

XiARCOM, Sir Thomas Alskevr, English militaiy engineer, b. 1801 ; educated at 
the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and obtained a commission, 1820 ; director of the 
Irish Ordnance Survey Oflace, 1828-46 ; under-secretary for Iieland, 1863 ; migor-general 
in the Engineers and C.B. 1858. 



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laAUGIER, An^ruste Paul, French astronomer, b. at Paris, Dec. 22, 1812 ; studied 
at the Eeole Polytechnique, 1884 ; elected to the French Academy of Sciences, 1843; 
member of the Bureau des Longitudes, 1862. Author of * Recherches sur la BLotation 
du Soleil autour de son Centre de Gravity,' 1841 ; and numerous works on a.stronomy. 

IiAURENTIE, Pierre. French writer, b. at Houga, Gers, Jan. 21, 1793 ; professor 
of history at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1818-22. Author of ' Etudes litt^raires et morales 
sur les Historiens latins,' 1822 ; ' Histoire des Dues d'0rl6ans,* 1832-34 ; 'Histoirede 
I'Empire remain,' 1801-62 ; *Les Rois et le Pape,' 1860 ; and other works. 

laAURIANOy Auffustin. Roumanian author, b. in Transylvania, 1815 ; studied at 
Vienna ; appointed inspector of Moldavian schools by Prince Gregory Ghika, 1851. 
Author of 'Tentamen criticum in Linguam romanicani,' Vienna, 1840; 'Magazinu his- 
toricu pentra Dacia,' Bucharest, 1844-4/ ; and other works. 

ImA VAIaETTEy Charles Jean, Marquis de, French statesman, b. at Benlis, 
Nov. 25, 1806; entered the diplomatic career, 1837; consul-general at Alexandria, 
1841-45; minister at Cassel, 1846-49; ambassador extraordinary at Constantinople, 
1861-63, and at Rome, 1862-63 ; minister of the interior, March 29, 1865, to Nov. 13, 1867 ; 
appointed minister of foreign affairs, Dec. 18, 1868. 

laAVAIiIiE'Ey The'ophlle, French historian, b. at Paris, Oct. 13, 1804 ; appointed 
professor of history and literature at the Military School of St. Cyr, 1852. Author of 
* History of the French,' 1838-39; * History of the Ottoman Empire,' 1865-59; and 
other works. 

laAVAIaLETTEy Samuel Welles, Comte de, French politician, b. at Boston, 
May 22, 1834 ; entered the diplomatic service ; adopted by the Marquis La Vallette, and 
naturalized a Frenchman, 1863; elected to the Corps L^gislatif for the departement de la 
Dordogne, 1863. 

IiAWOESTINE, Alexandre dxarles. Marquis de, French general, b. Dec. 25, 
1786 ; lieutenant, 1805 ; lieutenant-general, 1841 ; made a senator, Jan. 1852 ; appointed 
governor of the Invalides, Oct 22, 1863. 

I&AWRENCEy George Al^ed, English author, b. 1827 ; educated at Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he graduated in 1848 ; called to the bar, 1852. Author of * Guy Living- 
stone,' * Sword and Gown,' 'Barren Honour ;* and other works of fiction. 

LAWRENCE, Sir John Laird Mair, English statesman, b. March 4, 1811, the 
fourth son of Lieutenant-colonel AJex. Wm. Lawrence, of Londonderry ; educated at 
Haileybury for the Indian Civil Service, 1827-29 ; assistant, agent, collector, and magis- 
ti-ate at Delhi, 1831-48 ; chief commissioner of the Punjaub, 1849-58 ; nominated member 
of the Coun(dl of State for India, 1858 ; governor-general of India, Nov. 28, 1863, to 
Sept. 30, 1868 ; returned home, Jan. 1869. 

^LAWRENCE, William, English politician, b. 1818 ; a magistrate of Middlesex and 
an alderman of London ; was sheriff of London and Middlesex, 1857-58 ; lord mayor 
of London, 1863-64; M.P. for London since 1866. 

LAWSONy Right Hon. James Anthony, English politician, b. 1817-; educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin, where he giaduated B.A. 1839, LL.D. 1840; called to the 
Irish bar, 1840 ; appointed solicitor-general for Irehuid, 1861 ; attorney-general, 1865 ; 
M.P. for Portarlington, 1866-68. 

LAYARD^ Austin Henry. English statesman, b. in Paris, March 5, 1817 ; formerly 
attache at Constantinople; M.P. for Aylesbury, 1862-67; under-secretary of state for 
foreign affairs, Jan. to Feb. 1852, and again 1861-66 ; commissioner of public works and 
buildings, Dec. 1868; president of the Board of Works, Dec. 1868; M.P. for South wark 
since 1860. Author of ' Nineveh and its Remains,' 1849. 

LEADER, Nicholas Philpot, English politician, b. 1814 ; educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin ; a magistrate of the county of Cork ; M.P. for Cork County, 1861-68. 

LEATHAM, William Henry, English politician, b. 1815; a J.P. and deputy- 
lieutenant of the West Riding of the county of York ; formerly a banker at Wakefield, 
Pontefract, and Doncaster; M.P. for Wakefield, 1865-68. 

LE BARRIER DE TINAN, Charles Adelbert, French naval eommander, 
b. Aug. 30, 1803 : studied at the Naval School at Brest ; captain, 1837 ; member of the 
Council of Admiralty, and rear-admiral, 1851 ; yice-admiral, i.855. 

LEBOENT, Edmond, Frenc^ military commander, b. Nov. S, 1809; studied at the 
Ecnle Polytechnique and the Ecole d'Artillerie of Metz ; served in the Crimea ; general 
of brigade, 1854 ; general of division, 1857 ; aide-de-camp to the Emperor. 



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LECLCRC D'OSMONVILLi:, Jules Olivier, French politician, b. at Laval, 
April 27, 1797 ; member of the General Council for the canton of Oueat ; deputy to the 
Corps Legislatif for the department of Mayenne since 1853. 

LECIaERQy Mathien Joseph, Belgian statesman, b. at Herve, near Liege, 17P6 ; 
counsellor at the Superior Court of Justice, 1830 ; member of the National Congress, 
1831 ; procureur-g6neral at the Court of Cassation, 1831 and 1840 ; minister of justice, 
1840-41 ; procurenr-gen6ral to the Supreme Court of Brussels. 

LECOMTS. Enfpe'ne, French politician, b. 1805 ; studied at Paris in the 6cole de 
Droit ; lieut -colonel in the National Guard, 1830 ; deputy of the Yonne to the National 
Assembly, 1848 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for the Yonne since 1852. 

LXSCOMTB-VERNET, Charles. French painter, b. in Paris, 1821 ; studied under 
H. Vemet and L6on Cogniet. Exhibited ' Ecce Homo ;' ' La Reine de Navarre,' 1855 ; 
' Expedition de Syrie,' 1863 ; and numerous other paintings. 

LECONTE, John, American naturalist, b. at New York, 1825 ; studied at the Medical 
College, and graduated M.D. 1846 ; contributed numerous papers on entomology to the 
Journal of the Academy of Sciences, The Journal of Natural History of Boston, and to 
other American scientific journals. 

LECOQ. Henri, French naturalist, b. at Avesnes, Nord, April 14, 1802; graduated M.D. 
at Pans, 1827 ; professor of natm-al histoiy at the Preparatory School of Medicine at 
Clermont-FerranA Author of • Elements de Mineralogie appliqu6e aux Sciences,' 1826 ; 

' ' Des Glaciers et des Climats,* 1847 ; and other scientific works. 

LECOURTIER, Francois Joseph, French theologian, b. Dec. 19, 1799; studied 
at Paris ; arch-priest and canon of Notre Dame, 1848 ; consecrated bishop of Montpellier, 
June 5, 1861. Author of * Le Dimanche,' 1839 ; and other works. 

LEDEBUR, Leopold Augnist von, German author, b. at Berlin, July 2, 1799 ; 
entered the army as lieutenant, 1827 ; captain, 1828 ; director of the new museum at 
Berlin. Author of ' Blicke auf die Literatur des letzten Jahrzehends, &c.' 1887 ; * Erleb- 
nisse aus den Kriegsjahren, 1806 und 1807,* 1855 ; and other works. 

L'EDIER, Stanislas, French politician, b. at Bacqueville, Dec. 30, 1798 ; entered the 
General Council for the canton, of Bacqueville, and became mayor of the town, 1849 ; 
member of the Corps L6gislatif for the department of Seine Inferieure since 1852. 

LEDRU ROLLIN, Angnste, French statesman, b. in Paris, Feb. 2, 1808 ; studied 
law, and was called to the bar, 1830 ; minister of the interior in the Provisional 
Government, 1848 ; accused of a conspiracy against President Louis Napoleon, and 
obliged to seek refuge in England, 1849. Author of ' La Decadence de I'Angleterre,* 
2 vols. 1850 ; ' La Loi anglaise,' 2 vols. 1853 ; and numerous legal and political works. 

LEE, Frederick Richard, English painter, b. at Barnstaple, Devon, June 1798 : 
received a commission in the 56th Foot, and served in the Netherlands. Exhibited 
' The Fisherman's Haunt ;' ' The Bay of Biscay ;' ' Plymouth Breakwater ;' and numerous 
other landscapes and sea views. Elected A.R.A. 1834, R.A. 1838. 

LEE, Rev. Robert, English author, b. at Tweedmouth, North Durham, 1804 ; studied 
at St. Andrew's ; minister of the Grey Friars church, Edinburgh, 1843 ; professor of 
Biblical criticism at the University of Edinburgh, 1846. Atithor of * The Family and its 
Duties,' 1863 ; and numerous lectures, sermons, and other religious works. 

LEE, Robert Edmund, American military commander, b. in Virginia, Jan. 1807 ; ad- 
mitted as a cadet at West Point, 1825 ; second lieutenant in the United States army, 1829 ; 
first lieutenant, Sept. 1836 ; captain, July 1838 ; appointed chief engineer of the army in 
Mexico, 1846; major, April 1846; lieut. -colonel, Aug. 20, 1847; colonel, Sept. 13, 1847; 
superintendent of West Point Military Academy, 1862 to March 1855 ; appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the Confederate forces in Virginia, 1861 ; after the termination of 
the civil war, appointed president of Washington College, Pennsylvania, 1866. 

LEE, William, English politician, b. 1801 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
Kent, and a merchant in London and Rochester ; M.P. for Maidstone, 1853-57, and since 
1859. 

LEE, Ven. William, English divine, b. 1815 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he was appointed professor of ecclesiastical history, 1857; Archbishop King's 
lecturer in divinity, 1863 ; archdeacon of Dublin. Author of ' Donnellan Lectures ' of 
1852 ; ' Inspiration of Holy Scripture, its Nature and Proof;* and other works. 

LEES, Ed^vin, English naturalist, b. at Worcester, May 12, 1800. Author of 'The 
V Botanical Looker-out. in England and Wales ;' * Pictures of Nature around the Malvern 
Hills and Vale of Severn ;' and other works. 



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I, Isaac. American author, b. of Jewish parents at Nenkirch, Westphalia, 1806 ; 
studied at Munster, and weat to the United States, 1825 ; Rabbi of the synagogue of 
Philadelphia. Author of ' The Jews and the Mosaic Law,' 1833 ; ' Descriptive Geography 
of Palestine,' 1852 ; and other works. 

laEFCBURE, Cliarlev Eufre'ne, French politician, b. April 15, 1808 ; member of 
the General Council for the canton of Lapoutroye ; deputy to the Corp* L^gislatif for the 
departement du Haut Rhln since 1852. 

IiEFE'VRE. Andre'^y French author, b. at Proirins, Seine-et-Mame, Nov. 9, 1834; 
studied at th» College of St. Barbe. Author of * Le R6ve d'une Reine d'Asie,' 1861 ; * La 
VaU6e du NU,' 1863 ; ' La Lyre intime,' 1866. 

laEFEVRE, Sir Georgre Shaw, English statesman, b. in London, 1797 ; educated at 
Eton,, and Trinity College, Cambndge, where he graduate4l in 1818; called to the bsr 
of the Inner Temple, 1824 ; undcr-secretary of state for the colonies, 1838 ; commissioner 
of the i)oor laws, 1834 ; vice-chancellor of the University of London ; deputy-clerk of 
Parliament. 

laCFEVRE, John Sba^ English politician, b. 1832, son of the preceding; educated 
at Eton, and Trinity CoU^e, Cambridge ; M.P. for Bieading since 1863. 

laEFROY; Anthony, English politician, b. 1800 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he graduated B.A 1821 ; a deputy-lieutenant of Longford ; M.P. for the coufliiy 
of Longford, 1830-37, and 1841-47 ; and for Dublfn University since 1868. 

laEFUE^i Hector Marin, French architect, b. at Versailles, Nov. 14, 1810; studied 
at the B(tole des Beaux Arts, 1829-30 ; appointed architect of the Palais de Fontaine- 
bleau, and chargedl to connect the Louvre and the Tuileries, 1858>; chief architect of the 
Palais des Beaux Arts, and of numerous public buildings in Paris. 

IiEGHy George C wmva llt English politician, b. 1804 : educated at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1826; magistrate and deputy-Ueutenant of Cheshire ; 
M.P. for Mid-Cheshire, 1841-47, and since 1848. 

LEGOUyE', Gabriel. French author, b. at Paris, Feb. 15, 1807. Author ef ' Maoc,' 
1833 ; • Edith de Falsen,^ 1840 ; * La Croix d'Honueur et les Com6dien8,* 1863 ; and nume- 
rous x>oems, romances, and dramas. 

laEGOYTy Alfred; French statistical writer, b. at Clermont-Ferrand, Puy de Ddme, 
Nov. 18, 1815 ; studied at the College of his native town and at Paris ; appointed director 
of the Statistical Bureau of France, 1862. Assisted in the compilation of the 'Collec- 
tion de la Statistique generate de France,' 1864 ; and author of numerous statistical works. 

LEHARIVEL DUROCHER, Victor. French sculptor, b. at Chann. Omej Nov. 
20, 1816 ; studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 1838-44. Executed * La Vierge,' a bust 
in marble, 1863 ; * Colin Maillard,' a statue in bronze, 1864. 

laEHMANN, Charles, French painter, b. at Kiel, Holstein, April 14, 1814 ; studied in 
France under M. Ingres, and exhibited *Tobias and the Angel/ 1836 ; * Jephthah's 
Daughter,' 1837 ; * Proftl sur Pond d'Or,' 1863 ; * Le Repos,' 1864 ; and other paintings. 

LEIGHTON, Frederick, English painter, b. at Scarborough, Dec. 3, 1830 ; studied 
painting at the Royal Academy of Berlin. Exhibited * Cimabue,' 1856 ; ' Dante in. Exile,.' 
1864 ; * Helen of Troy,' 1865 ; and numerous other paintings. 

LEITRIMy William Sydney Clements. Earl of, English administrator,, b. in 
Dublin, 1806 ; served in the army as Lord Clements, and retired with the raiik of 
lieutenant-colonel, 1855; M.P. for Leitrim, 1839-4T; colonel of the Leitrim Militia. 

laE JEUNE, Henry^ English painter, b. 1819; head-master of the Government School 
of Design, 1845-48 ; appointed curator of the painting school of the Royal Academy, 1848. 
Painted ' Samson bursting his Bonds,' 1841. Elected A.R.A 1863. 

laELEUXy Adolphe^ French painter, b. at Paris, Nov. 16, 1812. Painted * Chasseur 
des Cdtes de Picardie/ 1836 ; * La Danse des Djinns,' 1849 ; * L'Arriv6e an Champ de Foire,* 
1856 ; *Noce en Bretagne,* 1863 ; 'La Rentr6e du Troupeau,' 1864 ; and other works. 

laELEUX, Armand, French painter, b. at Paris, 1818, brother of the preceding; 
studied under M. Ingres, 1832. Exhibited * St. J6r6me lisant la Bible,' 1839 ; * Un 
Guide du Saint-Gothard,* 1860; 'Cuisine du Convent des Franciscains de Sassuolo,' 
1864 ; and numerous other paintings. 

laE'IaUT, laonis Fran^ois^ French anthor, b. at Gy, Haute Sadne, April 16, 1804 ; 
studied at Paris ; member of the Constituent Assembly, 1848 ; member of the Corps 
L^gislatif for his native department since 1862. Author of • Quest-ce que la Phr6nologie ?' 
1835 ; * L'Amulette de Pascal,* 1846 ; * Petit Trait6 de I'^galite,' 1867 ; and other works. 



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LXSMAIRE| Philippe Henri. French sculptor, b. at Valenciennes, 1798; studied under 
Cartellier. Exhibited * Jeune Fille eftmy^e par un Serpent,' 1881, in the inuaeuni of the 
Luxemburg; 'Frontons,* for the city of Straaburg, 1869; and numerous busts, groups, 
monuments, and bas-reliefs. 

IiE MARCHANTy Sir DeniSi English statesman, b. 1795 ; educated at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1823 ; principal secretary 
to Lord-chancellor Brougham, 1830 ; secretary of the Board of Trade, 1836-41 ; secretary 
to the Treasury, 1841; created a baronet^ 1841; M.P. for Worcester, 1846-47; under- 
secretary for the Home Department, 1847-50 ; appointed chief clerk to the House of 
Commons, 1850. Edited Walpole's * Memoirs of George III.' 

LB MAROHANT^ Sir John Qaspard. English officer, b. 1803, brother of the pre- 
ceding ; educated at Sandhurst, and entered the army, 1821 ; served in Spain as brigadier 
and adjutant-general of the Anglo-Spanish legion ; governor and commander-in-chief of 
Newfoundland, 1847-52 ; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1852-57 ; commander-in- 
chief of the forces of Malta and lieutenant-general, 1858-63 ; knighted, 1838. 

LE BIAROISy Jnles^ Comte, French politician, b. in Paris, Dec. 25, 1802 ; repre- 
sented the department of La Manche in the Legislative Assembly ; made a senator, 1802. 

LBMELOREIa DE JmA HAICHOIS. Joseph, French politician, b. at Rennes, 
Feb. 17, 1807 ; studied law, and was called to the bar ; mayor of Lorient, 1850 ; member 
of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Morbihan since 1852. 

LEMON, Mark^ English author, b. in London, Nov. 30, 1809 ; one of the founders of 
Punch in 1841. Author of 'The Enchanted Doll ;' * Wait for the End ;' * Loved at Last ; ' 
and a great number of dramatic pieces ; contributor to Household WordSf the Illustrxkted 
London NeioSf and other periodical publications. 

LENNOX, Lord Arthur, English politician, b. 1806 ; entered the army as ensign, 
1822; lieutenant-colonel, 1842; M.P. for Chichester, 1831-46; and for Yarmouth, 1847 ; 
a lord of the Treasurj*, 1844-46. 

LENNOX, Lord Qeorye Gtordon, English politician, b. 1829, nephew of the pre- 
ceding ; educated at Eton ; entered the Royal Horse Guards as comet, 1846 ; retired, 
1853 ; J.P. and deputy-lieutenant of Sussex ; M.P. for Lymington since 1860. 

LENNOX, Lord Hennr Gordon, English politician, b. 1821, brother of the preced- 
ing ; educated at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 
1843, M.A. 1847 : a magistrate of Sussex; was a lord of the Treasury, 1852; M.P. for 
Chichester since 1846. 

LENNOX, Lord William Pitt, English author, b. 1799, uncle of the two preceding ; 
educated at Westminster ; was for some time on the staff of the late Duke of Wellington, 
whom he accompanied to Brussels, Waterloo, Paris, and Vienna ; retired ftom the army, 
1829. Author of 'Compton Audley ;' 'Three Years with the Duke of Wellington in 
Private Life ;• * Fifty Years' Biographical Reminiscences ;' and numerous other works. 

LENSTROM, Oarl Jnlins. Swedish writer, b. at Oefle. 1811 ; studied at Upsal; and 
was appointed professor of tneology in the College of his native town. Author of 
•History of the Theories of Art,* 1839; 'History of the Church Universal, and the 
Swedish Church,' 1843 ; * Sigurd and Brynhild,' an epic poem ; and other works. 

LEO, Heinrich. German historical writer, b. at Rudolstadt, March 19, 1799 ; studied at 
Breslau and Gottingen; graduated Ph.D. at Jena, 1820 ; appointed professor of history 
at Halle, 1830. Author of * Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters,* Halle, 1830 ; 
' Die Hegelingen,' ib. 1838 ; second edition, 1839 ; ' Leitfaden fiir den Uuterricht in der 
Universdgeschichte,* Halle, 1828-40 ; and numerous other works. 

LEOPOLD, Dnke of Anhalt, b. Oct 1, 1794, the son of Prince Friedrich of Anhalt- 
Dessau and of Princess Amelia of Hesse-Homburg ; succeeded to the throne at tlie 
death of his grandfather, Duke Leopold Friedrich, Aug. 9, 1817 ; married, April 18, 1818, 
to Princess Frederica of Prussia, who died Jan. 1, 1850. 

LEOPOLD II. King of the Belgians, b. April 9, 1835, the son of King Leopold I., 
former Duke of Saxe-Coburg, and of Princess Louise, daughter of Louis Philippe, King 
of the French ; ascended the throne at the death of his father, Dec. 10, 1805 ; married, 
Aug. 22, 1853, to Marie, Archduchess of Austria, b. Aug. 23, 1886. 

LB PLAY. Pierre Fre'de'riCt French civil engineer, b. at Honfleur, April 11, 1806 ; 
studied at the ^cole Polytechnique, 1825-27 ; commissioner-general for the Universal 
Exhibition of 1855 ; councillor of state, Dec. 1855 ; commissioner of France to the Inter- 
national Exhibition in London, 1862. Author of ' Descriptioa des ProcM^ metal- 
lui^giques dans le Pays de Galles^' 1848 ; and other works. 



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LEPSIUSi Karl Ricbard^ German philologist, b. at Naumburg, Dec. 20, 1813; 
studied philology at Leipsic and Berlin, graduated Ph.D. 1833 ; nominated professor at 
the University of Berlin, 1846, and member of the Academy of Sciences, 1850. Author 
of • Monuments of Egj'pt and Ethiopia,' 1853-57 ; ' Universal Linguistic Alphabet,' 1855 ; 
and numerous works on the languages and monuments of Egypt. 

laEQUIENy Arthtir, French politician, b. 1813 ; called to the bar of Douai ; represented 
Pas de Calais in the Legislative Assembly, 1S49 ; deputy to the Corps L^gislatif since 
1852. 

laEROUX. Obarles Gnillaiunei French painter, b. at Nantes, April 25, 1814 ; studied 
painting in Paris, under M. Corot ; member of the Corps Legislatif for the department 
of Deux-S^vres since 1860. Exhibited ' Bords de la Loire,' 1857 ; ' Bords de I'Erdre,' 
1859 ; and other landscapes. 

laEROUX, Paul, French politician, b. Dec. 11, 1815 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for 
the department of the Vendue since 1852 ; vice-president of the Corps L^gislatil, 1863. 
Author of * Poems,* 1842 ; and other works. 

laEROUXy Pierre^ French author, b. at Rennes, 179S ; formerly a compositor and cor- 
rector of the press m Paris ; member of the Legislative Assembly of 1848. Author of 
•De I'Humanite, de son Principe et de son Avenir,* 1849; *La Gr6ve de Samarez,' 
1863-64, a philosophical poem ; and numerous phUosophical and political works. 

IiEROY DB SAINT ARNAUD, Louis. French politician, b. in Paris, 1802 ; 
studied law, and was called to the bar of the Royal Court of Paris, 1825 ; mayor of tlie 
twelfth arrondissement of Paris, 1851; created senator, Dec. 26, 1857. Published 
' Lettres du Mar^chal de Saint Amaud,' 2 vols. 1855. 

LESLIE, Charles Po^«rell. English politician, b. 1821 ; lord-Iieutenant of the county 
of Monaghan, and colonel of the militia ; M.P. for County Monaghan since 1842. 

LESLIE, George Robert, English painter, son of C. R. Leslie, b. July 2, 1835 ; 
A.R.A. 1867. 

LESLIE, Hon. Georire Waldegrrave, English politician, b. 1825 ; called to the 
bar of the Middle Temple, 1849 ; J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for the county of Fife, and 
captain of the Ist Cinque Ports Rifle Volunteers ; M.P. for Hastings, 1864-68. 

LESLIE, Henry David, English musical composer, b. in London, June 18, 1S22 ; 
studied music under Charles Lucas, 1838; founded the choral society known by his 
name, 1856 ; principal of the College of Music Composed * Let Qod arise,' 1849 ; 
* Immanuel,' 1853 ; • Judith,' 1857 ; * The Daughter of the Isles,' 1861 ; and other works. 

LESLIE, William. English politician, b. 1814; educated at Aberdeen University, 
where he graduatea M.A. 1832 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of 
Aberdeen ; formerly a merchant in China; M.P. for Aberdeenshire, 1861-68. 



■'RUT. Francois, Baron de, French politician, b. at Paris, Oct 5, 1813 ; 
elected to the Legisktive Assembly, 1849; member of the Corps Legislatif for the 
department of Haute Mame since 1852. 

LESS EPS, Ferdinand, Vicomte de, French diplomatist, b. at Versailles, Nov. 19, 
1805 ; attach^ to the French consulate at Lisbon, 1825, and at Tunis, 1828 ; consul at 
Barcelona, 1842 ; minister at Madrid, 1848, and at Rome, 1849 ; obtained a concession 
ft*om the Viceroy of Egypt to construct a canal through the Isthmus of Suez, Jan. 1856. 
Author of numerous * Notes,' * Documents,' and * Rapports,' bearing upon and describing 
the progress of the Suez Canal undertaking. 

LESSINGi Karl Friedrich, German painter, b. at Wartenburg, Silesia, Feb. 15, 
1808 ; studied at the Academy of Arts, Berlin. Painted the ' Battle of Icouium,' 1829 ; 
' The Brigand and his Son,' 1831 ; *Pope Pascal II. Prisoner of Henry V. ;' * Huss before 
the Council of Constance ;' and numerous other historical paintings. 

LETHEBY, Henry, English medical writer, b. 1816 ; graduated M.B. 1843, Ph.D. and 
M.A. 1858; lecturer on chemistry and toxicology at the London Hospital; chemical 
analyst to the Corporation of London. Author of ' Reports on the Sanitary Condition 
of the City of London ;' contributor to the Lancet, the Medi/xil Times, and other medical 
Journals. 

LETTE, Willielni, German politician, b. at Eienitz, Prussia, March 10, 1799 ; studied 
philosophy and law at the Universities of Berlin and Gottingen, 1814-20 ; member of the 
National Assembly of Frankfort, 1848 ; member of the first Prussian Chamber since 1851. 
Author of ' Tlie Prussian Constitution,* 1857 ; and several works on political economy. 

LEVER, Charles James, English novelist, b. in Dublin, 1809 ; studied at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.D., and at Gottingen ; physician to the British 
legation at Brussels, 1833. Author of * Harry Lorrequer ;' * The I)od Family Abroad :' 
* ^e O'Donoghue ;' and numerous other works of fiction. 



Iie^ HANDBOOK OF CONTEMFORART BIOGRAPHY. laid 
[ l«6 ] 



LEVER^ John Orrell, Enj^lish politician, b. 1S24 ; established the Atlantic Boyal 
Mail Steam Navigation Company ; ILP. for Oalway, 1859-65. 

LE VERRIERy Urbain, French astronomer, b. at St L6, Manche, April 11, 1811 ; 
studied at tke Ecole Pulytechnique ; discovered the planet Ne^tuae simultaneously with 
Mr. Adams ; elected to the Legislative Assembly for the department of Manche, 1849 ; 
made a senator, 18i2 ; succeeded Arago at the Observatory of Paris, 1854. 

IiEVESON-OOWER. GhranTiUe ^XTIlliam, EngUsh poUtician, b. 1838 ; educated 
at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Surrey ; 
M.P. for Reigate, 1863-(J7. 

L!BVIf Iieone, English political economist, b. at Ancona, Italy, June 6, 1821 : natu- 
ralized a British subject, 1847 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1859. Author of 

* International and Commercial Law,' 1864 ; and other works. 

laEWAItDy Fanny. German authoress, b. at Konigsberg, March 24, 1811. Author of 

* The Substitute,' 1834 ; * A Question of Life ;' * Diogena,' ' The Italian Sketch-Book,' 

* England and Scotland,' 1852 ; and other works, chiefly of fiction. 

IiEWES. Georire Henry, English author, b. in London, April 18, 1817 ; educated at 
Greenwich, and on the Continent Author of * Biographical History of Philosophy ;' 

* The Noble Heart,' a tragedy ; * Life of Goethe ;' * Physiology of Common Life ;* * Studies 
in Animal Life ;' and other works. 

IiBWlNy Thomas, English authoi^ b. 1805 ; educated at Merchant Taylors' School, at 
Worcester College and Trinity College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. and M.A. ; 
called to the bar, 1833 ; one of the conveyancing counsel to the Court of Chancery, 
1853. Author of 'Life and Epistles of St PauV 1851 ; 'Jerusalem, a Sketch of the 
City and Temple,' 1861 ; 'Csesar's Invasion of Britain,' 1862 ; and other works. 

ItEWIS. John Frederick, English painter, b. in London, July 14, 1805. Exhibited 

* The Harem,' 1852 ; ' Roman Peasants at a Shrine ;' * Scenes in the Desert ;' ' Armenian 
Lady at Cairo,' In oil colours, 1855 ; ' A Frank Encampment, Desert of Mount Sinai,' 
1856. President of the Water Colour Society, 185^-58 ; elected A.R A. 1859. 

LEWIS, John Harrey, English politician, b. 1814 : educated at Trinitv College, 
Dublin, where he graduated M.A. 1837 ; a magistrate of Westminster and Middlesex, and 
deputy-lieutenant of the Tow«r Hamlets ; M.P. for Marylebone since 1861. 

LEWIS, Iduly Maria Theresa, English authoress, b. March 1803 ; married first to 
Mr. Thomas Henry Lister, 1830, and secondly, 1844, to Sir George Coroewall Lewis, Bart 
M.P., who died 1863. Author of ' The Semi-Detached House,' and * The Semi- Attached 
Couple ;* ' The Lives of the Friends and Contemporaries of Lord-Chancellor Clarendon.' 

ItEWISy Taylor, American author, b. at Northumberland, State of New York, 1802 ; 
appointed professor of Greek at the University of New York, 1833; and at Union 
College, Schnectady, New York. Author of 'The Six Days of Creation, or Scriptural 
Cosmology,* 1855 ; ' Science and the Bible,' New York, 1856 ; and other works. 

LEYS. Jean Henri, Belgian painter, b. 1815 ; studied under M. de Braekelec, 1830. 
Exhibited ' Combat d un Grenadier contre un Cosaque,' 1833 ; ' Albert Durer 4 Anvers,' 
1856 ; * Mar^:aret of Austria receiving the Oaths of the Archers of Antwerp ;' ' Young 
Luther singmg in the Streets of Eisenach,' 1862 ; and numerous other pictures. 

LIBRI CARRUCCI, Gnffliehno, Comte. French mathematician, b. at Florence, 
Jan. 2, 1803 ; professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa, 1826 ; took refuge in 
France, and was naturalized, 1833. Author of ' Histoire des Sciences malii^matiques en 
Italic depuis la Renaissance Jusqu'^ la Fin du XVII. Si^cle,' 1838-41 ; and other works. 

LICHFIELD, Rig^ht Rev. Qeorge Augnstus Sylwyn. Bishop of. English 
divine, b. 1809 ; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1831, 
M.A. 1834, B.D. and D.D. 1841 ; appointed bishop of New Zealand, 1841 ; consecrated 
bishop of Lichfield, 1867. Author of a number of sermons and theological works. 

LICHFIELD, Thomas Qeorgre Anson, Earl of, English administrator, 

b. Aug. 15, 1825 ; precis writer to Lord Palmerston at the Foreign office, 1846-47 ; M.P. 

for Lichfield, 1847-54, when he succeeded his father, first earl; lord-lieutenant of 

Staffordshire. 
LIDDELL, Hon. Henry Georire, English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Eton; 

magistrate of Durham, and deputy-lieutenant of Northumberland; M.P. for South 

Northumberland since 1852. 

LIDDELL. Sir John. Scottish physician, b. at Dumblane, Scotland, 17M ; educated 
at the University of Edinburgh ; entered the Royal Navy as assistant surgeon, 1812 ; 
appointed inspector of fleets and hospitals, 1844 ; director-general of the medical depart- 
ment of the navy, 1854 ; honorary physician to her Majesty, 1859 ; knighted, 1850. 



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IiIDDEItli, Verv Rev. Henry Greorre, English divine, b. 1811 ; educated at 
Charterhouse, ana Christ Church, Oxford ; was domestic chaplain to the late Prince 
Consort, and chaplain-extraordinary to the Queen ; appointed dean of Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1856. Author of 'A History of Rome.' Editor of 'Liddeil and Scott's Greek 
Lexicon.' 

ItlBBBRy FntnciS; American author, b. at Berlin, March 18, 1800; entered the 
Russian army as a volunteer, 1815 ; graduated at Jena, 1820 ; took part in the war of 
independence in Greece, 1821 ; appointed professor in Coliuubia College, South Carolina, 
1835. Author of 'Journal of my Residence in Greece in 1822,' Leipsic, 1823 ; * Civil 
Liberty and Self-Govemment,' Philadelphia, 1853 ; and other works. 

LIEBI6, Justufli Baron. German chemist, b. at Darmstadt, May 12, 1808 ; studied 
at Bonn and Erlangen, 1819-22, and at Paris, 1822-24 ; appointed professor of chemistry 
at Giessen, 1826 ; created a baron by the Grand Duke of Hesse, 1845 ; appointed president 
of the chemical laboratory at the University of Munich, 1852. Author of 'Organic 
Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture,' Brunswick, 1840.; ' Familiar Letters ;' and 
numerous other works on chemistry. 

ItlEDTS^ Angnste Charles, Belgian statesman, b. at Audenarde, 1803 ; was one of 
the secretaries of Congress, 1830 ; president of the Tribunal of Antwerp, 1831-40 ; envoy- 
extraordinary to Holland, 1839 ; minister of the interior, 1840-41 ; president of t)ie 
Belgian Chamber, 1843-48 ; governor of Hainault, 1841-45 ; minister of finance, 1852-55 ; 
Belgian plenipotentiary to France, 1860-61. 

ItlFFORD. James Heinritty Viscount , English administrator, b. 4811 ; graduated 
at Christ Church, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant of the counties of Warwick and Donegal ; 
succeeded his fatiier, third viscount, 1855. 

LIGNEy Entrene, Prince de, Belgian statesman, b. at Brussels, Jan. 23, 1804; 
charged to represent Belgium at the coronation of Queen Victoria, 1838 ; ambansador to 
France, 1842-48 ; and to Italy, 1848-49 ; member of the Senate, 1851, and president of 
that body, 1862-56. 

ItlLFORD, Thomas Lyttelton Pomys, Baron, English administrator, b. 1833 ; 
educated at Harrow, and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1855 ; a deputy- 
lieutenant of Northamptonshire ; succeeded his father, third baron, March 1861. 

LINCOLN, Right Rev. Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of. English 
divine, b. 1808 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1830, 
31. A. 1830, B.D. and D.D. 1839 ; head-master of Harrow School, 1836-44 ; canon-resident 
and archdeacon of Westminster, 1844-68; consecrated bishop of Lincoln, Feb. 186l>. 
Author of * Correspondence of Richard Bentley ;' * Memoii's of William Wordsworth ;' 
* Athens and Attica ;* and numerous theological works. 

LINDLEY, John, English botanist, b. at Catton, Norfolk, 1799; was secretary of the 
Horticultural Society, Ix)ndon ; professor of botany in University College, London, aud 
appointed examiner in the same, 1860. Author of ' Natural System of Botany ;' * Synopsis 
of the British Flora;* 'Vegetable Kingdom;' 'Fossil Flora of Great Britam;' and 
numerous other works on botany. 

LINDSAY, Lord Alexander Crawford, English author, b. 1812 ; educated at 
Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1833. Author of 
'Letters on Egypt, Edom, and the Holy Land,* 1838; 'Sketches of the History of 
Christian Art,' 1847 ; ' The Lives of the Lindsays,* 1849 ; and other works. 

LINDSAY, Hon. Charles Hugh, English politician, b. 1816 ; a colonel in the 
army ; was formerly in the 43d Regiment aud the Grenadier Guards ; elected M.P. for 
Abingdon, 1865. 

LINDSAY. Hon. James, English politician, b. 1815 ; educated at Eton ; a magis- 
trate and deputy-lieutenant for Lancashire; late lieut. -colonel Grenadier Guards; M.P. 
for Wigan, 1845-57, and since 1859. 

LINDSAY, William Scha^ English author, b. at Ayr, Scotland, 1816 ; was cabin- 
boy in the Isabella West Indiaman, 1831 ; second mate, 1834 ; appointed agent for tlie 
Castle Eden Coal Company, 1841; M.P. for Tynemouth^ 1854 and 1867; for Sunderland, 
1859. Author of ' Our Navigation and Mercantile Marme Laws ;* * Our Men-hant Ship- 
ping ;' and numerous pampldets and letters on the shipping interest. 

LINQEN, Ralph Robert IVheeler, English administrator, b. in Birmingham, 
1819; educated at Trinity Colle^, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1840; entered the 
educational department of the Privy Council, 1845 ; appointed chief secretary to the 
Committee of the Privy Council for Education, 1849. 



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[168] 



lalNNELLj John, English painter, b. in London, June 1792. Exhibited * Fishermen, 
a Scene from Nature,' 1807 ; 'The Morning Walk,' 1847 ; * The Return of Ulysses,' 1849 ; 
' Christ and the Woman of Samaria at the Well ;' ' The Disobedient Prophet ;* * Under 
the Hawthorn;' and numerous other landscape paintings and portraits of celebrated 
persons. 

UNWOODi Rer. ^ITiUiami English author, b. 1817; educated at Birmingham, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1839 ; was assistant master in Shrews- 
bury School. Author of ' Lexicon to .^schylus ;' edited ' Anthologia Oxouiensis,' 1847 ; 
and the plays of Sophocles, with English notes. 

ItlONVIIaLi:. Josepb, French mathematician, b. at St. Omer, March 24, 1806 ; 
studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1825-27 ; professor at the Ecole Poljrtechnique, 1831 ; 
and professor of mathematics at the College of France, 1837 ; member of the Bureau of 
Longitudes, March 26, 1862. Author of ' Notes and Memoirs,' and other works. 

lalPRANDIy Paul Petro^Titscliy Rtissian military commander, b. 1796; took part 
in the campaigns of 1812-15; appointed lieut. -general. 1848; held a command in the 
Crimea, 1854-55 ; appointed to tJie command of the 1st Corps of the Russian army in 
Poland, 1861. 

ItlSZTy Frans, Hungarian pianist and composer, b. at Reiding, in Hungary, Oct. 22, 
1811 ; studied under Czemy and Salieri ; assumed monastic orders in the Church of Rome, 
1864. Comjwsed * Don Sanche, on le Ch&teau des Amours/ 1825 ; and numerous preludes, 
symphonies, and fantasias. 

IiITTItEy William John. English physician, b. 1810; graduated M.D. 1827; formerly 
lecturer on medicine to the London Hospital ; a foimder of the Royal Orthopaedic Hos- 
pital Author of a • Course of Lectures on Deformities ' in the lancet, 1843-44 ; * Oration 
of the Himterian Society,' 1852 ; and other works. 

lalTTRE', Maximilien. French philologist, b. in Paris, Feb. 1, 1801. Author of 
*(Euvre8 d'Hippocrate,' 10 vols. 1839-61; 'Histoire de la Langue frangalse,' 1862; 
* Anguste Comte et la Philosophie positive,' 1863 ; ' Dictionnaire de la Langue frangaise ;' 
and numerous philosophical and philological works. 

ItlVINGSTONGy Rev. David^ English traveller, b. at Blantyre, near Glasgow, 
1817 ; worked in the cotton-mills of his native town ; admitted a licentiate of the 
Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow, 1838 ; ordained a missionary, 1840. Pub- 
lished * Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa,' 1857; 'Exploration of the 
Zambesi,' 1865. 

IiIiANDAFF. Right Rev. Alfred Ollivant, Bishop of, English divine, b. at 
Manchester, 1798; educated at St. Paul's School, London, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; vice-principal of St. David's College, Lampeter, 1827-43 ; regius professor of 
divinity at Cambridge, 1843-49 ; consecrated bishop of Llandaff, 1849. 

IiLOYD. Sir Thomas DaTies^ English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; formerly comet 13th Light Dragoons, and served in Canada with 
22d Regiment, 1840-44; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant for the counties of Cardigan, 
CarmarUien, and Pembroke; elected M.P. for Cardiganshire, 1865. 

UOCH, Henry Brougrham, English officer, b. 1827; entered the Bengal Cavalry. 
1844 ; sent to Bulgaria under General Beatson, 1854 ; retired from the Indian army, and 
attached to the late Earl of Elgin's special mission to China, 1857; appointed lieut. - 
governor of the Isle of Man, 1863. 

XaOCKE. John, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. 1826, and M.A. 1829; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 
1833 ; appointed recorder of Brighton, 1861 ; M.P. for Southwark since 1857. 

LOCOCKi Sir Charles, English physician, b. 1799; educated at the University of 
Edinbui^h, where he graduated M. D. ; appointed first physician accoucheur to her 
Majesty, 1840 ; retired from the medical profession, 1857 ; created a baronet, 1857. 

laOENNROT; Elias, Finlandish philologist, b. at Sammati, Helsingfors, April 0, 1802 ; 
entered the University of Abo, 1822, where he gi-aduated M.D. 1832 ; appointed professor 
of Finnish language and literature at the University of Helsingfors, 1853 ; president of the 
Academy of Sciences of Finland, 1864. Author of *Kalevala,' Helsingfors, 1835; *0m 
Finnames magiska Medicin,' 1832 ; ' Om nordtschudiska Spraket,' ib. 1853 ; and numerous 
poetical, medical, and philological works. 

ZiOGAN, Sir William Edmond, American geologist, b. 1798 ; educated at Montreal, 
and at the University of Edinburgh ; appointed director of the Geological SurA'ey of 
Canada, 1840 ; knighted, 1856 ; one of the juix)rs of the scientific department of the 
International Exhibition of 1862. 



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LONDESBOROU6H; William Henry Forester Denison, Baron, English 
administrator, b. 1884; educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford; was M.P. for 
Beverley, 1867-59 ; for Scarborough, 1859-60 ; succeeded his father, first baron, 1860. 

ItONDONi Rigbt Rev. John Jackson, Bisbop of, English divine, b. 1811 ; 
rector of St. James's, Westminster, 1846 ; canon of Bristol, 1852 ; bishop of Lincoln, 
1863 ; of London, 1868. 

laONDONDERRY. Frederick William Robert, Marquis of, English 
administrator, b. in Loudon, 1805 ; M.P. for the county of Down, 1825-52 ; a lord of the 
Admiralty, 1828; vice-chamberlain of the Household from Dec. 1834 to April 1835; 
privy councillor ; colonel of the Royal North Down Militia, 1887 ; succeeded bis father, 
third marquis, March 1854. 

IiONG. George, English historical writer, b. at Poulton, Lancashire, 1800; educated at 
Macclesfield School, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1822 ; 
called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1837 ; professor of Greek and Latin in the Univer- 
sity of London. Author of * A History of Prance and its Revolutions,' 1850 ; * Decline 
of the Roman Republic ;* and other works. 

ItONG, Ricbard Penmddocke, English politician, b. 1826; educated at Harrow, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1848, and M. A. 1852 ; a magis- 
trate for Wilts, and a deputy-lieutenant for the county of Montgomery; M.P. for Chip- 
penham, 1859-^5 ; returned for North Wiltshire, 1865. 

LONGFELIaOW, Henry Wads^trortb, American poet, b. at Portland, Maine, 
United States, Feb. 27, 1807 ; entered Bowdoin College, 1821, where he graduated, 1825 ; 
appointed professor of modem languages at Bowdoin College, 1829, and at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1835. Author of 'Voices of the Night,' 1841; « Evangelme,' 1847; 'The Golden 
Legend,' 1861 ; 'Miles Standish,' 1858; 'Tales of a Wayside Inn,' 1863; and numerous 
other poems. 

ItONGFORD, William Lygon Packenbam, Earl, English administrator, 
b. 1819 ; educated at Winchester ; entered the army, 1837 ; colonel, 1856 ; served in the 
Crimea, 1854-56, and in India and China, 1867-^0 ; succeeded his brother, third earl, 
March 1860; deputy -lieutenant for Westmeath, and a magistrate for Westmeath and 
Longford. 

IiONGPE'RIER, Adrien Pre'vost de, French antiquarian, b. at Paris, Sept. 21, 
1816 ; appointed under-keeper of the Egyptian antiquities in the mudeum of the Louvre, 
1847, and head-keeper, 1848. Author of * Des Rois arsacides ;' ' Le Mus6e Napol6on III. : 
Architecture, Sculpture, &c.' 1864 ; and numerous papers and memoirs. 

LONGRIDGE, James Atkinson, English civil engineer, b. 1817; consulting 
engineer to the Calcutta and South-Eastem Railway, and engaged in railway undertakings 
in Trinidad and the Mauritius. Author of several papers on the vemtilation of mines, 
and other subjects connected with engineering. 

XtONGSTRBET, James, American military commander, b. in South Carolina, 1821 ; 
entered West Point Academy, 1838; lieutenant, 1842; captain, 1862; major, 1868; 
resigned his commission, June 1, 1861, and joined the South ; appointed to a command 
in the Confederate army, July 1861 ; mtyor-general, 1862; lieut. -general, Oct. 1862. 

LONSDALE. William Lo-wtber, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1787 ; educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, :where he graduated M. A. 1808 ; M.P. for Cockermoiith, and 
for the county of Westmoreland from 1808 to 1841, when he entered the House of Lords 
as Baron Lowther; has been a lord of the Treasuiy; chief commissioner of woods 
and forests ; treasurer of the navy ; vice-president of the Board of Trade, and post- 
master-general ; was president of the council ftom March to Dec. 1862 ; lord-lieutenant 
of the counties and vice-admiral of the coasts of Cumberland and Westmoreland ; suc- 
ceeded his father, tirst earl, 1844. 

LOOM IS, Elias, American mathematician, b. 1818 ; studied at Tale College, Connec- 
ticut ; appointed professor of mathematics and physics at the University of New York, 
1844. Author of ' Elements of Geometry and Algebra ;' ' Recent Progress of Astronomy, 
especially in the United States,' 1860; 'A Treatise on Arithmetic, Theoretical and 
Practical,* 1866 ; and other elementary works. 

LOPES, Sir Massey. English politician, b. 1818 ; educated at Winchester and Oriel 
College, Oxford ; M.P. for Devon and Wilts ; a deputy-lieutenant for Devon, and captain 
of the 2d Devon Militia; M.P. for Westbury, 1867; for South Devon, 1868. 

LOPEZ, Don Francisco Solano, Paraguayan statesman, b. 1827 ; the eldest son of 
Don Carlos Lopez, president of the Republic of Paraguay ; succeeded to the presidency 
at the death of his father, by the will of the latter, Sept. 10, 1862 ; engaged in a war with 
Brazil, 1865-68. 



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[ 170 ] 



ImOB HERREROS, Mannel Breton dei Spanish author, b. at Quel, province 
uf LogroAo, Dec. 19, ISOO ; studied at Madrid, and entered the army as a volunteer, 
1814 ; keeper of the National Library, 1834-44 ; elected member of the Royal Academy 
of Spain, 1837. Author of '£1 Camaval,' Madrid, 1883; 'La Desverguenza, Poema 
jocoseria,' ib. 1858 ; and numerous other works in verse and prose. 

IiOSSING* Benson. American author, b. at Bickman, Dutchess County, New York, 
1819. Published ' Au Outline of the History of the Fine Arte,' 1841 ; ' Lives of the 
Signers of the Declaration of Independence,' 1847 ; * Pictorial Field-Book of the Revo- 
lution,' 1848-62 ; ' Illustrated History of the United States/ 1857 ; and numerous other 
works. 

IiOUGHy John Qrahaniy English sculptor, b. at Oreenhead, Northumberland, 1804 ; 
executed the statue of Queen Victoria for the Royal Exchange, London, 1845 ; * Comus,' 
in the Egyptian Hall at the Mansion House ; and numerous busts, groups, and 
statues. 

IiOUVET, Obarles, French politician, b. at Sanmnr, Maine-et-Loire, Oct. 22, 1806 : 
studied law ; represented Maine-et-Loire in the Leginlative Assembly, 1848 ; member of 
the Corps L^slatif for the department of Maine-et-Loire sinc« 1852. 

IiOVE, Sir James Frederick, English military commander, b. 1789 ; entered the 
army, 1804 ; served in Sweden, the Peninsula, at Antwerp, New Orleans, and Waterloo ; 
commanded a division in Canada in the Rebellion of 1835-30 ; employed in suppressing 
the Rebecca and Chartist riote, 1838-39; lieutenant-governor of Jersey, 1851-67; 
inspector-general of infantry ; and colonel of the 57th Foot 

LOVEIaACEy ^XTilliam Kiny Noel; Earl of, English administrator, b. 1805; 
educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; lord-lieutenant of Surrey ; a magis- 
trate for Surrey and Somerset ; colonel of the 2d Surrey Royal Militia. 

IiOVER. Samuel; Irish painter and author, b. in Dublin, 1797 ; elected Academician 
of the Royal Hibernian S«>ciety of Arte, 1828. Painted Uie portraite of the Marquis 
Wellesley, Lord Brougham, and of numerous celebrated persons. Author of * Legends 
and Tales illustrative of Irish Character,' * Handy Andy,' *The May Dew,' 'Rory 
O'More,' ' The Happy Man ;' and other songs, poems, and sketches of Irish life. 

laOWE; Rev. Richard ThomaS; English naturalist, b. Dec. 1801 ; educated at Christ 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1825 ; was British chaplain in Madeira ; 
appointed rector of Lea, Lincolnshire, 1852. Author of 'The Fishes of Madeira,' 1843 ; 
* A Manual of the Flora of Madeira ;' and numerous memoirs on zoological and botanical 
subjects. 

IiOWE. Risbt Hon. Robert; English stetesman. b. 1811 ; educated at Winchester, 
and University College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1833 ; called to the bar of Lin- 
coln's Inn, 1842 ; a member of the Council at Sydney, 1843-50 ; joint secretory of the 
Board of Control, 1852-55 ; paymaster of the forces and vice-president of the Board of 
Trade, 1855-58 ; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852-59 ; vice-president of Committee of Council 
on Education, 18')9-64 ; M.P. for Calne, 1859-68 ; for the University of London, 1868 ; 
chancellor of the Exchequer, Dec. 1868. 

ItOWEItIt; James Russell. American author, b. at Boston, United States, 1819 ; 
studied law, and graduated at Hai-vard University. Author of 'A Year's Life,' 1841 ; • A 
Legend of Brittany,' and ' Prometheus,' 1844 ; ' The Biglow Papers,' 1848 ; * A Fable for 
Critics,* 1848; and other works in prose and verse. 

IiOWER; Mark Antony, English antiquarian, b. at Chiddingley, Sussex, 1813 ; con- 
ductor of a boarding-school at Lewes. Author of ' English Surnames, an Essay on 
Family Nomenclature,' 1842 ; ' Curiosities of Heraldry,' 1845 ; * Patronymica Britannica,' 
1860 ; and other works. 

laO^VTHER; Henry, English politician, b. 1818 ; educate.d at Westminster, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and graduated M.A. 1838; formerly captain in the 1st Life Guards ; 
M.P. for West Cumberland since 1847. 

ItO'WTHER; Hon. Henry Cecil; English politician, b. 1790 ; deputy-lieutenant 
for Rutland ; a lieutenant-colonel in the army ; formerly captain in tiie 7th Hussars and 
major in the 10th Hussars ; M.P. for Westmoreland since 1812. 

LO'WTHER; JameS; English politician, b. 1840 ; educated at Westminster and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he .graduated B.A. 1862 ; called to the bar of the Inner 
Temple, 1864 ; elected M.P. for York, 1865. 

liOYD-LINDSAY. Robert James. English politician, b. 1832 ; educated at 
Eton ; a magistrate for Berks and county of Northampton, and a lieutenant-colonel Scote 
Fusilier Guards ; assumed the additional surname of Loyd by royai licence, 1858 ; 
elected M.P. for Berkshire, 1865. 



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IiUARD, Rev. Henry Ricbard, English author, b. 1825; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1847, M.A. 1850 ; fellow and assistant- 
tutor of Trinity College, and registrar of the University of Cambridge. Author of ' The 
. Life of Porson,' 1867. Edited ' Lives of Edward the Confessor,' 1858 ; * Annales Monas- 
tici,' 1864 ; and other works. 

LUBBOOKy Sir Johm WilUam, English mathematician, b. in London, 1803; 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1825, and M.A. 1833 ; high 
sheriff of Kent, 1852 ; one of the vice-presidents of the Royal Society. 

ItUBONIS, Louis' Ignace, French poUtician, b. at Nice, Aug. 9, 1816 ; studied 
law at the Universityof Turin, and graduated LL.D. 1837 ; was counsellor and procureur- 
gen^ral to the court of Nice ; appointed governor of the province of Nice, 1860 ; member 
of the Corps L^gislatif for the ^t circonscription of the department of Alpes Maritimes 
since 1860. 

ImVOAN, Georire Cbarles Bin^bam, Earl of, English military commander, 
b. 1800; educated at Westminster; M.P. for Mayo, 1826-30; elected one of the repre- 
sentative peers for Ireland, 1840; commanded the British cavalry in the Crimea, 
1844-46 ; a lieutenant-general in the army. 

ItUOASy Obarles, English musical composer, b. at Salisbury, 1808 ; educated at the 
Cathedral Grammar School in that city, and at the Royal Academy of Music ; conductor 
of the orchestra of the R.A. of Music, 1832; appointed principal of the R.A. of Music, 
1859. Author of several overtures, anthems, operas, songs, and glees. 

laUCASy Cbarles Jean, French political economist, b. at St. Brieuc, May 3, 1803 ; 
admitted advocate at the Royal Court of Paris, 1825 ; appointed inspector of prisons, 
1833. Author of ' On the Penitentiary System in Europe and America, ' 1826-30 ; ' Theory 
of Imprisonment,* 1836-38 ; and numerous other works. 

IiUCASy Hippolyte Jnlien, French author, b. at Rennes, Dec. 20, 1807 ; educated 
at the College of his native town, and studied law in Paris, 1826. Author of * Caract^res 
et Portraits de Femmes,' 1836 ; 'Le PortefeuiUe d'un Joumaliste,' 1856 ; *La Peche d'un 
Man,' 1862 ; and numerous poems and dramas. 

IiUDERSy Alexander Nicolaiev«ritcb "von, Russian general, b. 1790 ; entered the 
army, 1807 ; commanded a Russian army cori)8 in Hungary, 1849 ; held a command in 
the Crimea, 1854-65 ; created a count of the Russian empire, June 1862. 

ItUDWIG II. Kin^ of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, b. Aug. 
24, 1845, the son of King Maximilian II. and his consort. Queen Maria, daughter of tlie 
late Prince William of Prussia ; succeeded to the throne at the death of his father, 
March 10, 1864. 

LUDWI6 III. Grand Dnke of Hesse-Darmstadti b. June 9, 1806, the son 
of Grand Duke Ludwig II. and of Princess Wilhelmine of Baden ; appointed co-regent 
of Hesse-Darmstadt in consequence of an insurrection, March 5, 1848 ; succeeded to the 
throne at the death of his father, June 16, 1848 ; married, Dec. 26, 1833, to Princess 
Mathilde, daughter of King Lodwig of Bavaria ; widower. May 25, 1862. 

LUQARDj Sir Edward. English military commander, b. at Chelsea, 1810 ; educated 
at the Military College, Sandhurst; ejitered the army, 1821, and served in India; 
brigade-major, 1842 ; adjutant-general to the Queen's forces in the Puryauh campaigns, 
1848-49 ; adjutant-general in India, 1857 ; brigadier-general and major-general, 1858. 

ItUGY PELLISSACL Itouis Henri, Marquis de, French general and 
politician, b. Aug. 13, lf97 ; colonel, April 14, 1844 ; general of brigade, 1848 ; general of 
division, 1854 ; elected deputy to the Corps Liegislatif for the second circonscription de 
la Drdme, 1863. 

IiUIZ I. King: of Porttwal, b. Oct. 31, 1838 ; the son of Queen Maria II. and of 
Prince Ferdinand -of Saxe-Coburg; succeeded his brother. King Pedro V., Nov. 11, 1861 ; 
married, Oct 6, 1662, to P», b. 06t. 16, 1847, the youngest daughter of King Victor 
Emmanuel of Italy. 

IiUKIS, Rev. WilUam Colliners. English author, b. 1817 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1840 ; rector of Wath-juxta-Ripon, Yorkshire. 
Author of * Specimens of Ancirart Church Plate,' 1845 ; ' Danish Cromlechs and Burial 
Customs, compared with those of Brittany, Great Britain, &c.' 1861 ; and other works. 

XtUlfOy Rer-TliOnHUiy English mathematician, b. Dec. 2, 1805; educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, wnere he graduated B.A. 1828; appointed rector of Morton, Derby- 
shire, 1841, and of Brindle, Lancashire, 1864. Author of 'The Elements of Gepmetrj' 
and Mensuration ; ' ' A Key to Bishop Colenso's Biblical Arithmetic,' 1863 ; and various 
mathematical works. 



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IiUSK, An&re'Wf Enf;1i»h politician, b. 1813 ; a magistrate for Middlesex, an alderman 
of London, and a merchant in the City ; was shenJBT of London and Middlesex, 1861 ; 
elected M.P. for Finsbury, 1865. 

ItUYNESy Josepb d' Albert, Due de, French archaeologist, b. at Paris. Dec. 15, 
1802 ; represented the department of the Seine-et-Oise in the Constituent Assembly, 
1848 ; and in the Legislative Assembly, 1849. Author of ' Etudes numismatiques,' 1835 ; 
* Bssai Bur la Numismatique des Satrapies,' 1846 ; and other works. 

laYBItli. Sir CharleSy English geologist, b. at Kinnordy, Forfarshire, 1797; educat€d 
at Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated M. A. 1821 ; called to the bar ; appoint.€d 
a deputy-lieutenant for Forfarshire, 1831 ; president of the Geological Society, 183&-37, 
and 1850-51 ; knighted, 1848 ; created a baronet, 1864. Author of * The Principles of 
Geology,' 1833 ; 'Travels in North America,' 1841 ; and numerous geological works. 

laYONNET. Jean Baptistey French di\ine, b. at St. ^tienne, Loire, June 4, 1801 ; 
studied at tne College of St. Chamond and the Seminary of Argenti6re ; ordained, 1824 ; 
consecrated bishop of Algiers, 1846 ; bishop of St. Fleur, Oct. 15, 1851 ; appointed to 
the see of Valence, June 24, 1857. Author of ' Tractatus de Gontractibus,' 1837 ; and 
other works. 

laYONSj Richard Bickerton, Baron, English diplomatist, b. 1823 ; educated at 
Winchester, and Christ Church, Oxford ; attach^ at Athens, 1849 ; at Dresden, 1852 ; at 
Florence, 1853 ; secretary of legation at Florence, 1856 ; charg6 d'affaires, 1857 ; envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the United States, Dec. 1858; resigned, 
Nov. 1864; nominated K.C.B. 1859; G.C.B. 1802; British ambassador at Paris. 

IjYTTBLTON, Georgre ^^tlliam. Baron, English administrator, b. 1817 ; educated 
at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1838 ; under-secretary of 
state for the colonies, Jan. to July 1846 ; lord-lieutenant of Worcestershire ; high steward 
of Bewdley, and a magistrate for Staffordshire and Shropshire. 

]jYTTON| Riirht Hon. EdiKrard Lytton Bnlvirer, Baron. English statesman 
and author, b. 1806 ; educated at Trinity College and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A. 1826, M.A. 1835 ; created a baronet, 1838; assumed the surname of 
Lytton, 1844 ; M. P. for St. Ives, 1831-32 ; for Lincoln, 1882-41 ; and for Hertfordshire, 
1852 to July 1856, when he was elevated to the peerage ; secretary of state for the 
colonies, 1858-59, Author of * Ismael,' an Oriental tale, 1820 ; ' Pelham, or the Adven- 
tures of a Gentleman,' 1827; 'Zanoni,* 1843 ; 'A Strange Story,' 1862; and a great 
number of novels, romances, and dramas. 

ItYTTONy EdiKrard Robert Bnlwer, English diplomatist, b. 1881, only son of the 
preceding ; educated at Harrow and Bonn ; entered ttte diplomatic service, 1849 ; first 
secretar}' of the British legation at Copenhagen, 1864. Author, under the nom de plume 
of 'Owen Meredith,' of * Clytemnestra, and other Poems,' 1855; *The Wanderer, a 
Collection of Poems in Many Lands,' 1869 ; * Lucile,' a novel in verse, 1860 ; and other 
poetical works. 

LYVEDEN, Robert Vernon Smitb, Baron, English statesman, b. 1800 ; edu- 
cated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford ; was M.P. for Tralee, 1829-31 ; for Northamp- 
ton, 1831-59, when he was elevated to the peerage ; was a lord of the Treasury, 1830-35 ; 
secretary of the Board of Control, 1836-39 ; under-secretary of state for the colonies, 
1839-41 ; president of the Board of Control, 1855-58. 



M. 

MAOOABE, William Bernard, English writer, b. in Dublin, Nov. 23, 1801 ; 
consul in London for the Republic of Uruguay, 1847-51. Author of 'A Catholic 
History of England ; ' * Bertha, a R<iraan(;e of the Dark Ages ; ' both in 1856 ; * A True 
History of the Hungarian Revolution,' 1851 ; 'Agnes Arnold,' a novel, 1860; and other 
works. 

MACCHI, Manro, Italian politician, b. at Milan, 1815 ; founded the journal VltaXia 
at Genoa, 1850 : elected to represent Cremona in the Italian Parliament, 1860. Published 
' Les Contradictions de M. Vincent Gioberti,' 1863. 

McCLELLANy Georgre* American military commander, b. at Philadelphia, Dec. 3, 
1826 ; educated at West Pomt, which he left as second lieutenant, 1846 ; a memljerof the 
commission sent by the United States Government to the seat of war in the Crimea, 
1854-56 ; received the coinmissiou of raaijor-general of Volunteers on the outbreak of 
the civil war, 1861 ; appointed commander-in-chief, Nov. 1861 ; commander of the army 
of the Potomac, March 1862 ; relieved from his couunand, Nov. 1862. 



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MAOOLESFIELD. Thomas Auipistus Parker^ Earl of, English adminis- 
trator, b. 1811 ; was M.P. for Oxfordshire as Lord Parker, 1837-41; succeeded his father, 
fifth earl, 1850 ; lord high steward of Henley. 

McCLINTOOK; Sir Francis lacopold, English naval commander, b. at Dundalk, 
1819 ; entered the navy, 1831 ; post-captain, 1854 ; knighted for .services in the Arctic 
regions in searching after Sir John Franklin ; appointed commander of the screw frigate 
Aurora^ 1864. 

McCLURE^ Sir Robert John lae Mesurier, English naval commander, b. 
at Wexford, Ireland, Jan. 28, 1807 ; educated at Winchester and Sandhurst ; volunteered 
to join the expedition under Captain Back to the Arctic seas, 1836 ; joined Sir J. Ross's 
expedition to discover Sir J. Franklin, 1848 ; nominated commander in the navy, 1849 ; 
commanded the Investigator and discovered the north-west passage, 1850 ; knighted, and 
received the reward of j^5,000 offered for the discovery, 18^1. 

McOONNELLy John, American novelist, b. at Illinois, Nov. 11, 1826 ,* studied at 
the Law School of Lexington, Kentucky ; and subsequently fought as volunteer in the 
war with Mexico, and received the commission of captain. Author of * Talbot and 
Vernon,' New York, 1860; 'The Gleens, a Family History,' ib. 1851; ' Western Charac- 
ters,' 1858 ; and other works of fiction. 

McCORMIO, Robert, English author, b. 1804 ; studied medicine, and nominated 
fellow of the Royal College of Siirgeons, 1844 ; commanded the boat expedition in search 
of Sir J. Franklin, 1852. Author of ' Narrative of a Boat and Sledge Expedition up 
Wellington Channel in search of Franklin, with Plans of Search in the Arctic Ocean;' 
and other works. 

McCOSH, James, English theologian, b. in Ayrshire, 1811 ; educated at the Uni- 
versities of Glasgow and Edinburgh ; minister of the Church of Scotland in Arbroath, 
1835-60 ; appointed professor of logic and metaphysics in Queen's College, Belfast, 1851 ; 
at Princeton, 1868. Author of * The Method of Divine Government, Physical and Moral,' 
1860 ; 'The Supernatural in relation to the Natural,' 1862 ; and other theological works. 

McCRIE, Rev. Thomas, English theologian, b. at Edinbui*gh, 1798 ; educated at 
Edinburgh University ; appointed professor of theology at the English Presbyterian 
College, 1856. Author of 'Sketches of Scottish Church History,' and of many contri- 
butions to religious periodicals. 

McCROHON, Jose', Spanish military commander, b. at Ferrol, 1803 ; lieutenant, 
1817 ; colonel, 1841 ; general of brigade, 1843 ; field-marshal, 18i6 ; commanding general 
of the eastern district of Cuba and governor of Santiago, 1847 ; under-secretory to the 
minister of war, 1851 ; lieutenant-general, 1865 ; captain-general of New Castile, 1868 ; 
of the Philippine Isles, 1860. 

McOUIaLOOH. Horatio. English landscape painter, b. In Glasgow, 1806 ; studied art 
at Edinburgh. Exhibited '^A View on the Clyde,' 1826 ; * Highland Loch ; ' ' A View in 
Cadzow Forest,' 1838 ; * Mist rising off the Mountains,' 1861 ; and numerous other paint- 
ings. Elected associate of the Scottish Academy, 1836, and member, 1838. 

MACDONALD, Geoi^C, English novelist, b. in Scotland about 1824. Author of 
* Phantastes,' * Alec Forbes of Howglen,* * Unspoken Sermons,' and many other works. 

MAODONNELL, Sir Richard Graves, English colonial administrator, b. 1815 ; 
educated at Trinity College. Dublin, and graduated B.A. 1836, and M. A. 1838 ; called to 
the bar in Ireland, 1838, and at Lincoln's Inn, London, 1840 ; chief justice of the Gambia 
colony, 1843-47 ; governor of Gambia, 1847-51 ; governor of St. Lucia and St. Vincent 
in 1862 ; captain-general and govemor-in-chief of South Australia, 1865-62 ; governor of 
Nova Scotia, 1864-65 ; of Hong Kong, 1866. 

McDOWELIj, Imrin, American military commander, b. in Ohio, 1818 ; educated in 
France and at the Military Ac^idemy, West Point ; appointed brigadier-general on the 
outbreak of the civil war, 1860 ; m^jor-general, March 14, 1862 ; commander of the 
department of the Rappahannock, April 14, 1S62 ; relieved ftom hit command, Sept. 5, 
1862 ; commander of the department of California, Sept. 1863. 

MACDOWEItIt, Patrick, English sculptor, b. at Belfast, Aug. 1789. Executed 
•Lores of the Angels,' * A Girl Reading,' • Love Triumphant,' 'The Death of Virginia ;' 
statue of Lord Exmouth for Greenwich Hospital ; statues of Pitt and Chatham for the 
House of Lords ; and numerous other groups and statues in bronze and marble. Elected 
A.R.A. and R.A. 1846. 

McEVOY, Edvirard, English politician, b. 1826 ; a magistrate for the county of 
Meath ; formerly lieutenant in the 6th Dragoon Guards, and captain of Longford Rifles ; 
H.P. for tiie county of Meath since 1866. 



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MAOFARRENi George Alexander, English ransical composer, b. in London, 
March 2, 1818 ; educated nt the Royal Academy of Mosic : appointed member of the 
board of profesnors of the RA. of Music, 1860. Author of 'The Devil'* Opera,* at the 
Lyceum, 1838; 'Don Quixote,' Drury Lane, 184<5; 'Robin Bood,' her Majesty's, 1860; 
'She Stoops to Conquer,' Covent Garden^ 1864 ; and numerous other operas and songs. 
Author of ' Rudiments of Harmony,' 1860 ; and other works. 

McGHEB, Rer. Robert James, English theological writer, b. in Irtland, 1790 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated B.A. 1811; apfoiated rector of 
Holvwell. Hunts, 1846. Author of *A History of the Douay and Rhemish versions 
of the Bible ;' and other theological works. 

McOREGK>R, Sir Jobn, English physician, b. at Perth, 1791; educated at the 
University of Edinburgh, and entered the medical department of the ainny, 1809 ; served 
under the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula, and during the Mutiny in India ; 
appointed inspector-general of hospitals, 1656 ; honorary physician to the Queen, nnd 
created BLC.B. military division, 1859; changed his name by royal licence firom 
McAndrew to McGregor, 1863. 

McILVAINE; Rigbt Rev. Charles Petit, American theologian, b. at Bur- 
lington, New Jersey, Jan. 18, 1798 ; graduated at Princeton College, 1)816 ; admitted to 
deacon's orders, 1820 ; professor of history and ethics at West Point, 1825-27 ; cx)n- 
secrated bishop of Ohio, 1832. Author of * Evidences of Christianity,' which passed 
through thirty editions. 

MACINTOSH. Maria, American authoress, b. at Sunbnry, Oeoiigia, 1802. Author 
of • Aunt Kitty's Tales,' 1837 ; ' Conquest and Self-Conquest,' New York, 1844 ; * Violet, 
or the Cross and the Crown,' Boston, 1*856 ; and other works of fiction. 

MAOKAYy CbarleSy English author, b. in Perth, 1812 ; was editor of the Glcagow 
Argots, 1844-47; and subsequently of the Illvstrated London News. Author of 'The 
Hope of the World,* 1837 ; ' voices from the Crowd,* 1844 ; * Voices fh)m the Mountains,' 
1846; 'Egeria,' 1850; 'The Lump of Gold,' 1855; 'A Man's Heart,' 1860; 'Studies 
from the Antique, and Sketches from Nature,* 1864; 'History of Popular Delusions;' 
and other works in prose and versa. 

MCKENNA. Sir Josepb Neale* English politician, b. 1819 ; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin ; called to the Irish bar, 1848 ; M.P. for Youghal, 1866-68. 

MACKENZIE, Thomas* Scottish Judge, b. 1807 ; educated at Perth and the Uni- 
versities of St. Andrew's and Edinbui^h ; called to the Scottish bar, 1832 ; appointed 
sheriff of Ross and Cromarty, 1851 ; solicitor-general of Scotland, and a judge of the 
Court of Session, 1855 ; retired from the bench, 1864. 

MACKIE, James, English politician, b. 1821 ; educated at Oriel College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. 1844, and M.A. 1847 ; advocate of the Scottish bar, and a 
magistrate of Kirkcudbright ; M.P. for Kirkcudbrightshire since 1857. 

MACKIE, John Milton, American writer, b. at Wareham, Massachusetts, 181S; 
graduated at Brown University, Rhode Island, 1832. Author of 'Life of Leibnitz,' 1845 ; 
' Life of Samuel Gorton,' 1848 ; * Going to Spain,' 1855 ; and other works. 

MACKINNON, laachlan Bellingham, English politician, b. 1815; a magistrate 
of Surrey ; formerly captain in the Royal Navy ; elected M.P. for Rye, 1865. 

MACKINNON. William Alexander, English author and politician, b. 1789 ; 
studied at Lincoln ; was M.P. for Lymington, 1831-52, and for Rye, 1857-65. Author of 
' Thoughts on the Currency Question ;' * The History of Civilization ;' and other works. 

MACKINNON, WUiaui Alexander, English politician, b. 1813, son of the pre- 
ceding; educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1836; a magis- 
trate of Hants and Middlesex ; M.P. for Rye, 1852-53 ; returned for Lymington, 1857. 

McIiAGAN, Peter, English politician, b. 1814 ; educated at Edinburgh University ; a 
magistrate of the counties of Edinburgh and Linlithgow ; and member of the Council of 
tlie University of Edinburgh; elected M.P. for LiiUithgowshire, 1865. 

McIiAREN, Duncan, English xx)litician, b. 1800 ; deputy-lieutenant of Edinburgh ; 
and president of the Chamber of Commerce, Edinburgh ; elected M.P. for Edinburgh, 1865. 

MACLEAN, John, English colonial administrator, b. 1810 ; chief commissioner for 
British Kaffraria, 1852-60 ; lieutenant-governor of British Kaffraria, 1860-64 ; appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Natal, April 6, 1864. 

MACLEOD, Rev. Norman, English author, b. 1812; educated at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and in Germany ; appointed minister of Loudonn, Ayrshire, 1838 ; and the 
Barony pariflh. GfaSgow, 1851. Author of ' The Home Education ;' * The Ernest Student ;' 
and other works. Editor of Good Words. 



MAOItlSE, Daniel; English painter, b. in Cork, Jan. 25, 1811 ; studied in tlie schools 
of the Royal Academy. Exhibited 'Mokanna unveiling his features to Zelica,' 1833 
•The Banquet Scene in Macbeth,' 1840 ; 'The Play Scene in Hamlet,' 1842 ; ' The Sacri 
fice of Noah,' 1847 ; ' The Death of Nelson,' in the New Houses of Parliament, 1866 
and numerous other paintings. Elected A.B.A. 1830, and R. A. 1841. 

McMURDO| William, En^ish military commander, b. 1819; entered the army as 
ensign, 1837 ; lieutenant, 1841 ; captain, 1843 ; major, 1843 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1853 ; 
colonel in the army, 1854; created C.B. after the Crimean war, 1856; was insi>ector- 
general of Volunteer forces for five years. 

McNEILE, Rev. Husb, English theologian, b. at Ballycastle, county of Antrim, 
1795; studied at Trinity College, and graduated B.A. 1815; ordained, 1820; htmorary 
I canon in Chester Cathedral, 1845-48 ; appointed incumbent of St. I'aul's, Princes Park, 

, Liverpool, 1848 ; dean of Ripon, 1868. Author of * The Church and the Churches,' 1846 ; 

, and other theological works. 

MACNEIItL, Sir Johni English en^neer, b. at Mount Pleasant, near Dundalk, 1788 ; 
professor of practical engineering at Tnnity College, Dublin ; knighted on the opening of 
the railway from Dublin to Drogheda, 1844. Author of several works on engineering. 

McNEILIty Rig^bt Hon. Duncan, Scottish judge, b. 1793; educated at the 
Universities of St. Andrew's and Edinburgh ; called to the Scottish bar, 1816 ; one of the 
junior coimsel for the Crown, 1820-24 ; sheriff of Perthshire, 1824-84 ; solicitor-general 
for Scotland, 1835-41 ; lord-advocate, 1842 ; dean of the Faculty of Advocates. 1843-^1 ; 
M.P. for Argyllshire, 1843-51; lord chief justice-general and president of the Court of 
Session, 1862 ; sworn in the Privy Council, 1853. 

McNEIIiL, Sir John, English diplomatist, b. 1795 ; assistant envoy to the court of 
Persia, 1831 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Persia, 1836 ; presi- 
dent of the commission of inquiry into the administration of the commissariat of the 
army in the Crimea, 1855 ; appointed member of the Privy Council, 1,856. 

MACREADY, WUliani Charles, English actor, b. in London, March 3, 1793; 
educated at Rugby ; made his d^but as Romeo, at Birmingham, June 1813 ; made his first 
' appearance in J<ondon at Covent Garden, Sept. 16, 1816 ; i)erformed Shakespeare's prin- 
cipal plays in England and America. 

MADDEN, Sir Frederick, English author, b. 1801 ; knighted, 1833 ; keeper of 
manuscripts in the British Museum, 1837-66. Editor of • The WycliflBte Version of the 
H«»ly Scriptures ;* * Layamon's Brut^ or History of Britain ;' and author of numerous 
historical, literary, and geneal(^cal works. 

MADDEN, Richard Robert, English colonial administrator, b. 1798; fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons ; special magistrate in Jamaica, 1838-46 ; appointed colonial 
secretary of Western Australia, 1847. Author of * Travels in Turkey and Egypt,* 1829 ; 
• Shrines and Sepulchres of the Old and New World,' 1851 ; * The Lives and Times of the 
United Irishmen,' 1863 ; and other works. 

MADDOOK, Sir Thomas Herbert, English politician, b. 1792 ; entered the East 
India Civil Service in the Bengal Presidency, 1811 ; assistant magistrate at Moorshedabad, 
1815 ; kiiighted by patent, 1844 ; deputy-governor of Bengal, and president of the 
Council of India, 1845-49; M.P. for Rochester, 1852-57. 

MADOZ, Pascnal, Spanish statesman and author, b. at Pampeluna, Mav 17, 1806 ; 
studied law at the University of Sai-agossa ; successively civil governor of Barcelona 
and president of the Cortes ; minister of finance, 1855. Author of ' A Geographical, 
Statistical, and Historical Dictionary of Spain,' Madrid, 1848-50. 

MADRAZO, Federico, Spanish painter, b. in Rome, Feb. 12, 1815; studied at 
Paris under Winterhalter. Painted 'Godfrey proclaimed King of Jerusalem,' in the 
museum of Versailles, 1839 ; ' La Comtesse de Yilch^s ;' and numerous portraits of 
celebrated persons. 

MADVIQ, Israel, Danish philologist, b. 1800 ; professor of Latin literature at Copen- 
hagen. Author of ' Opuscula Academica,* 1834-42 ; • Syntax der griechischen Sprache,' 
Bnmswtek, 1847 ; and other philological works. 

MAEDLER, Johann Heinrich, German astronomer, b. at Berlin, May 29, 1794 ; 
appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Observatory at Dorpat, in Itussia, 
1840. Author of * Popular Astronomy,* Berlin, 1849 ; ' The Existence of a Central Sun,' 
Dorpat, 1846 ; ' Letters on Astronomy,' Mittau, 1845-47 ; and other works on astronomy. 

MAGENIS, Sir Arthnr Charles, English diplomatist, b. 1810 ; educated at the 
University of Dublin, and entered the diplomatic service, 1889 ; minister plenipotentiary 
in Switzerland, 1851 ; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Lisbon, 1859 ; 
nominated K.C.B. civil division, 1860. 



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[ 176 ] 



MAOIN; Alfred Josepli Aasruste, French author, b. at Hodena, Italy, Dec. 31» 
1806 ; educated at the Lyceum of Turin, 1812-15 ; rector of the Academy of the Seine-**!- 
Oise, 1852-62 ; rector of the Academy of Rheims, 1862. Author of ' Pr6ci8 de Geographic 
universelle,' 1840; 'Histoire de France abr^6e,' 1848; new edition, 1864; and other 
worka. 

MAONEi Pierre. French statesman, b. at Perigneux, Dec. S, 1806 ; nnder-secretary of 
finance, 1849 ; minister of public works, April 10 to Oct 26, 1851 ; reappointed, Dec. 1, 
1851 ; minister of finance, 1854 to Nov. 1860 ; made a senator, Dec. 31, 1852. 

MAONIN; Josepby French politician, b. at Diion, Jan. 1, 1824 ; member of the Con- 
stituent Assembly, 1849 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for the first circonscription of 
the department of C6te d'Or since 1863. 

M AONU8; EdiMrard; Prussian painter, b. at Berlin. Jan. 7, 1799 ; studied successively 
medicine, philosophy, and painting, the last under Schlesinger. Painted 'The Return 
of the Pirate ;* the portrait of Jenny Lind ; and portraits of all the members of the 
Royal Family of Prussia, and of numerous other celebrated persons. 

M AOUIR6, John FraaciSy English politician, b. 1815 ; called to the Irish bar, 1843 ; 
mayor of Cork, 1858 and 1862-63 ; principal editor and proprietor of the Cork Examiner : 
a magistrate and alderman of the city of Cork; M.P. for Dungarvon, 1852-65, and 
returned for Cork, 1866. Author of * Rome and its Rulers,' 1867 ; * Father Mathew,' 1863. 

MAOUIREy Rev. Robert, English author, b. in Dublin, 1826; educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, and graduated, 1847 ; curate of St. Nicholas, Cork, 1849-^2 ; appointed 
incumbent of Clerkenwell, 1867. Author of ' The Seven Churches of Asia ;' ' Things 
Present and Tilings to Come ;' and other religious and controversial works. 

MAILIiET; Jacqnep lae'onard, Frent:h sculptor, b. at Paris, July 12, 1823 ; studied 
under Pradier, at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Executed * Agrippine et Caligula,* a group in 
marble ; * Une Novice de Vesta,' 1853 ; * La Primavera della Vita,' 1864 ; * Chasseurs,' a 
group in bronze ; and numerous statues, groups, and busts. 

MAINDRON; Etienne Hippolyte^ French sculptor, b. at Champtoccaux, Maine-et- 

Loire, Nov. 16, 1801 ; studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and under David of Angers. 

Exhibited 'Jeune P&tre mordu par un Serpent,' 1834; 'Christ en Croix,' 1842; 'Soeur 

Rosalie,' 1861 ; and numerous groups, busts, and statues. 
MAINWARINO; Townshend, English politician, b. 1807; educated at Rugby; 

M.P. for Denbigh, 1841-47, and since 1857. 
M AITIiAND. Rev. Samuel Roffey, English author, b. in London, 1795 ; educated 

at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated B. A. 1816 ; formerly barrister of the Inner 

Temple ; ordained, 1821, and became librarian and keeper of the MSS. at Lambeth Palace. 

Author of * An Airtempt to elucidate the Prophecies concerning Antichrist,' 1830 ; * Cliat- 

terton, an Essay,* 1857 ; and numerous theological works. 

MAJOR; Rev. John RictaardBon, English educational writer, b. in London, 1797 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1819; appointed 'head- 
master of the Grammar School at Ring's College, London, 1830. Author of 'Latin 
Grammar and Exercises ;' ' Guide to the Greek Ti-agedians ;' and other schoolbooks. 

MAJOR, Richard Henry, English antiquarian, b. in London, 1818 ; appointed to 
the* department of maps and charts in the British Museum, Jan. 1844 ; was honoraiy 
secretary of the Hakluy t Society, 1849-58, Edited, for the same society, * Select Letters 
of Christopher Columbus,' 1847 ; 'Notes on Russia, translated from tJie Latin of Her- 
bertstein,* 1851-52 ; ' Early Voyages to Terra Australia,' 1859 ; and other works. Author 
of 'The Life of Prince Henry the Navigator,' 1868. 

MA JORIB ANKS, Dndley Coatts, English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Har- 
row, and Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate of Middlesex, and deputy-lieutenant of 
th« county of Inverness ; was M.P. for Berwick, 1843-49 ; returned for Berwick-on-Tweed, 
1859. 

MAIbAN. Rev. Solomon Cnsar, English philologist, b. 1812; educated at St 
Edmund's Hall, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1837 ; appointed classical professor in 
Bishop's College, Calcutta, 1888 ; ordained and appointed vicar of Broadwindsor, Dorset, 
1845. Author of 'The Coasts of Tyre and Sidon;* 'The Threefold San-tsze-King, or 
Triliteral Classic of China, with critical notes ; ' and numerous other works. 

MALCOIiM, John Winirfield, English politician, b. 1833 ; educated at Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1854 ; M.P. for Boston since 1860. 

MAIiDEN, Henry, English philologist, b. 1800 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, and graduated B.A. 1822; appointed professor of Greek in University College, 
London, 1861. Author of 'Evening,* a poem ; 'Origin of Universities and Academical 
Degrees,' 1834 ; contributor to the Transactions of the Philological Society. 



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— [ 177 ] 



MALET, Sir Alexander, Bart., English diplomatist, b. 1800 ; educated at Christ 
ChuFcb, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1822 ; successively attach^ to the embassies at 
St. Petersburg, Paris, and Lisbon ; secretary of legation at Turin, 1835 ; and at the 
Hague, 1836 ; envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to the Germanic Con- 
federation, 1852. Translator from the Norman of Master Wace's ' Chronide of the 
Conquest of England.' 

MAIiINS, Sir Richard, English Judge ; vice-chancellor, 1867. 

MAIiIiOIIT. NasBif, Turkish philologist, b. atZabouga, Mount Lebanon, 1823-;. studied 
Turkish ana Persian at Beyrouth and Constantinople ; professor of Oriental languages in 
the College of the Propaganda at Smyrna, 1845 ; lirst secretary and interpreter to the 
commanding general of the Anglo-Ottoman contingent in the Crimean campaign, 1854-55. 
Author of several ^mmars and books of conversation for teaching Turkish, Arabic, 
Persian,^ and other Oriental languages. 

MAIaMESBURY, James Howard Harris, Earl of, English statesman, b. 
1807, eldest son of the second Earl of Malmesbury ; educated at Eton, and Oriel College, 
Oxford ; sat a&MJ^. for Wilton in July 1841 ; succeeded to the earldom, August 1841 ; 
secretary of state for foreign affairs from February to December 1852,. and from 
February 1858 to June 1859 ; privy seal, July 6, 1866, to Dec. 1868. 

MALTE BRUN, Victor Adolphe, French geographer, b. at Paris, 1816 ; member 
of the Ge(^raphical Society, and secretary-general of the same, 1855-61. Author of 
' Les jeunes Voyageurs en France,' 1840 ; second edition, 1844 ; ' La France illustr^,' 
1855-57; *Les nouvelles Acquisitions des Russes dans I'Asie orientale,' 1861; 'Les 

« ]£tats Unis et le Mexique, Histoire et (}^ographie,' 1862 ; and other works. 

KLAME, Charles Ansnate, French politician, b. at Angers, Nov. 4,, 1805 ; mayor of 
Tours, 1851 ; president of the chamber of commerce, and member of the General 
Council for the canton of Tours-Centre ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the third 
circonscription of the department of Indre-et-Loire since 1859. 

BIAMIANI, Terensio Delia Rovere. Count, Italian statesman and author, b. 
at Pesaro, Roman States^ 1800 ; member of the Provisional Government constituted in 
Bologna, and. president of the aabinet of Rome, 1848 ; minister of foreign affairs in the 
Roman ministry of Galletti, 1849 ; member of the Italian Parliament, 1859 ; minister of 
public instruction of the kingdom of Italy, 1860 ; ambassador at Athens, 1861. Author 
of 'Del Papato,' Paris, 1851; 'Nuovo Diritto Europeo,' Turin, 1859; and numerous 
poetical,, philosophical, and political works. 

MANCHESTER, Rirht Rev. James Prince laCe. Bishop of, English divine, 
b. 1804 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge,, and graduated B.A. 1828 ; head-master 
of King Edward's Grammar School, Birmingham, 1838-48 ; consecrated bishop of Miui- 
Chester 1848 

MANCHES'TER, ^XTilliam DroffO Monta^ne, Duke of, English adminis- 
trator, b. at Bampton Park, Huntingdon, Oct. 15, 1823 ; educated at Sandhurst for the 
army ; retired^^ 1850 ; M.P. for Bewdley, April 1848 to June 1852 ; for Huntingdonshire, 
June 1852 to Aug. 1855 ; succeeded his fiither, Aug. 1855 ; major of the Huntingdon 
Militia and deputy-lieutenant of Huntingdonshire. 

MANN, Dndley, American diplomatist, b. in Virginia, United States, 1805 ; minister- 
plenipoteniary to Hanover, Oldenbuig, and Mecklenburg, 1845, and to all the German 
states, 1847 ; minister to Switzerland, 1850 ; secretary of state of the United States, 
1853 ; resigned the same year ; one of the commissioners to represent the Confederate 
Government in Europe, 1860-61. 

MANNERS, Ijord Oeorffe John, English politician, b. 1820 ; educated at Eton, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge; lieutenant-colonel Royal Horse Guards; M.P. for 
Cambridgeshire, 1847-^7, and since 1863. 

MANNERS, Richt Hon. Ijord John James Robert. English administrator, 
b. 1818 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 
1839 ; commissioner of works and buildings, March to Dec. 1852, and 185^-59 ; M.P. for 
Newark, 1841-47 ; for Colchester, 1850-57 ; and for North Leicestershire since 1857. 
Author of ' Poems,* ' A Cruise on Scotch Waters,' and other works. 

MANNINO, Anne, English authoress, b. 1812. Author of 'Mary Powell,' 'The 
Duchess of Trj^etto,' 'Good Old Times,* * A Noble Purpose Nobly Won,' 'Tasso and 
Leonora,' and other works of fiction. 

MANNINO, Rev. Henry Edward, English Roman Catholic theologian, b. 1808 ; 
educated at Harrow, and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1830 ; 
appointed archdeacon of Chichester, 1840 ; joined the Roman Catholic Church and 
entered the priesthood, 1851 ; received the degree of D.D. at Rome, 1852 ; appointed to 
succeed Cardinal Wiseman as titular archbishop of Westminster, 1865. Author of 
* Unity of the Church,' and other theological works. 



an HJLNDBOOK OP CONTEMPORART BIOGRAPHY. Mar 
[178] 



MANNINO, Sir William Montacne. English administrator, b. 1811 ; educated 
at University College, London ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1832 ; successively 
chairman of the Quarter Sessions in New South Wales, solicitor-general, acting Judjge 
of the Supreme Court, attorney-general, and a member of the Executive Council ; 
knighted, 1858. Author of ' Notes on Proceedings in Electoral Revision Courts.' 

MAN8EL, Rev. Henry LonsneTiUe, English theologian, b. at Cosgrove, Oct. 6, 
1820 ; educated at St. John's College, Oxford^here he graduated B. A. 1843 ; ordained 
deacon, 1844, and priest, 1845 ; appointed Waynflete professor at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 1859; dean of St. Paul's, 1868. Published 'Aldrich's Logic, with Notes,' 1849 ; 
'The Limits of Religious Thought,' 1858 ; and other theological works. 

MANSFIELD, ^XTilliam David Murray. Earl of, English poUtician, b. 1806 ; sat 
in the House of Commons as Lord Stormont, 1830-40, when he succeeded his fatlier, 
third earl ; lieutenant-colonel of the Perthshire Militia and lord high commissioner to 
the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 

MANSFIELD, Sir Wllliani Rose. English mmtarv commander, b. 1819 ; edu- 
cated at the Royal Militaiy College, Sandhurst and entered the army, 1835 ; lieutenant, 
1838 ; captain, 1813 ; mi^or, 1847 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1851 ; colonel, 1854 ; brigadier- 
general, 1855 ; chief of the staff in India, 1857 ; mi^or-general and K.C.B. 1858 ; nomi- 
nated to the command of the Bombay army, 1860 ; gazetted colonel of the 38th R^iiment, 
March 1862 ; appointed commander-in-chief in India with the rank of genend, Feb. 
1865. 

MANTEUFFEL, Otto Theodor, Baron von, Prussian statasman, b. at LUbben, 
Brandenburg, Feb. 8, 1805 ; studied law at the University of Halle ; minister of the 
interior, 1848 ; minister of foreign affairs, 1850 ; president of the Council of Ministers, 
1852 ; one of the j>eace plenipotentiaries at Paxis, 1856 ; ceased to hold office, Nov. 6, 
1858. 

MANVERS, Sydney 'William Herbert Pierrepoint. Earl, English ad- 
ministrator, b. March 12, 1825 ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated 
B. A. 1845 ; was M.P. for South Notts, 1862-60 ; succeeded his father, second earl, 
Oct. 1860. 

MAQUET, AnffUBte, French author, b. at Paris, Sept. 13, 1813 ; appointed assistant 
professor at the College of Charlemagne, 1831. Author of ' Le Beau d'Angennes,' 1843 ; 
' Histoire de la Bastille,' 1844 ; ' La Maison cki Baigneur,' 1856 ; and numerous novels 
and dramatic works. 

MARBCHAL, Charles Laurent^ French painter, b. at Metz, 1800 ; studied under 
Regnault Painted * Les Soeurs de Mis^re,' 1840 ; ' Le petit Gitano,' 1841 ; ' L'Ai>otheose 
de Sainte Catherine,' 1842, for the cathedral of Metz ; and numerous paintings on 
religious subjects for the churches and cathedrals of France. 

MAREY MONOE. Onillanme Felix, French politician, b. at Nuits, Cdte d*Or, 
Aug. 30, 1818 ; member of the General Council for the canton of Gevry ; deputy to the 
Corps L^slatif for the second circonscnption of the department of Cdte d'Or since 
1861. 

MARGOLIOUTH, Rer. Moses, English, b. 1805, of Jew parents; converted 
to Christianity and sent as missionary to Asia and Africa ; ordained, 1844. Author of 
* The Antiquities of the Jews in Great Britain ;' * The Hebrew Old Testament, with Critical, 
Historic^, Philological, Polemical, and Expository Comments ;' and other works. 

MARIE, Alexandre Thonias, French statesman, b. at Anxerre, Tonne, Feb. 15, 
1797 ; studied law in Paris : called to the bar of the Royal Court, 1819 ; member of the 
Chamber of Deputies for me fifth arrondissement of Paris, 1842-46 ; minister of justice 
in the Provisional Government, 1848 ; elected member of the Corps L^gislatif for the 
fourth circonscription of the department of Bouches du Rhdne, 1863. Author of ' Code 
des Avocats,' 1841. 

MARIETTE, Angnate E'donard, French archsaologist, b. at Boulogne but Her, 
Feb. 11, 1821 ; appointed to a post m the Egyptian Museum of the Louvre, 1848 ; 
charged with a scfentiflc mission to E^gypt, 1851 ; and on his return appointed keeper of 
the %yptian Museum of the Louvre. Published 'Choix de Monuments et des Dessins 
d^cou verts ou ex6cut^ pendant le D6blayement du S^rapeum<de Memphis,' 1856 ; 'Le 
S^rapeum de Memphis, d^di6 4 S. A. I. le Prince Napoleon, et public sous les auspices 
du Minist^re d'lStat,' 1857-64 ; and other works. 

MARLBOROUGH, John Winston Spencer Chnrchill, Dnke of, English 
statesman, b. June 2, 1822, eldest son of the fifth duke of Marlborough ; educated at 
Eton; M.P. for Woodstock, 1844-57; succeeded to .the dukedom, July 1857; president 
of the council, 1857--58, and again 1866^58, 



Mar HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. MajT 
[ 179 ]- 



BIARBIIERi Alfred Ferdinaad, Due de, French politician, b. May 7, 1805; 
member of the Corps L^gislatif for the third circonscription of the department of Haute 
Sadne since 1863. 

-MARMIERy Xavier, French author, b. at Pontalier, Doubs, June 24, 1809 ; appointed 
keeper of the library of St Genevieve, Nov. 22, 1846. Author of *Choix de Paraboles de 
Krummacher,' Strasburg, 1833; 'Lettres sur le Nord, Danemark, SuMe, Laponie et 
Spitzberg,' 1840 ; * Du Rhin au Nil,' 1847 ; ' Voyages et Litt6rature,' 1862 ; and many 
other, principally works of travels. 

MARRA8T| Francois, French politician, b. at Bayonne, Basses Pyr^ntos, 1800; 
-member of the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies. 1848-49 ; and deputy to the 
Corps L^gislatif for the circonsciiption of Mont de Marsan since 1852. 

JIARSHy Catherine, English authoress, b. 1820. Published 'English Hearts and 
English Hands ;* * Memorials of Captain Hedley Vicars ;* * Light for the Line, or the 
Story of Thomas Ward, a Railway Workman ;' and other works. 

MAR8H; George. American diplomatist, b. at Woodstock, Vermont, 1801 ; member 
of the Congress of tne United States, 1843-49 ; United States minister to Constantinople, 
1850-53 ; and at Turin, 1854-61. Author of a ' Compendious Grammar of the Old NorOiem 
Languages,' Burlington, 1838 ; and other works. 

MARSH. Matthe^e Henry. English politician, b. 1810 ; educated at Westminster, 
and Chnst Churuh, Oxford ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1836 ; late member of 
the Legislative Council of New South Wales ; M.P. for Salisbury since 1857. 

MARSH CALDIVELL. Anne. English authoress, b. 1796. Published ' Two Old 
Men's Tales,' 1834 ; ' The Triumphs of Time.' 1836 ; * Norman's Bridge,' 1847 ; • Time, the 
Avenger ;* ' Evelyn Marston ;' * The Rose of Ashurst ;' and numerous other novels. 

MARSHALL, Sir CharleSj English colonial judge, b. 1788 ; educated at Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; where he graduated B. A. 1810 ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 
1815; chief justice of Ceylon, 1832-36, when he retired; knighted, 1832. Author of 
* Marshall on Insurance ;' and other legal works. 

MARSHALL, ^Xrilliam, English politician, b. 1796.; a magistrate of Ctmiberland 
and Westmoreland; was M.P. for Petersfteld, 1826-80; ifor Leominster, 1830-31; for 
Beverley, 1831-32 ; for Carlisle, 1835-47 ; returned for East Cumberland, 1847. 

MARSHALL, "William Calder, English sculptor, b. in Edinburgh, 1818 ; studied 
in London unaer Chantrey and Bailey, and in Rome. Exhibited ' The Broken Pitcher,' 
1842; 'First Whisper of Love,* 1846; 'Sabrina,' 1847; executed the statue of Lord 
Clarendon for the Houses of Parliament, 1847 ; and numerous other grqups and statues. 
Elected A.RA. 1844, RA. 1652. 

MARSTON, ^XTestland, LL.D., English author, b. at Boston, Lincolnshire, Jan. 30, 
1820. Author of ' The Patrician's Imughter ;' 'A Life's Ransom ;' ' Death Ride at Bala- 
klava ;' and many other dramas and x>oems. 

MARSTRAND, Wllliani Nicholas, Danish painter, b. at Copenhagen, 1810; 
studied at the Academy of his native town, at Munich, and Riome ; professor and director 
of Academy of Fine Arts at Copenhagen.; painter of many scenes from the comedies of 
Holberg, and other Danish autiiors. 

MARTENSBN, Haas Lassen, Danish theologian, b. at Flensboi^, Aug: 19, 1808 ; 
licentiate in theology, 1886; D.D. at Kiel, 1840; appointed bishop of Seeland, 1843; 
elected member of the Danish Academy of Sciences, 1841. Author of ' Plan of a System 
of Moral Philosophy,' 1841; 'Meister Sckart,' 1649; seeond edition, 1857; and other 
works. 

MARTIMPRBY, Ance Anfl^nste dOj Trench military commander, b. 1809 ; was 
colonel, 1851 ; general of brigade, Aug. 1854 ; commanded a brigade in Italy, and made 
general of division, July 23, 1859. 

BIARTIMPREY, Edmond Charles de, French military commander, b. June 16, 
1808; studied at the Militajy School «f St. .Cyr; captain, 1835; lieut- colonel, 1848; 
colonel, July 1849; general of brigade, 1852; general of division, June 11, 1855; 
appointed to the command of the forces in Algiers, and governor of Algeria on the death 
or Marshal Pelissier ; nominated senator, Sept. 1, 1864. 

MARTIN, Charles Wykeham, English politician, b. 1801 ; educated at Eton, and 
Balliol College, Oxford ; a magistrate of Kent and Hants, and deputy-lieutenant of Rent ; 
was M.P. for Newport, 1841-52; for West Kent, 1857-59; returned for Newport, Isle of 
Wight, 1865. 



Mar HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOORAPHT. 
[180] 



MARTIN. Henri, French hi8toric4d writer, b. at St. Qnentin, Alsne, Feb. 20, 1810 : 
studied at the College of 81 QaentiiL Author of ' La vieille Fronde/ 1832 ; 'Tancr6de 
de Rohan/ 1855 ; ' flistoire de France/ Paris, 1838-36 ; ' De la France, de son O^nie et de 
MS Destinies/ 1847 ; ' L'Uniti Italienne et la France/ 1861 ; ' Pologne et Moscovie/ 1863 ; 
and other historical works. 

MARTIN. Nicolas, French author, b. at Bonn, on the Rhine, July 7, 1814. Author 
of ' Les Harmonies de la Famille,' Lille, 1837 ; ' Les Cordes graves,' ib. 1845 ; ' Les Poetes 
oontemporains de I'Allemagne,' 1860 ; ' Ponies nouvelles/ 1863 ; and other works in 
prose and Terse. 

MARTIN, Philip Wykel&am, English politician, b. 1829 ; educated at Eton, and 
Balliol College, Oxford ; M.P. for Rochester since 1856. 

MARTIN, Robert Monttromerj, English historical writer, b. at Tyrone, Ireland, 
1803 ; studied medicine at Dublin ; was surgeon in the Royal Navy, 1820-30. Author of 
* The British Colonial Libraij,' 1836-37 ; ' The Colonies of the British Empire,' 1834-38 ; 
'The History, Antiquities, Topography, and Statistics of Eastern India,' 1838 ; 'China, 
Political, Commercial, and Social,' 1847 ; and other works. 

MARTIN, Sir Samoel, En^h Judge, b. 1801 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; 
called to ^e bar of the Middle Temple, 1830 ; appointed Q.C. 1843 ; M.P. for Pontefract, 
1847-50 ; nominated a baron of the Exchequer, and knighted, 1850. 

MARTIN, Theodore, English author, b. in Edinbui^ 1816 ; educated at the High 
School and University of Edinbuigh ; practised as a solicitor in London since 18^. 
Author of translations firom the Danish : Henrik Hartz's play, ' King Rent's Daughter ;' 
Oehlenschltoer's dramas— 'Correggio/ 1854, and 'Aladdin,' 1857 : also ' Odes of Horace, 
with Notes,^1860; * Translations m>m Goethe, Schiller, and Uhland,' 1863; and other 
works. 

MARTINEAUf Harriet, En^h authoress, b. at Norwich, June 12, 1802. Author 
of 'Devotional Exercises for the Use of Toung Persons,' 1823 ; 'Traditions of Palestine,' 
1831 ; ' Society in America,' 1837; 'Deerbrook,' 1839 ; 'Eastern Life, Past and Present,' 
1848 ; ' History of England during the Thirty Tears' Peace,' 1850 ; and numerous other 
works, chiefly on social and political subjects. 

MARTINEAU, Rer. James. En^h theological writer, b. 1806; appointed pastor 
of the Unitarian Chapel in Little Portland Street, London, 1859. Author of 'The 
Rationale of Religious Ehquiry;* 'Endeavours after the Christian Life;' 'Studies of 
Christianity ;' and other works. 

MA8KELL. William, English theological writer, b. 1814 ; educated at University 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1836, and M.A. 1838 : ordained, 1837 ; chaplain 
to the Bishop of Exeter, and vicar of St Mary's Church, Devon, 1847 ; entered the 
Roman Catholic Church, 1850. Author of 'The Ancient Litur^ of the Church of 
England,' 1844 ; 'First and Second Letters on the Position of the High Church Party in 
the Church of England,' 1850 ; and other works. 

MAS8EY, Gerald, English author, b. at THng, Hertfordshire, 1828 ; formerly employed 
in a silk-mill, and as a straw-plaiter. ■ Author of ' Poems and Chansons,' 1846 ; ' Babe 
Christabel,' 1853 ; 'Craigcrook CastTe,' 1856 ; 'Havelbck March,' 1861 ; and other works 
in prose and verse. 

MASSXnr, Riffht Hott. William Nathaniel, English statesman, b. 1810 ; called 
to the bar, 1844; recorder of Pbrtsmouth, 1851; M.P. for Newport, Isle of Wight, 
1852-57, and for Salford, 1857^-6ff ; under-secretary of state for the Home Department, 
Aug. 1855 to Feb. 1858 ; chairman in Parliiament of the Committees of Ways and Means, 
1859-65 ; finance minister in India, 1865-68. Published' ' Common Sense versus Common 
Law ;' and ' A History of Ehgland dtiring the Rfeign of Oeoige IIL' 

MAS8INOBERD, Rev. Francis Charles, English historical writer, b. 1800 ; 
educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he gradliated, 1822 ; appointed incumbent 
of South Ormsby, 1825, prebendary of Lincoln, 18^, and chancellor of Lincoln 
Cathedral, 1862. Author of 'History of the English Reformation.' 

MA8SON, AtLgnste, French novelist and dramatic writer, b. at Paris, July 31, 1800. 
Author of 'La ConquSte diB Perou:' TjC Macon,' 1829; 'H^o'ise et Abeilard,' 1850; 
'Marie Rose,' 1853; 'De Ta, Qerb^/ 1861; ^Une Couronne d'Epines,' 1861; and other 
novels and dramas. 

MASSON, David, English author, b. at Aberdeen, Dec. 2, 1822; educated at Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, and at the- University of Edinburgh; professor of English language 
and literature at University College, London. 1842-66 ; appointed professor of literature 
at the University of Edinburgh, 1866. Author of 'Essays, Biographical and Critical; 
chiefly on BngUsh Poets,' 1856 ; 'British Novelists, and their Styles; a Critical Sketch 
of the History of British Prose Fiction,' 1859 ; and numerous other works. 



HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. May 

[ 181 ] 



MASSON; Victor. 'French judge, b. at Baume, April % 1807; studied law and medi- 
cine; founded the ubraries of ^Langlois' and 'Leclerq,^ 1847; and the Gazette keMonu^ 
daire de Medecine et de Chirurgiey 1854 ; appointed assistant-Judge to the Tribunal of 
Commerce of the Seine, 1867 ; judge, 1860. 

MATHESONj Alezanderi English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at the Uniyersity of 
Edinburgh ; a dii'ector of the Bank of England, and of the East and West India Docks ; 
deputy-heutenant of Boss, Cromarty, Inverness, and London; M.P. for Inverness since 
1847. 

KIATHB80N; Sir JameSi English politician, b. 1796; is a deputy-lieutenant of 
London, Ross, and Sutherland ; formerly a merchant in China; was M.P. for Ashburton, 
1843-47 ; returned for Ross and Cromarty, 1847 ; created a baronet, 1851. 

BIATHBW8, Comeliiuii American novelist^ b. at Port Chester, New York, Oct 28, 
1817. Author of 'Behemoth,' 1839; 'The Politicians,' 1840: 'Poems on Man in the 
Republic,' 1843 ; 'Money Penny, or the Heart of the World, ^ 1850 ; and other works of 
fiction. 

MATHIEUy Auiruste^ French politician, b. at Airze, Mame, Nov. 24, 1814; studied 
at the College of Epemay ; called to the oar at Paris, 1837 ; member of the General 
Council of Mame for the canton of Airze ; and of the Corps L^;islatif for the second 
circonscriptiou of the department of Corr^ze since 1863. 

MATHIEU9 Jacqnes Adrieni French theologian, b. at Paris, Jan. 20, 1796 ; entered 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice, was ordained a priest, and became secretary to the Bishop 
of Evreux, 1823 ; bishop of Laqgres, 1833 ; appointed archbishop of Besangon, June 11, 
1834, uid cardinal. Sept 30, 1850. Author of ' Pouvoir temporsl des Papes justifl^ par 
THistoire, etc.M863 ; and other theological works. 

JIAURICG, Rev. John Frederick Deaison, English divine, b. 1805 ; studied at 
Trinity Collie and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and gradfuated B.A. at Exeter College, 
Oxford, in 1831; chaplain and reader at Lincoln's Inn, 1846; incumbent of St iPeter's 
Chapel, Vere Street, Marylebone. Author of 'Eustace Conway,' 1831; 'Theological 
Essays,' 1853; 'The Conscience,' 1868; and numerous essays, lectures, sermons, and 
pan^phlets. 

jMAURY, Louis Ferdinand^ French writer, b. at Meaux, Seine-et-Mame, March 23, 
1817; studied at the ^cole Polytechnique ; appointed keeper of the library of the 
Tuileries, 1860 ; professor of history and morality to the College of France, 1862. Author 
of ' La Terre et I'Homme,' 1856 ; ' La Magie et les Magiciens,' 1860 ; ' Histoire des Reli- 
gions de la 6r^ antique,' 1857-60 ; and numerous other works. 

UMAURYy Matthe^ American hydrographer, b. in Spottsylvania County, Vii^nia, 
1806 ; served in the navy ; was promoted lieutenant, and appointed astronomer to the 
South Sea Exploring Expedition, 1840. Author of 'The Physical Ge<^p:aphy of the 
Sea,' 1854 ; and other works. 

JffAXSE. Henry Fitshardinire Berkeley. English colonial administrator, b. 
1830 ; eaucated at Eton, and entered the Royal Navy ; was naval aide-de-camp to Lord 
Raglan in the Crimean campaign 'f governor and commander-in-chief of the island of 
Heligohind, 1864-67. 

JSAYi Thomas Erskine. English historian, b. 1815; educated at Bedford School; 
assistant-librarian of the House of Commons, 1831 ; called to the bar of the Middle 
Temple, 1839 ; examiner of petitions for private bills, 1846 ; and taxing-master of the 
£ouse of Commons, 1847; appointed clerk- assistant of the House of Commons, 1856; 
created C.B, 1860. Author of ' Constitutional History of England since the Accession 
of George III. 1760-1860 ;' 1861-63 ; and other historical works. 

MAYER, Braatx, American author, b. at Baltimore, Sept 27, 1809; educated at 
St. Mary's College, and studied law ; United States secretary of legation to Mexico, 
1841-43. Author of ' Mexico as it was, and as it is,' 1844 ; ' Mexico, Aztec, Spanish, 
and Republican,' Philadelphia, 1851 ; and other works. 

BIAYO| Richard SouthTeell, Earl of, English statesman, b. 1822 ; succeeded his 
father, 1868 ; secretary for Ireland, 1858-59, and 1866-68 ; governor-general of India, 
Nov. 1868. 

MAYOi ThomaSi English physician, b. in London, 1790 ; educated at Oriel College, 
Oxford, where he graduated M.D. 1818 ; president of the Royal CoU^ of Physicians of 
London since 1856. Author of 'Elements of the Pathology of the Mind,' 1838; 'Out- 
lines of Medical Proof revised,' 1850 ; and other medical worlcs. 

MAYO| ^XTilUam Starbnck. American novelist b. at Ogdensbnig, State of New 
York, 1812 ; studied at the Medical College of New York, where he graduated M.D. 1833. 
Author of ' Kaloolah, or Joumeyings to the DJebel Eumri,' New York ; second edition, 
1851 ; ' The Berber, or the Mountaineer of the Atlas,' ib. 1850 ; and other works. 



HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Mel 
182]- 



MAZZINI, Oinseiipey Italian politician, b. at Genoa, June 28, 1808 : studied at the 
University of Genoa, where he graduated LL.D.; Joined the * Carbonari * revolt, 1830 ; 
<»ganized an expedition into Savoy, 1888; took reftige in England, 1837; triumvir of 
the Roman Republic, 1849. Author of several works on Italy, and many political 
pamphlets. 

MBADB. Oeorffe Gordon^ American military commander, b. at Cadiz, Simin, 1815 ; 
educated at West Point, 1832-35 ; lieutenant of artillery, 1836 ; lieutenant of topo- 
graphical engineers. 1842 ; major, 1862 ; brigadier-general of volunteers, 1862-63 ; com- 
mander-in-chief of the army or the Potomac, June 28, 1863, to April 1864. 

MEATH. WllUam Brabason, Barl o^ Irish administrator, b. 1803 ; colonel of 
the Dublin Militia, and a deputy-lieutenant or the county of Dublin. 

ME'OB, Jacques Phili]»pe, French politician, b. at Riom, Sept. 15, 1817 ; studied 
law, and graduated LL.D. ; practised at the bar of Clermont Ferrand, 1844-45 ; appointed 
assistant-Judg^ 1845 ; mayor of Clennont, 1862 ; member of the General Council, and of 
the Corps ligislatif for the first circonscription of the department of Puy de D6me, 
1868. 

MBHBBIBT DJEMIL, PaCha, Turkish diplomatist, b. at Constantinople, 1823 ; 
accompanied his fother, Reschid Pacha, to the emljassies in Paris and London, 1834-45, 
and received a European education; appointed secretary to the Sultan, 1849; represented 
the Porte at Paris, 1855, and at the Congress at Paris, 1856 ; accredited ambassador to 
Turin, 1857 ; chancellor of the Divan, Aug. 8, 1861 ; ambassador to Paris, 1862. 

MBHBBIBT KIBRI8LI. Pacha^ Turkish statesman, b. at Cyprus, 1810 ; educated 
in France, England, and Cfennany; appointed military governor of St Jean d'Acre, 
1846, and of Belgrade, 1848 ; governor-general of Aleppo, 1850 ; minister of marine, and 
grand vizier, 1854 ; governor of Adrianople, 1861. 

MBIONANi GulUamiie Rene'i French theologian, b. at Ranaze, Mayenne, April 1, 
1817 ; studied at Angers ; ordained priest, 1840 ; professor to the College of Tess^, 1841 ; 
vicar of St. Clotilde, 1857-62 ; appointed bishop of Ch&lons, Sept. 17, 1864. Author of 
' Proph^ties messianiques,' 1858 ; ' Ilvangiles et la Critique au XIX. Si6cle,' 1864 ; and 
other works. 

MBINIOKB, Karl Bduard, German geographer, b. at Brandenburg, Prussia, Aug. 
81, 1803; studied at the University of Berlin; appointed professor in the College of 
Prenzlau, 1835, and director of the same, 1846. Author of 'The Continent of Australia,' 
1837 ; ' Ethnographical Studies on Asia,' ib. 1837 ; and other geographictil works. 

1IBI88NER, Alfred, German author, b. at Toplitz, Oct. 15, 1822; studied medicine, 
and graduated M.D. 1846. Author of ' Poems,' Leipsic, 1845 ; ' Im Jahre des Heils,' ib. 
1848 ; ' Henrich Heine, Erinnerungen,' Hamburg, 1856 ; and other works in verse and 
prose. 

MEIS80NIBR| Bmest, French painter, b. at Lyons, 1813. Exhibited 'Petit Hes- 
sager,' a microscopic painting, 1836 ; ' La Partie de Boules,' 1848 ; ' Napoleon IIL 4 
Solferino,' 1861 ; and numerous other paintings, chiefly historical 

MELLER; IXralter, English politician, b. 1818; a J. P. and depuly-lieutenant of the 
Tower Hamlets, and captain-commander 1st Surrey Light Horse volunteers; elected 
M.P. for Stafford, 1865. 

MELLIN. ' Onstaf, Swedish author, b. at Revolax, Finland, April 23, 1803 ; 
appointea pastor of Clara, 1829. Author of * The Flower of Rinnekulla,' Stockholm, 
1829; 'The Princess of Angola,' 1839 ; 'The Slave,' a poem, 1840 ; * History of North 
Scandinavia,' 1850 ; and numerous works of fiction, i>oerry, and history. 

MELLINBT^ E'mlley French military commander, b. at Nantes, June 11, 1798; 
educated for a military career; lieutenant, 1815; general of brigade, 1850; general of 
division, June 22, 1855; held a command in the campaign in Italy, 1859; chief com- 
mander of the National Guard of the Seine, Oct 23, 1863 : created senator, March 15, 
1865. 

MEIiIaOR, Sir John. English Judge, b. at Hollingwood, near Oldham, 1808; called 
to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1833 ; appointed Q.C. 1851 ; recorder of Leicester, Feb. 
1855 : elevated to the bencn, 1861 ; returned M.P. for Great Yarmouth, 1857, and for 
Nottingham, 1859. 

MEIiVIIaXi, Rev. Henry, English author, b. 1800; educated at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, and graduated B, A. 1821 ; appointed incimibent of Camden Chapel, Camber- 
weU, 1830 ; chaplain to the Tower of London, 1840 ; canon of St. Paul's, 1856. Author 
of Sermons preached before the University of Cambridge,' and other works. 



Mel SANBBOOK OF CONTEMPOBABT BIOGRAPHY. Mes 



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MSIiVILLE, Oeorge John Whyte^ English author, b. 1821 ; entered the army, 
1839 ; captain in the Coldstream GnaraSj 1846 ; retired, 1849. Author of * Digby Grand ;' 
•General Bounce;' 'The Interpreter;' 'Good for Nothing, or All Down Hill;* 'The 
Gladiators ;* and numerous other works of fiction. 

MEItVILLE. Henry Dundas, Viscount, English military commander, b. 1801 ; 
a colonel in the army, and formerly aide-de-camp to the Queen ; commanded the 8Sd Foot 
during the Canadian rebellion of 1888 ; and a brigade at Gktojerat, 1849 ; commanded a 
division in India, 1853 ; lieutenant-general and governor of Edinburgh Castle, 1860 ; sat 
in the House of Commons as Hob. H. Dundas, 1826-31 ; succeeded his fSather, second 
viscount, 1851. 

MEIiVILLE| Hernkan, American noveli^ b. at New York, Aug. 1, 1819; educated 
in the State of Massachusetts. Author or 'Typee,' 1846 ; * Omoo, or Adventures in the 
South Seas,' 1847 ; ' White Jacket/ 1850 ; ' Israel Potter,' 1854 ; ' Piazza Tales,' 1856 ; and 
other works. 

MENSDORFF POUILLYi Alexander. Connt, Austrian statesman, b. 1813 ; 
entered the Austrian army, 1830 ; general, 1849 ; ambassador at the court of St. Peters- 
burg, 1854-60 ; governor of Galicia, 1862-64 ; appointed minister of foreign aflTairs, and 
president of the Council of Ministers, Oct 27, 1864 ; resigned, July 27, 1865. 

MENZBL. ^XTolfsranSTy German historical writer, b. at Waldenberg, Silesia, June 21, 
1798 ; stuaied at Breslau, Jena. Author of ' History of the Germans,' 182^25 ; ' German 
Literature,' 1828 ; second edition, 1836 ; * The Spirit of History,*^ 1835 ; ' History of 
Europe from 1798-1815,' 1863 ; * History of Nature, in a Christian Point of View,' 1856 ; 
and numerous other historical works. 

MBRCIERy The'odore* Baron. French politician, b. 1804 ; member of the Corps 
L^slatif forthe second circonscription of the department of Mayenne since 1852. 

MEREDITH^ Oeoree, English author, b. in Hampshire, 1828 ; educated partly in 
Germany. Author of "Poems,' 1853 ; * Farina, a Legend of Cologne,' 1858 ; * The Ordeal 
of Richard Feverel,' 1859 ; * Evan Harrington,' 1860 ; and other works in prose and 
verse. 




1860 ; and numerous other works. 

KB'RIME'E; Prosper, Fi-ench author, b. at Paris, Sept. 23, 1803 ; elected member of 
the French Academy, 1844 ; created senator, 1853. Author of ' The&tre de Clara Gazul, 
Comedienne Espagnole,' 1825 ; * Voyage dans le Midi de la France,' 1835 ; ' Melanges 
historiques et litt^raires,' 1855 ; and numerous other works. 

MERIVALE, Rev. CharleSi English author, b. 1808 ; educated at St John's College, 
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. 1830; select preacher before the University of Cam- 
bridge, 1838-40, and one of the preachers at Whitehall, 1840-42 ; rector of Lawford, 
Essex, and chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons. Author of ' History of 
the Romans under the Empire,' 1850-62, in 7 vols. ; and of a translation of the Iliad, 1869. 

MERIVALE; Herman, English political economist, b. 1806; educated at Trinity 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1827; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 
1832 ; professor of political economy in the University of Oxford, 1837 ; appointed per- 
manent under-secretary of state for the colonies, 1848 ; and for the Indian l>epuiment. 
Author of * Lectures on the Colonies and Coloni^tion,' 1841 ; and other works. 

MERLE D'AUBIONE', Jean Henri, Swiss author, b. at Geneva, Aug. 16, 1794 ; 
studied at the Universities of Leipsic and Berlin; pastor of the French Protestant 
church at Hamburg, 1823-31 ; professor of church history to ttm Ideological School of 
Geneva since its foundation, 1830. Author of ' History of the Reformation of the Six- 
teenth Century,' Paris, 1835-53 ; new edition, 1861-62 ; '^life of Cromwell;' * Histoire de 
la Reformation en Europe au Temps de Calvin,' 1862 ; and other historical works. 



MERRY, James, English politician, b. 1805 ; educated at Gh&sgow ; an ironmaster in 
Lanark and Ayrshire ; M. P. for Falkirk, &o. , March to July 1857, and since 1859. 

ME'RY, Joseph, French author, b. at Aygalades, near Marseilles, Jan. 21, 1798 ; studied 
at Marseilles. Author of ' L'Insurrection,' a poem ; ' Sciences de la Vie Italienne,' 1837 ; 
' Les Nuits de Londres,* 1840 ; ' Napolton en Italie,' 1859 ; and numerous other works in 
Xm>8e and verse. 

MESLIN, Jacqnes Felix, French politician, b. at Briquebec, Manche, March 1, 
1785 ; educated for the army; lieutenant, 1809; colonel, 1835; lieutenant general, 1845 ; 
entered the section of reserve, 1849 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the fouith cir- 
conscription of the department of La Manche since 1852. 



Met HANDBOOK OF CONTEMFOBART BIOaRAFHT. Mil 
— ClWl 



METOAIiFB. Rer. Frederick, English antbor, b. 1817; edacated at St John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1838. Author of *A History of Oerman 
Literature,' 1868 ; ' The Oxonian in Iceland,-' and other works. 

METBYARDi Elixa, English authoress, b. 1801. Published, chiefly under the pseu- 
donym of • Silverpen,' • Struggles for Fame,* 1846 ; * The Doctor's Little Daughter,* 1860 ; 
'Lilian's Golden Hours,' 1866; "The HaUowed Spots of London,' 1862; 'The LitUe 
Museum Keepers,' 1863 ; ' The Life of Wedgwood,' 1866 ; and other works. 

METHUEN, Frederick Heiunr, Baron^ En^h administrator, b. 1818; lord in 
waiting and aide-de-camp to the Queen ; colonel of the Royal Wiltshire Militia and 
deputy -lieutenant of Wilts and Gloucestershire. 

METTERNICH, Richard Cnememt, Prince TOn, Austrian diplomatist, b. at 
Vienna, Jan. 7, 18:29 ; Austrian ambassador at the court of Saxony, 1864 ; charged with 
a special mission to Paris, 1869 ; appointed hereditary councillor of the Austrian empire^ 
April 18, 1861 ; Austrian ambassador to the court of France, 1862. 

MEURIOB, Fraaqois Paul. French novelist and dramatic writer, b. in Paris, Feb. 
1820; studied at the College of Chariemagne. Author of 'Benvenuto Cellini,' 1862; 
* Scharayl,' 1866 ; with Q. Sand, ' Le Drac,' 1864 ; and other dramas and works of fiction. 

MEYRICK, Rer. Frederick, English anthor, b. 1826 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1847; appointed one of her Mi^esty's Whitehall preachers, 
1866, and one of her Majesty's inspectors of schools, 1869. Author of ' Practical Work- 
ing of the Church in Spain f * The Outcast and Poor of London ;' * The Wisdom of Piety ;' 
and other works. 

MI ALL; CdiMrard, English writer and politician, b. at Portsmonth, 1809; edocated at 
the Protestant Dissenters' College, at Wymondley, Beris ; was minister of an Independent 
congregation at Ware for three years, and at Leicester ; editor and founder of the Noa- 
conformist; M.P. for Rochdale, 1862-67; for Bradford, 1869. Author of 'Ethics of 
Nonconformity ;' 'Bases of Belief;' and other works. 

MICHELET, jQlee, French author, b. in Paris, Aug. 21, 1798 ; professor of history 
at the CoU^ Rollin, 1821-26 ; professor of histonr at the Coll^ de France, 1838. 
Author of • History of France,' 1833-63, in 15 vols. ; ^History of the French Revolution,' 
1847-63, in 7 vols. ; * La Mer,' 1861 ; ' La Bible de I'Humanit^,' 1864 ; and numerous other 
works, chiefly historical 

MICHELET, Karl LndwiiTi German philosophical writer, b. at Berlin, Dec 4^ 1801 ; 
studied in the University of Berlin, and graduated Ph.D. 1824. Author of 'System of 
Moral Philosophy,' Berlin, 1828; 'Anthropology and Psychology,' ib. 1840; 'Bine Ita- 
lienische Reise in Briefen,' ib. 1866 ; and other philosophical works. 

MICHELL, Richard, English divine, b. 1806 ; educated at Wadham College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. 1824 ; professor of logic In the University of Oxford, 1839-49 ; 
public orator of the University, and vice-princip^ and tutor of Magdalen Hall ; appointed 
rector of South Moreton, Berks, 1866. 

MIDDLETONi Henry WUlottiTkbyi Baron, English administrator, b. Aug. 28, 
1817 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; a deputy-lieutenant and magis- 
trate of the East Riding of Yorkshire : colonel 1st Brigade East Yorkshire Artillery 
Volunteers ; succeeded his cousin, seventh baron, 1866. 

MIDDLETON, Rer. IVilliam John Brodrick, Viscount, English divine, 
b. 1798; educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 182u, M.A. 1823; 
entered holy orders, 1826 ; canon of Wells, and chaplain to the Queen ; was rector of 
Bath, 1839-64 ; succeeded his brother, sixth viscount, Dec. 1863. 

MIEROSLA'WSKI, Lonis, Polish general, b. at Nemours, France, 1814 ; educated at 
the Military School of Ralitz, and received a commission as ensign, 1830 ; joined the 
Secret Democratic Society of Poland, 1844; arrested, 1846; condemned to death at 
Berlin ; liberated in the Revolution of 1848. Author of * History of the Polish Revolu- 
tion,' 1836 ; 'A Critical Analysis of the Campaign of '31,' 1846 ; and other works. 

MIONET, Francois Anflroste. French historical writer, b. at Aix, May 8, 1796 ; 
educated at Avignon ; called to the bar of his native town, 1818 ; director of the archives 
of the Foreign Ministry, 1822 ; elected member of the French Academy, 1836 ; and per- 
petual secretary of the same, 1837. Author of ' History of the French Revolution of 
1789-1814,' 1824 ; ' History of Marie Stuart,' 1861. 

MILBANK, Frederick Accloni, English politician, b. 1820; educated at Harrow; 
a deputy-lieutenant of the co»mty of Durham ; high sheriff and a magistrate of the 
North Riding of York, 1852 ; formerly an officer in the 79th Highlanders ; elected M.P. 
for the North Riding of Yorkshire, 1866. 



:il HAKDBOOK OF GONTEMPORABY BIOGRAPHY. Mil 

[ 186 ]— 



MILES, Sir Williami English politician, b. 1797; educated at Eton, and Christ 
Church, Oxford; was M.P. for Chippenham, 1820 ; for Bomuey, 1829-32 ; for East Somer- 
set, 1834-65 ; made a baronet, 1859. 

MIL6Y. Rev. John, Irish Roman Catholic theologian, b. in Ireland, 1805 ; educated 
at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth ; parish priest of Bray, County Wicklow. Author 
of ' Rome under Paganism and the Popes,' 1832-34 ; ' History of the Papal States from 
their Origin down to the Present Day,' 1850. 

Mill, John Stoart, English political economist, b. 1806 ; entered the East India 
House, 1823 ; chief examiner of Indian correspondence, 1856-58 ; elected rector of 
St, Andrew's University, 1866 ; M.P. for Westminster, 1865-68. Author of * A System of 
Logic,' 1843; * Essays on Political Economy ;* 'A Treatise on Liberty;' 'Utilitarianism;' 
and other works. 

MILLAIS, John Everett, English painter, b. at Southampton, 1829 ; studied in 
ihe schools of the Royal Academy. Exhibited * Pizarro seizing the Inca of Peru,' 1846 ; 
* The Tribe of Bei^jamin seizing the Daughters of Shiloh,' 1848 ; ' The Order of Release,' 
1853 ; • The Rescue,' 1855 ; * Vale of Rest,' 1860 ; ' My First Sermon,' 1863 ; * Charley is 
my Darling,' 1864; and numerous other paintings. Elected A.R.A. 1853, and R.A. 
Dec. 1863. 

MILLER, Enunannel, French philologiBt, b. at Paris, 1812 ; assistant in the manu- 
script department of theBiblioth^ue Royale, 1834 ; appointed librarian to the National 
Assembly, , 1849, and to the Corps L^gislati^ 1858. Published ' Supplement aux 
demieres Editions des petits O^ographes Qrecs,' 1839 ; and other works. 

MILLER. Rev. John Oale, English theologian, b. at Margate, 1814 ; educated at 
St John's Collie, Oxford, ana graduated B.A. at Lincoln College, 1835; ordained, 
1837; appointed rector of Birmingham, 1846, and honorary canon of Worcester 
Cathedral, 1852 ; vicar of Greenwich, 1867. Author of ' Sermons,' and several contro- 
versial and religious works. 

MILLER, Steame Ball. English politician, b. 1813 ; called to the Irish bar, 1836 ; 
became a Q.C. 1852 ; M.P. for Armagh, 1857-59, and since 1865. 

MILLER, Tavemer John, English politician, b. 1804 ; a merchant in Westminster ; 
a magistrate and deputy-dieutenant of Middlesex ; was M.P. for Maldon, 1862 ; returned 
for Colchester, 1857. 

MILLER, Thomas, English author, b. at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Aug. 31, 1808. 
Author of ' Song of tne Sea Nymphs ;* * Rqyston Gower,' * A Day in the Wc^ds,' 1836 ; 
'Histoid of the Anglo-Saxons;' 'Lights and Shadows of London Life;' 'Sketches of 
English Country JLife ; ' and numerous other works in prose and verse. 

MILLER, William, English politician, b. 1816 ; educated at Edinburgh ; formerly a 
merchant and British vice-consul at St. Petersburg ; M.P. for Leith since 1859. 

MILLER, William Allen, English chemist, b. at Ipswich, Dec. 17, 1817 ; educated 
at the Quakers' Seminary in Yorkshire ; studied medicine and chemistry at King's 
College, London, and in Professor Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, 1840 ; appointed 
professor of chemistry in King's College, London, 1845 ; Government commissioner to 
r^ort on the water supply of the metropolis ; ass^yer to the Mint and Bank of England. 
Author of ' Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical ;' and other works. 

MILLER, William Hallows, English mineralogist, b. 1803 ; graduated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1826 ; appointed professor of mineralogy in his college, 1832 ; vice- 
president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Author of papers ' On Spurious 
Rainbows,' 'On the Ciystals of Boracic Acid,' 'On the Construction of tiie Imperial 
Standard Pound,' and otiier scientific sulfgects. 

MILLET, Baptiate Pierre, French politician, b. at Orange, Jan. 16, 1796 ; member 
•of the General Council for the canton of Orange, and mayor of the town ; deputy of the 
Coips L^gislatif for the second circonscription of the department of Vauduse since 
1852. 

MILLON, Olande, French politician, b. Oct. 13, 1828; member of the General 
Council of Vaubecourt ; deputy to the Corps L^slatif for the first circonscription of 
the department of the Meuse since 1860. 

MILLS, John Remington, English politician, b. 1798; a magistrate of Middlesex 
and Herts ; formerly a silk manufacturer ; elected M.P. for Wycombe, 1862. 

MILTON, William, Viscount, English politician, eldest son of Earl Fitzwilliam. 
b. 1839 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; lieutenant in the 1st West 
York Yeomanry Cavalry ; elected M.P. for the South-West Riding of Yorkshire, 1866. 



Min HANDBOOK OF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. Mof 

[186] 



MINOHETTIy MarcO; Italian Btatesman, b. at Bologna, Sept. 8, 1818 ; member of 
the Coramittee of Finance at R<»nie, 1847 ; and minister of public works, March 10 to 
April 29, 1848 ; appointed by Count Cavour secretary-general to the minister of foreign 
aflaira, 1859 ; minister of the interior, Oct 1860 ; president of the council and minister 
of finance, March 1863 to 1866. 

MINIE", Claude E'tiennei French mechanician, b. at Paris about 1805 ; entered the 
army as a private soldier ; chef de battaillon, 1862 ; appointed inspector of the foundries 
and gun-manufacturer to the Viceroy of Egypt, 1858. 

MINTO, William Hncb Elliott. Earl. English administrator, b. 1814 ; educated 
at Eton, and Trinity College, Cambrioge ; a aepu^-lieutenant of Roxburgh ; was M.P. 
for Hythe, 1837-41 ; for Greenock, 1847-62 ; and for Clackmannan, 1857-69 ; succeeded 
his father, second earl, Aug. 1869. 

MIOIUiN-OARVALHO, Caroline Felix, French operatic singer, b. at Mar- 
seilles, 1829 ; studied at the Conservatoire of Paris ; made her first appearance in Paris 
at the Grand Opera in ' Lncia di Lamhiermoor,' 1849 ; married to M. Carvalho, director 
of the The&tre Lyrique, 1863. 

MIRE'8| JnleSy French banker, b. at Bordeaux, 1809; manager of the Gas Company 
of Aries, 1848 ; obtained the concession of the works of the port of Marseilles and for 
supplying Marseilles with gas, 1851 ; founded subcessi^ly the Cr^t Foncier, the Caisse 

f^nerale des Chemins de Fer ; tried for Araud and condemned to six years' imprisonment, 
eb. 1861 ; decision annulled, April 1862. 

MIRZA, Malioinined-Al&, Persian writer, b. at Retch, Ghilau, Persia, Aug. 8, 1803 ; 
entered the service of Russia, and became interpreter of Turco-Tartar at Omsk, Siberiiu 
1825 ; lecturer at the University of Kazan, 1826 ; professor of Persian language and 
literature in the University of 8t Petersbujv. Author of • On the Distinctive Merits 
of Christianity compared to Islam,' in Arabic, Astrokan, 1821; *Derbend Nameh, or 
History of Derbend and Caghestan,' Kazan, 1852 ; and other worka 

MITCHELL, iUezander, English politician, b. 1831 ; educated at Eton, and Christ 
Church, Oxford ; deputy-lieutenant of tiie county of Berwick, and a magistrate of 
Midlothian and the coun^ of Selkirk; formerly ci^tain in the Grenadier Guards*; 
elected M.P. for Berwick-on-Tweed, 1866. 

MITCHELL, Donald, American writer, b. at Norwich, Connecticut, April 1822 ; 

graduated at Yale College, 1841 ; appointed consul at Venice, 1858. Author of 'Fresh 
leanings, anew Sheaf fh)m the Old Fields,' New York, 1847 ; 'Reveries of a Bachelor,' 
ib. 1851 ; 'Dream Life,' ib. 1852; 'Fudge Doings,' ib. 1855. 

MITCHELL, Thomas Alexander, English politician, b. 1812 ; a merchant in 
London, and partner in the house of Sampson, Mitchell, and Co., New Broad Street; 
M.P. for Bridport since 1841. 

MITFORD, ^XTilliam Townley, English politician, b. 1817; educated at Eton, and 
Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1839 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
of Sussex; M.P. for Midhurst since 1869. 

MITRE. Bartolome. Argentine statesman, b. 1820; entered, the army as officer 
of artillery in Monte Video, 1839 ; took part in the campaigns against General Oribe and 
Urquiza, 1840-45 ; entered the service of Chili with the rank of colonel, 1846 ; led the 
insurrectionary movement against General Rosas, 1851 ; commander of the forces of the 
city of Buenos Ayres, 1852 ; promoted to the rank of general, 1859 ; elected governor of 
the province of Buenos Ayres, 1860 ; defeated General Urquiza in the battle of Pavon, 
Sept. 17, 1861 ; appointed provisionally governor-general of the Argentine Republic, Oct 
1861 ; president of the republic, 1862-66. 

MOBERLY, Rev. Oeorffe, English author, b. 1803 ; educated at Winchester, and 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1825 ; has been head-master of Win- 
chester School since 1835. Author of 'An Examination of Mr. Newman's Theory of 
Development,' * Sermons preached at Winchester College,' 'Sayings of the Great Forty 
Days,* and other works. 

MOELLER. Peder Louis, Danish author, b. at Aalborg, Jutland, April 18, 1814. 
Author of '^Kritiske Skizzer,' Copenhagen, 1847; 'Biedemiann, Neue Utopie,' Berlin, 
1850 ; ' Modem French Comedy and its Influence on Danish Theatres,' Copenhagen, 1867 ; 
and other critical and poetical works. 

MOPPAT, Oeorge, English poUtician, b. 1814 ; a partner in the house of Moffat and 
Co., merchants in London ; M.P. for Dartmouth, 1845-^2; for Ashburton, 1852-59: for 
Honiton, 1860-65 ; returned for Southampton, 1865. 



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[. 187 ] 



MOFFAT; Robertu English missiouaiy, b. 1795 ; a missionary in South Africa since 
1816. Published * History of Missionary Labours in South Africa,' 1840 ; translated 
the Psalms and New Testament into the Bechuana language. 

MOHIty Jnles de, French philologist, b. at Stuttgardt, Oct 25, 1800 ; studied theology 
at Tubingen ; naturalized in France, 1844 ; appointed professor of Persian at the College 
' de France, 1847 ; and inspector of Oriental typography at the Imprlmerie Imp^riale, 1852. 
Published a Latin translation of ' Y-King,' Stuttgardt, 1834- ; and other works. 

MOHL; Robert TOii. German statesman and author, b. at Stuttgardt, Aug. 14, 1799, 
brother of the preceding; studied law and political economy at the Universities of 
l^bingern and Heidelberg, 1817-21 ; professor of law at Tiibingen, 1824 ; of political 
economy, 1829 ; keeper of the library of the University, 1836 ; professor of law at the 
University of Heidelberg, 1847 ; member of the Parliament and National Assembly of 
Frankfort, 1848 ; minister of justice of the German empire, Sept. 25, 1848, to May 17, 
1849 ; represented the grand duchy of Baden at the Federal Diet, 1861. Author of 
' Historv of Literature and Political Economy,' Erlangen, 1855 ; and numerous legal and 
political works. 

MOIiESCHOTTy Jacob, (German medical writer, b. at Herzogenbusch, Netherlands, 
Aug. 9, 1822 ; studied at Heidelberg, where he graduated M.D. ; professor of physiology 
at Zurich. Author of 'Physiologic der Nahrungsmittel,' Darmstadt, 1850; second 
edition, 1859 ; and other medical works.- 

MOIfBSWORTH, Rev. John Nassau. English author, b. 1790 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1812 ; vicar of Rochdale, Lancashire, 
1849. Author of several theological works ; contributor to the Penny Simday Reader 
and numerous periodicals. 

MOLTKE; Adam Wilhelm, Count. Danish statesman, b. Aug. 25, 1785; was 
minister of finance under King Charles YlII. ; president of the Council of Ministers, 
March 22, 1848; resigned- office, 1852. 

MOLTKE, HeUnnth Carl Bernhardt Baron von, Prussian general, b. Oct. 26, 
1800 ; served with the Turkish army in Syria, 1839 ; chief of staff to the Prussian army 
since 1858; directed the campaign of 1866. 

MOMMSEN, Johann TycbOi German philologist, b. 1819. Author of a translation 
of Pindar, and distinguished as a critic on Shakspeare. 

MOM M SEN, Theodor, German historian, brother of the preceding, b. at Garding, 
Schleswig, Nov. 30, 1817; studied at the Universities of Altona and Kiel ; appointed pro- 
fessor of law at the University of Zurich, 1852, and at that of Breslau, 1854. Author of 
* Romische Gteschiohte,' Leipsic, 1854 ; third ecUtion, 1862 ; and of numerous other works. 

MONAHAN, Rifrht Hon. James Henrv. Iiiah Judge, b. at Portumna, County 
Galway, 1800 ; educated at Tiinitnr College, Dubun ; called to the Irish bar ; appointed 
Q.C. and solicitor-general for Ireland. 1846; attorney ^neral for Ireland, 1847; chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland, 1850 ; M.P. for Galway, 1847 ; and sworn a privy 
councillor for Ireland, 1848. 

MONCK| RifTbt Hon. Charles Stanley Monck, Viscount; English colonial 
administrator, b. 1819 ; educated at Trinity Colleee, Dublin ; caUed to the bar in Ireland, 
1841 ; M.P. for Portsmouth, 1852-57 ; lord of the Treasury, 1855-58; conunissioner of 
charitable donations and bequests in Ireland, 1851-60; governor-general of Canada, 
1861-68. 

MONCRIEFF. Rifrht Hon. James, English politician, b. 1811 ; educated at the 
University of Edinburgh ; called to the Scottish bar, 1833 ; solicitor-general for Scotland, 
1850-51 ; lord-advocate, 1851-52 and 1853-67 ; reappointed, 1859 ; M.P. for Leith, 1851-59 ; 
and for Edinburgh since 1859. 

MONIER DE laA SIZERANNE, Henri, French poUtician. b. in Dauphin^, 
1796 ; represented the arrondissement of Die at the Chamber of Deputies, 1837-48 ; 
elected to the Corps L^slatif, 1852-57 ; made a senator. May 7, 1863. 

MONK, Charles James. English politician, b. 1824; educated at Eton, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1847, and M. A. 1850 ; called to the bar of 
Lincoln's Inn, 1850 ; chancellor of Bristol, 1855, and of Gloucester, 1859 ; a deputy- 
, lieutenant for the county of Gloucester; M.P. for Gloucester, 1859-65, and since 1867. 

MONRAD. Ditler Oothard, Danish author, b. at Copenhagen, Nov. 24, 1811; 
ordained to the ministry, 1836 ; pastor . of Vester Ulsler, m the diocese of Laaland, 
1846-49 ; bishop of Laaland, 1850. Author of ' Om Skoleveesenets Ordning 1 flere store 
protestantiske Stseder,' Copenhagen, 1844 ; and other works. 



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[ 188 ] 



MON8El«L, Rifht Hon. ^XTillUm. English administrator, b. 1812 ; edncated at 
Oriel College, Oxford ; J. P. and deputy-uentenant of the county of Limerick ; clerk to 
Ordnance, 1852-57; president of the Board of Health, 1857-58; vice-president of the 
Board of Trade, 1866. 

MON SON, William John Monson, Baron, English administrator, b. 1829 ; 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1848; deputy-lieutenant 
of Surrey and Lincolnshire, and nudor of the North Lincoln Militia ; chairman of the 
Liberal Association of North Lincolnshire, 1853-^; M.P. for Beigate, Oct 1858-62; 
succeeded his father, sixth baron, Dec 1862. 

MONTAONAOi Joseph Blise'e de. French politician, b. Oct 17, 1808 ; a cloth 
manufacturer at Sedan ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the first circonscription of 
the department of Ardennes since 1860. 

MONTAOUi IjOrd Robert, English politician, b. 1825 ; educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and graduated M.A. 1848 ; magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the counties 
of Antrim and Derby ; M.P. for Hunts since 1850. 

MONTALBMBERT, Charles Forbes, Oonite de, French statesman and author, 
b. in London, May 29, 1810 ; member of the Constituent Assembly for the department 
of Doubs. 1849 ; elected member of the French Academy, 1851 ; returned to the Corps 
L^gislatii for the department of Doubs, 1852. Author of 'An Essay on Oustavus 
Adolphus,'1829; 'The Political Future of England,' 1856 ; 'Monks of the West,' 1860; 

* The Pope and Poland,' 1864 ; and numerous other works. 

MONTAIiIVET, Cankille Bachasson, Oonite de, French sUtesman, b. at 
Valence, April 25, 1801 ; studied at the Lyc^e Napoleon, and entered the£cole Polytech- 
nique, 1820 ; appointed minister of the interior, Nov. 3, 1830 ; minister of public instruc- 
tion, March 1831 to 1840 ; elected member of the French Academy, 1840. Author of 
' Rien, Dix Annies de Gouvemement parlementaire,' 1862. 

MONTEAOLB OF BRANDON. Thomas Spring Rice, Baron, En^ieh 
statesman, b. at Limerick, 1790; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; M.P. for 
Limerick, 1820-32, and for Cambridge, 1832-39, when he was elevated to the peerage 4 
under-secretary of state for the Home Department, 1827-28 ; secretary of the Treasui:y, 
and secretary of state for the colonies, 1834 ; chancellor of the Exchequer, 1835 ; comp- 
troller of the Exchequer, and a trustee of the National OaUery. 

BfONTEBELIiO, Onstave I«nnes, Conite de, Frendi military commander, 
b. in Paris, Dec 4, 1804, brother of the following ; colonel, 1847 ; g^eral of brigade, 
Dec. 22, 1851 ; general of division, Dec. 28, 1855 ; charged with a mission to the Pope, 
Oct. 1861 ; appointed to the command of the Corps of Occupation of Bome, May 1862. 

MONTEBEliIiO, Napole'on Iiannes, Due de, French diplomatist, b. at Paris, 
July SO, 1801 ; appointed French ambassador to Switzerland, 1836-38 ; at Naples, 1838 ; 
apiK)inted minister of foreign affairs, April 1, 1832; minister .of marine, May 9, 1847; 
elected to the Legislative Assembly of the department of Mame, 1849 ; ambassador at 
St Petersbui^, 1858; made a senator, Oct. 5, 1864. 

BIONTE'PIN, Xavier Ajmon de^ French novelist and dramatist, b. at Apremont, 
Haute Sadne, March 18, 1824. Author of ' Les £toiles, ou la Voyage de la Fianu^,* 
1850 ; *La Sir6ne de Paris,' 1860 ; * Les Confessions d'un Bohfime,' 1849-50 ; ' Les Marion- 
nettes du Diable,' 1861 ; ' Les Pirates de Ja Seine,' 1864 ; and numerous other novels and 
dramas. 

MONTGOMERY. Sir (3raham Graham, English politician, b. 1823 ; educated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1845 ; lord-lieutenant of Kinross, and a 
deputy-lieutenant of Peebles ; late lieutenant of Midlothian Yeomanry Cavalry ; M.P. for 
Peebles-shire since 1852. 

MONTGOMERY, Sir Henry Conynsrham, English colonial administrator, 
b. 1803 ; educated at Eton, and at Haileybury College, and entered the Civil Service in 
India; secretary to the Government of Madras, 1847-57; returned to England, and was 
nominated a member of her Mt^esty's Indian Council, 1858. 

MONTGOMERY, Sir Robert, English colonial administrator, b. at Londondeny, 
1809 ; entered the East India Civil Service, 1828 ; appointed to assist Sir John Lawrence 
in the administration of the Piugaub, 1849 ; held a judicial post at Lahore, 1857^58 ; 
appointed chief commissioner in Oude, 1858 ; chief commissioner of the Punjaub, 1859 ; 
appointed lieutenant-governor of the FliQJaub, 1860 ; resigned, Jan. 1865. 

MONTI, Raffaelle, Italian sculptor, b. at Milan, 1818 ; studied under his father, 
Gaetano Monti, of Ravenna. Exhibited * Ajax defending the Body of Patroclus,' 1838 ; 
executed in England the ' Sister Anglers,' the ' Veiled Vestal,* ' Eve after the Fall,* 

• Italy,' 'Truth,' and numerous other groups and statues. 



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MONTJOYEUX. Antoine Richard dCi French politician, b. at Paris, Oct. 22, 
1795 : mayor of Annay, and member of ttie General Council for the canton of Cosne ; 
deputy to the Corps Legislatif for the second circonscription of the department of the 
Nievne since 1858. 

BKONTPENSIER, Antoine Marie Philippe Louis. Dnc de. French and 
Spanish prince, son of King Louis Philippe, and husband of the Infanta Luisa, b. 1824 ; 
married, 1846 ; banished from France, Feb. 1848 ; a resident at Seville until 1868 ; at 
present understood to be a candidate for the throne of Spain. 

MONTREAIi, Ri^rht Rev. Francis F«lfordy Bishop of, English divine, b. 
1808 ; educated at the Grammar School, Tiverton, and at Exeter College, Oxford, where 
he graduated!; was chaplain to H.R.H. the late Duchess of Gloucester ; consecrated 
bishop of Montreal, Lower Canada, 1850. 

MONTRITAL, Simon. Allonvenx dCj, French military commander, b. Sept. 14, 
1790 ; colonel, 1840 ; general of brigade, 1848 ; general of division, May 10, 1852 ; com- 
mander of the army in Rome, 1853-56 ; made a senator, March 9, 1867. 

MONTREUIIi^ Alfred^ Baron de. French politician, b. at Fariii, Feb. 18, 1802 ; 
elected to the Constituent Assembly for the department of Eure, and to the Corps 
Ldgislatif for the same department since 1852i 

MONTROSS, James Graham, fourth Duke and MartfoAm of, b. 1799; 
eldest son of the third Duke of Montrose ; educated at the University of Glasgow ; sat 
as M.P: for Cambridge, 1826-30 ; entered the House of Lords as Earl Graham, 1836 ; 
chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from March 1858 to June 1859 ; appointed post- 
master-general, July 6, 1866. 

XKOODIE, Susannahji, English .authoress, b. 1805; married to Mr. John Dunbar 
Mooctte, Mid resident m Canada. Author of ''Mark Hurdlestone,' 'Flora Lindsay,' 
' Roughing it in the Bush,' and other works. 

MOON, Sir Francis 6rahan&, English administrator, b. 1796; was sheriff of 
London, 1843 ; alderman, 1844; Ibrd mayor, 1854-55 ; cseated a baronet, 1855 ; magistrate 
of Middlesex, and a commissioner of lieutenancy for London. 

MOORE, Charles, English politician, b. 1804 ; a magistrate for- Tipperaiy ; elected 
M.P. for Tipperary, 1866. 

MOORE, Georgre, English merchant, b. in Cumberland, 1807 ; became junior partner 
in the firm of Groucock, Copestake, and Co., 1830 ; assisted in founding the Commercial 
W'avellers' Orphan School, the Royal Hospital for Incurables, and the Female Mission 
among Fallen Women ; appointed by the fiishop of London a commis^ner to inquire 
into the fUnd entitled ' Londoners over the Bordfer,' 1861. 

MOORE, Thomas, English botanist, b. 1806. Author of ' CultivatioB»of the Cucumber 
andi Melon,' 1844; * Ferns and Allied Plants,' 1856; 'Field Botanist'* Companion; 
Kitish Isles,' 1862 ; and other botanical works. 

MORAY. John Stuart, Earl, English administrator, b. 1/797; vic«-lieutenant of 
Elgin ; formerly a captain in the army ; succeedied as twelfth earl, May 1859. 

MORDAUNT, Sir Charles, Bart.. English politician, b. 1836 ; aducated at Eton, 
and Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate and d&putQr-iieutenant of the county of 
Warwick ; M.P. for South Warwickshire since 1859. 

MORE, Robert Jasper, Engl&h pelitinan, b. 1836 ; educated at Shrewsbury, and 
Balfiol Colllege, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1861 ; BiC.L. andM.A 1862 ; called to 
the bar ef Lincoln's Inn, 1863 ; a J.P: and dleputy-lieutenant forthe county of Salop ; 
elected M. P. for South Shropshirci 1865. 

MORGAN,. Charles Octavius S^eiamerton, English, politician, b; 1893 ; educated 
at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford, w&eve he graduated B. A. 1825 ; a magistrate 

. and deputy-lieutenant of the* comity of Monmouth; M.P. for Monmouthshire since 
1840. 

MORGAN, Hon. Godfrey Charlev, English politician,, b. 1830 ; educated at Eton ; 
a deputy-lieutenant of Brecon, and major- of the Rtoyal Gloucestershire Yeomanry 
Hussars ; late captain in the 17th Lancers, and serred in the Criknean war, 1854-55 ; 
M.P. for Brecon since 1858. 

MORGAN, Marie Pierre E'douard de, French polit&ian, b. at Amiens, Aug. 15, 
1803 ; was mayor for Chau«soy Epagny, 1834 ; member of the General Council for the 
canton of Ailly sur Noye ; deputy to the Corps L^slatif for the fourth circonscription 
of th.e department of the Somme since 1857. 



Mor HANDBOOK QF CONTEMPORARY BIOGRAPHY. MOT 
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MORGAN; Rev. Richmrd ^KmUam, English author, b. in Wales, 1815 ; edncated 
at St David's College, Lampeter : appointed to an incumbency in North Wales, which 
he resigned, 1858. Author of ' North Wales, or Venedocia;' * Christianity and Modem 
Infidelity ; ' and other works. 

MORIN. Arthur jQlea, French mathematician, 1>. Oct. 17, 1795 ; studied at the ^cdle 
Polytechnique, and the Ecole d'AppUcation de Metz, 1813-19 ; general of division, April 7, 
1855 ; nominated president of the Society of Civil Ehigineers, 1862. Author of * Le<^ns 
de M^canique pratique,' 5 vols. ; second edition, 1868 ; and numerous works on mechanics 
and mathematics. 

MORIN| E'tienne Fraaoois The'odore, Frenoh politician, b. at Dieu le Fit, 
Drdme, Nov. 10, 1814 ; a cloth manufacturer ; was member of the Chamber of Deputies ; 
member of the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies ; and of the Corps L^slatif for 
the department of Dr6me since 1852. Author of ' Essai sur rOrganisation du Travail,' 
1845; and other woi%s. 

MORIN. Fre'de'riC; French historical writer, b. at Lyons, ^ne U, M28 ; studied at 
the ucole Normale, 1844-47 ; pwfessor of philosophy at the Lyc^ of Macon, 1847, and 
of Nancy, 1849. Author of 'Saint FranQdis d' Assises et les Franciscains,' 1853; 
' Origine de la Democratic,' ' La France au Moyen Age,' 1864 ; and numerous other works. 

MORLEY, Edmund Parker, second Earl, En^^ish administrator, b. 1810; 
studied at Oxford ; colonel of the South Devon Militia ; succeeded his father, first eail, 
1840. 

MORLEY; Henry, English author, b. in London, 1822 ; educated at the Moravian 
School, Neuwied, on tlie Rhine, and at King's College, London ; professor of English 
literature at University College, London. Author of * How to make Home Unhealthy,' 
1850 ; ' Ufe of Palissy the Potter,^ 1852 ; * Fairy Tales,' 1859-60 ; * English Writers,' 1864. 

MORLEY, John, English political and miscellaneous writer, b. about 1833 ; editor of 
ttie Fortnightly Review. Author of 'Edmund Burke,' and of numerous contributions to 
periodical literature. 

MORIfEY, Samuel. English politician, b, 1809; J. P. for Middlesex; M.P. for 
Bristol, 1868. 

MORRIS, Rev. Francis Orpen, English author, b. March 25, 1810 ; educated st 
Worcester College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1823 ; incumbent of Nunbumholme, 
Yorkshire, and chaplain to the Duke of Cleveland. Author of * A History of British 
Birds,' 6 vols. ; 'A Book of Natural History ;' * An Essay on the Eternal Duration of 
the Earth ; ' and other works. 

MORRIS, Oeorge, American author, b. at Philadelphia, 1802. Author of 'Brier 
Cliff.' 1842; * The Maid of Saxony,' 1842; 'Complete Poetical Works,' 1853 ; 'Wood- 
man, Spare that Tree ;' and other publications. 

MORRIS, Louis Michel, French military commander, b. Oct. 17, 1803 ; admitted to 
the Military School of St. Cyr, 1821 ; odlonel, 1843 ; general of division, Dec. 1851 ; took 
part in the campaign in Italy, 1859 ; appointed to uie command of the regular cavalry 
in Algiers, 1863. 

MORRIS, Michael. Irish administrator, b. 1827; educated at Galway College, and 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A. 1847 ; called to the Irish bar, 1849- 
appointed a Q.C. 1863 ; magistrate of the county of Galway^ formerly recorder of 
Galway ; elected M.P. for Galway, 1866. 

MORRIS. Williaai, Bngli^ poet, 1). 1834. Author of 'The Defence of •Guenevere,' 
1858 ; 'The Life and Death of Jason,' 1867; 'The Earthly Paradiqe,' 1868. 

MORRIS, IVilliam. English politician, b. 1800 ; banker at Carmarthen, and a magis- 
trate of the county of Carmarthen ; M.P. for Carmarthen since 1864. 

MORRISON, Walter, Englisli politician, b. 1836; educated at Eton, and Baillidl 
College, Oxford ; a magistrate for the West Riding of Yorkshire ; M.P. for Plymouth 
since 1861. 

MORSE, Samuel Finler Breese, American engineer, b. in Charleston, Massa- 
chusetts, April 27, 1791 ; educated at Tale College, where he graduated, 1810 ; studied 
painting. Exhibited * The Dying Hercules' at the Royeil Academy, London, 1813. Com- 
pleted his ' Recording Electric Telegraph,' 1836, Whidh he patented in Washington, 1837 ; 
perfected his patent, 1840. 

MORTEMART, Rene' de Rochedhouart, M-arquis de, French politician, 
b. at Lyons, 1805 ; studied at the Military Schools of St. Cyr and Saumur ; deputy for 
Villfefraiiche, Rhdne, 1847 ; and represented the same department in the Constituent and 
Legislative Assemblies ; member of the Corps L^gislatif since 1852. 



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[191 ] 



MOSELEY, Rev. Henry, English astronomer, b. 1801 ; educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1826 ; was professor of natural history and 
astronomy in King's College, London ; canon of Bristol Cathedral, 1853 ; vicar of 
Alveston, Gloucestershire, 1854 ; one of her Mt^'esty's chaplains, 1855. Author of various 
scientific papers. 

MOSEN, JuliuSi German poet and dramatic writer, b. at Mariency, Saxony, July 8, 
1803 ; studied at the University of Jena, 1822 ; appointed dramatist in ordinary to the 
court of Oldenbui^, with the title of councillor, 1844. Author of ' Lied von Ritter 
Wasa,* Leipsic, 1831; 'Georg Venlot,' ib. 1831; 'Bilder in Moose/ lb. 1846; and 
numerous other works of poetry and fiction. 

MOSTYN, Ed^vard Mostsm Uoyd Mostyn, Baroni English administrator, 
b. 1795 ; educated at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford ; assumed the name of 
Mostyn in addition to that of Lloyd, 1831 ; lord-lieutenant of Merionethshire ; a deputy- 
lieutenant of Flintshire, 1852 ; was M.P. for Flintshire, 1831-37, 1841-i2, and 1847-64 ; 
and for Lichfield fh)m Jan. 1846 to Aug. 1847. 

MOTLEY. John Lothropy American historical writer, b. at Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, United States, Aug. 15, 1814 ; educated at Harvard College, where he graduated, 
1831 ; appointed secretary of the IJnited States legation at St. Petersburg, 1841 ; 
and ambassador fh>m the United States to the court of Vienna, 1861-67. Author of 

* History of the Rise of the Dutch Republic,' London, 1856 ; ' The History of the United 
Netherlands, from the Death of William the Silent 'to the Synod of Dort,' 1860-68. 

MOULTRIE, ReT. John, English author, b. 1804 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1823 ; ordained, 1825 ; and priest ; rector of Rugby, 
Warwickshire. Author of * My Brother's- Grave, and other Poems,' 1837 ; *The Dream 
of Life,' 1843 ; ' Altars, Hearths, and Graves,' 1853 ; and other poetical works. 

MOUIiY, Joseph, French divine, b. at Figeac, Lot, about 1830 ; entered the congre- 
gation of the Lazaristes ; successively bishop of Fessulah, apostolic administrator of 
Pekin, and siiperior visitor of the province of Petcheli, in China ; appointed bishop of 
Petcheli, 1860. 

MOURAVIEFF, Andrei^ Russian author, b. 1797, titular councillor of the empire ; 
councillor of state and minister of the administration of the Holy Synod. Author of 
'Bitwa pri Tiweriade,' 1832; *Biblisehe Geschichte,' 1842 ; ''Sdhilderung Armeniens,' 
1848; and other works. 

:MOWATT, Anna Cora, American authoress, b. at Bordeaux, 1821; married to 
Mr. James Mowatt, 1836, who died, 1851. Author of 'The Fortune Hunter ;' ' Fashion,' 
a comedy, 1845 ; *The Autobiography of an Actress, or Eight Tears on the Stage ;' and 
other works. 

MOIKTBRAY, Riffht Hon. John Robert, English politician, b. 1815 ; educated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1837, M.A. 1839 ; a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of Durham, and a magistrate of Berks; was Judge advocate general, 
1858-59 ; sworn in the Privy Council, 1858 ; M.P. for the City oT Durham, 1853-68 ; for 
the University of Oxford in 1868. 

MOZIaEY, ReT. James Bowlintr, English theologian, b. in Lincolnshire, 1813 ; 
educated at Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1834 ; appointed vicar of 
Shoreham, Sussex, 1856 ; Bampton lecturer at Oxford for 1865. Author of ' A Treatise 
on the Augustinian Doctrine of Predestination ;' * Review of the Baptismal Question,' 
1862; and other works. 

MOZLEY, ReT. Thonias, Encash author, b. in iLlncolnshire, (1806. brother of the 

S receding ; educated at the Charterhouse, and at Oridl College, Oxford, where he gra- 
uated B.A. 1828 ; appointed rector of Cholderton, Wiltn, 1836 ; resigned, 184& Con- 
tributor to the British Critic^ 1838-42; contributor of 'leading articles' to the Times 
since 1913. 

MUEIiLER, Charles LoTds, French historical painter, b. at Paris, Dec. 22, 1815 ; 
studied under E. L^on Cogniet, Baron Gros. and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Exhibited 
' liC Lendemain de Noel,' 1837; 'Lady Macbeth,' 1840 ; 'L'iippel des Victimes de la Ter- 
reiire,' 1850 ; ' L'Arriv^e de la Reine d'Angleterre & Saint Cloud,' 1859 ; and numerous 
other-paintings. 

MUELliEB;* Friediich Max.. English philologist, 'b. nt Dessau, Dec. 6, 1823 ; 
studied at the University of Leipsic, where he graduated in 1843 ; and at Berlin, 1844-45 ; 
Taylorian professor at Oxford, 1864 ; curator of the Bodleian Library, 1866. Author of 

* A Survey of Languages,' 1855 ; 'History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature,' 1859 ; 'Chips 
from a German Worksnop,' 1868 ; and numerous other philological works. 



M ne HANDBOOK OF GONTEMPORABT BIOORAPBT. fUnw 

[ IM ] 



BIUBItXiBRy JnllnS; German Protestant theologian, b. at BHeg, Prussia; April 10, 1801 ; 
stndied law at Breslau and CH>ttingen, and theology at the University of Berlin ; became- 
paHtor of Schonbrunn and Rosen, Prassia, 1825; preacher at the University of Gottin- 

gen, 1831, and professor of theology, 1834. Author of 'Die christliche Lehre von der 
tinde,' 1839 ; and other religious and theological works. 

MUBLIiER^ WolfcuBiry German authov, b. at^Konigswlnter, on the Rhine ; studied 
medicine at the University of Bonn, 1835-39 ; member of the Parliament at Frankfort,. 
1848. Author of ' Junge Lieder,*'Dusseldorf, 1841 ; * The May Queen/ Stuttgardt, 1852 ; 

* The Rhine Book,' 1856 ; and numerous other works. 

MUENCH-BEIiLINOHAUSEN, EUffins Frans Joseph, Bftron, German^ 
dramatic author, known under the pseudonym* of Friedrich Hahn, b. at Cracow, April 2, 
1806. Author of ' Der Fechter von Ravenna,' and many other plays. 

ISULOCK, Miss Dlnsh Mluria. See CRAIK, M^s. George UUie. 

M UNDY, Oeorire Rodney. English naval oflTcer and author, b. in- London,. April 19, 
1805 ; entered the Royal Naval C!olI^;e, 1818 ; lieutenant, 1826 ; commodore, 1828 ; vice- 
admiral, 1863. Author of 'Narrative of the Events in Borneo,' London, 1848; 'The 
Hannibal at Palermo and at Naples,' 1859-61. 

BIURAT, Joachivn Joseph Andre'j Oomte, French diplomatist, b. at Paris, 
Dec. 12, 1828 ; entered the diplbmatic service; 184ir; successively attach6 to the French 
legation in Tuscany and Sweden ; charg6 d'affaires at Florence, 1852 ; at Stockholm, 
1853 ; member of the Corps L^gLdlitif for the first circonscription of the department of 
the Lot since 1854. 

MURAT. Napole'on linden. Prince, b. at Ifllan, March 16, 1803, the second' 
son of Joachim Murat,. King ef Naples; elected to the National Assembly for the 
department of the Lot, 1848 ; nominated' minister-plenipotentiary at the court of Tuiin^ 
Oct 8, 1849 ; made a senator, Jan. 25, 1852. 

MURCHISON. Sir Roderick Inkpey. English geologist, b. at Tarradale, Ross- 
shire, Feb. 19, 1792 ; educated at Durham Grammar School, and at the Military CbUege 
of Marlow ; was an officer in the army, 1807-16'; knighted, Feb. 1846 ; appointed director- 
general of the Geological Survey of the British Isles, 1855. Author of 'The Silurian 
System ; ' ' Geology of Russia in Europe and the .Oural Mountains,' London, 1845 ; 
'Geological Atlas of Europe/ 1856 ; and other geological works:. 

M VRE^ DsTidy Scottish Judge, b. 1810; educated at the University of Edinburgh ^ 
called to the Scottish bar, 1831 ; appointed solicitor-general for Scotland, 1858, and lord- 
advocate, April 1859 ; disputy-lientenant of Buteshire ; was sheriff of Perthshire^ 1853-58 ; 
was M.P. for Perthshire, 1859 to Jan. 1865, when raised to the-Scottish bench. 

MURRAY, Hon. Cihsries Angrustos, English diplomatist, b. 1806 ; educated at 
Eton, and Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1827 ; secretary of lection at 
Naples, 1845 ; British agent and consul-gBneral in Egypt, 1846 ; British minister in. 
Switzerland, 1853 ; envoy to Teheran, 1854 ; British minister in Saxony, 18S9. Author of 

* The Prairie Bird,' and otiier works. 

MURRAY, Nicholas. American theologiian, b. in Ireland, 1802; entered William 
College, Massachusetts, 1822, and stndied t&eelogy at Princeton, New Jersey ; apx)ointed 
pastor of a Presl^terian church at Elizabethtown, 1833. Author, under the pseudonym 
of ' Kirwan,' of 'Letteia to the Catholic Archbishop of N"ew York,^ 1847 ; ' The Decline of 
Popery, and its Causes ;' ' Romanism at Home,' New York, 1852 ; * Men and Things in 
Europe,' ib. 1853 ; * Parish PenciUings,' ilk 1854 ; and other works. 

MUSORAVE, Rer. Oeorirc^ English author, b. 1798 ; educated at Brasenose Collie, 
Oxford ; incumbent of Borden. Translator of the Hebrew Psalter into blank verse, 1833. 
Author of ' Rambles iniNormandy ;* * Ten Days in a French Parsonage,* 1864 ; and other works. 

MUSPRATTj James Sheridan, Ehglish chemist, b. in Dublin, 1821 ; studied at the 
Andersonian University of Glasgow, and at Giessen under Professor Liebig, 1843: 
Founded the College of Chemistry in Liverpool. ' Edited Plattner's ' Treatise on the Blow- 
pipe,' and is the author of numerous papers on chemistry published in the Proceedings c/ 
the Royal Society, the Philosophical Magazine, and in the Chemical Society*s Transactions. 

MUSSETj Panl Edn&e de. French writer, b. at Paris, Nov. 7, 1804. Author of 
' Samuel,' 1833 ; ' La T6te et le Coeur,' 1834 ; 'Anne de Boleyn,' 1836 ; * Les Femmes de la 
R6gence,' 1841 ; 'Lui et Elle,' 1869; 'Christine, Roi de SuMe,' 1857; and other novels 
and dramas. 

MUSTAPHA FAZIZii Pasha. Egyptian statesman, b. 1816. Founded several 
schools in Egypt ; minister of public instruction at Constantinople, 1862 ; minister of 
finance ; appointed minister without a portfolio, 1864. 



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MUSURUSy Constantine, Turkish diplomatist, b. at Constantinople, Feb. 18, 1807 ; 
educated at Constantinople ; secretary to Stephen Vogorides, Prince of Samos, 1832 ; 
governor of Samos, 1834 ; envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary at Athens, 
1840 ; represented Turkey at the court of Austria, 1848 ; envoy-extraordinary and minister- 
plenipotentiiary to England, and ambassador at the court of St. James's since 1856. . 



N. 

NADAR, Felix ToTumachon, French writer and* aeronaut, b. at Paris, April 5, 1820 ; 
studied medicine at Lyons. Founder of the Revue Comique, 1849, and contributor to the 
Charivari and numerous other French journals. Author of ' Le Miroir aux Alouettes,' 
1858 ; * A Terre et en TAil*, 1864 ; and other works. 

NAPIER, Francis Napier, Baron. English diplomatist, b. 1819; succeeded his 
father, eighth baron, 1834 ; entered the diplomatic service, Aug. 1840 ; attach^ at Con- 
stantinople, 1844-45; secretary of legation at Naples, 1846-52; at St. Petersburg, 
1852-54 ; secretary of embassy at Constiuatinople, 1854; envoy-extraordinary and minister- 
plenipotentiary at Washington, 1857-58; at the Hague, 1858-60; at St. Petersburg, 1860 ; 
at Berlin, 1864. 

NAPIER, Riebt-Hon. Sir Joseph. English statesman, b. in Belfast, Dec. 26, 1804 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; called to the Irisli bar^ 1881 ; attorney-general for 
Ireland, and sworn in the Piivy Council, 1852 ; lord-chancellor of Ireland, 1858-59 ; was 
M.P. for the University of Dublin, 1848-68. 

NAPIER, Robert, Baron Napier of Mafrtiala, English military commander, 
b. in Ceylon, 1810; educated at ttie Military College of Addiscombe; entered the 
corps of Bei)^ Engineers, 1826 ; chief engineer with the army of Lord Clyde during 
the Mutiny in India, 1857; served in China, and was made a major-general, K.C.B., and 
military member of the Council of India ; nominated commander-in-chief at Bombay, 
with t^e rank of lieutenant-general, 1865 ; commander-in-chief of the Abyssinian exi>edl- 
tion, 1868 ; raised to the peerage, 1868. 

NAPOLE'ON III. Emperor of the French, b. April 20, 1808, the third son of 
Louis Napoleon, King of Holland, and of Queen Hortense, daughter of the Empress 
Josephine of France by her first husband. Viscount Beauhamais; educated at the 
Grammar School of Augsburg, and at Thun, Switzerland ; attempted to raise an insur- 
rection at Strasbure, Oct. 30, 1836 ; detained prisoner at Strasburg till Nov. 9, 1836, 
and transported to Lorient ; sent in exile to America ; returned to Europe in Sept 1837 ; 
landed at Boulogne to raise an insurrection, Aug. 6, 1840 ; tried by the High Court of 
Justice of the Chamber of Peers, and condemned iio perpetual imprisonment, Oct. 9, 
1840 ; escaped fh)m the fortress of Ham, May 24, 1846 ; elected member of the Consti- 
tuent Assembly in five departments, Aug. 1848 ; returned to France, Sept. 21, 1848 ; 
elected President of the French Republic for four years, Dec. 10, 1848 ; took the oath on 
the Constitution, De3. 20, 1848 ; dissolved the National Assembly by a coup-d'^tat, Dec. 
2, 1851 ; elected President of the Republic fbr ten years, Dec. 20-21, 1851 ; chosen here- 
ditary Emperor by a •plebiscite-' of 7,864,189 votes against 231,145 votes, Nov. 21-22, 
1852' accepted the imi>erial dignity and assumed the title 'Napolton III. Emjteror of 
the French,' Dec. 1, 1852. Author (tf *Id(6e» Napoi^oniennes,' 1839; 'Etudes sur le 
Pass^ et I'Avenir de I'Artillerie,' 4 vols. 1846-63 ; •Vie de Jules C6sar,' 2 vols. 1866-67 ; 
and other works. 

NASH, Joseph, English painter, b. 1812. Exhibited at the Old Society of Water 
Colour Artists in 1835. Painted • The Queen's Visit to Lincoln's Inn Hall,' 1846 ; 'Inte- 
rior Views of the Great Exhibition,* 1851 ; and many others. Illustrated 'Architecture 
of the Middle Ages,* 1838 ; • Mansions of Enghmd in the Olden Time,' 1839-49. 

NASSER-ED-DIN, Shah of Persia, b. Nov. 1829; succeeded, Oct. IS, 1848. 

NATAIi, RiiTht Rev. John Willian& Colenso, Bishop of, English divine, 
b. 1814; educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1836; 
assistant-master of Harrow School, 1838-42 ; tutor of St. John's College, 1842-46 ; rector 
of Fomcett St. Ma^, Norfolk, 1846-54 ; consecrated first bishop of Natal, South Africa, 
1854. Author of •'Treatise on Algebra,* 1849 ; 'Plane Trigonometry,* 1851 ; ' Ten Weeks 
in Natal,' 1855; 'A Translation of the Epistle to the Romans, commented on fh)m a 
Missionary Point of View,' 1861 ; 'A Critical Commentary on the Pentateuch and Book 
of Joshua/ 1863-64 ; and other works. 



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NAVERYy Mule de^ French anthoress, b. at Ploerraol, Morbihan, Sept. 1831. 
Published, under the pseudonym of 'Raoul,' 'Creche et la Croix,' 1856; 'Le Bonheur 
dans le Mariage/ 1864 ; and other works of fiction. 

NEAXt, John. American novelist, b. at Portland, Maine, 1794. Author of ' Keep Cool,' 
1817; 'Seventy-six,' 1822; 'Rachel Dyer," 1828; ' Down-easters,' 1831; 'Ruth Elder;' 
and other romances and novels. 

NEAXtEy Rer. Erskllie, English author, b. 1805; educated at Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B. A 1828; vicar of Exning, Suffolk. Author of "The 
Closing Scene ;* ' The Dangers and Duties of a Christian ;' ' Self-sacrifice, or the Chan- 
cellor's Chaplain;' 'The Life-book of a Labourer;' 'Scenes where the Tempter has 
triumphed ;' and numerous other works. i 

NEATE, Charles^ English political economist, b. at Adstock, Bucks, 1807 ; educated 
at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A 1821, M.A. 1830; called to the bar 
of Lincoln's Inn, 1832 ; professor of political economy at Oxford ; M.P. for Oxford, May 
to Aug. 1867, and 1863-65. Author of 'Lectures on the Currency,' 1859; 'Three 
Lectures on Taxation,' 1861 ; and other works. 

NEAVES. Lord Chmrles Neaves. Scottish Judge, b. in Scotland, 1800; educated 
at the High School and University of Edinburgh ; studied law, and was called to the 
Scottish bar, 1822 ; sheriff of Orkney and Shetland, 1845 ; solicitor-general for Scotland, 
1852 ; appointed lord of the Session, and received the title of Lord Neaves, 1854. 

NEELD, Sir Jobn^ Bart., English politician, b. 1806; educated at Harrow, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1827, M.A. 1830; a J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of Wilts; M.P. for Cricklade, 1835-59; and for Chippenham since 
1865. 

NEORETE, SantiaiTO Femandes, Spanish statesman, b. 1800 ; studied law at the 
Universities of Oviedo and Alcala de Henares ; procureur-fiscal to the Supreme Tribunal 
of Cruzada, 1843; minister of public works in the cabinet of Bravo Murillo, 1861; 
minister of Justice, 1858 ; representative in the Cortes of the province of Badiy'oz since 
1848. 

NEHER. Bemliardy Oerman historical painter, b. at Biberach, 1806; studied art at the 
Academies of Stuttgardt and Muuich, and in Italy ; professor of painting at Stuttgardl 
Painted ' The Death of Ulric at the Battle of Dofflngen ;' and numerous other liistorlcal 
pictures. 

NELSON, Riffht Rer. Edmiind Hobhouse, Bishop of. English divine, 
b. 1817; educated at Eton, and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1838; 
fellow of Merton College, 1841 ; vicar of St. Peter's, Oxford, 1843-58 ; consecrated 
bishop of Nelson, New Zealand, 1858. Author of 'Life of Walter de Merton, the 
Founder of Merton College.' 

NELSON, Horatio Nelson, Earl, English administrator, b. 1823; succeeded his 
father, second earl, 1835 ; deputy-lieutenant of the county of Wilts. 

NESLE. Louis Armand, Comte de, French politician, b. at Caen, Mays, 1803; 
entered the army, and retired with the rami of captain ; member of the Corps L^gislatif 
for the department of the Cher since 1866. 

NESTEROFF, Peter, Russian military commander, b. 1807 ; educated at Moscow ; 
entered the army, 1823 ; staff-m^or, 1826 ; appointed commander of the fortress of 
Wladikawkas, 1842 ; m^or-general, and military governor of the district of Wladikawkas, 
1846. 

NETTEMENT, Alfred Frangois, French historical writer, b. at Paris, July 22, 
1805 ; studied at the College Rollin ; founded L'Opinion Publiqiie, 1848. Author of 
' Histoire de la Revolution de Juillet,' 1833 ; ' Histoire de la Litt^rature f^-auQaise sons la 
Restauration,' 1862 ; ' Histoire de la Restauration,' 1860-63 ; and numerous other works. 

NEIVCASTLE. Henrj James Alexander Pelhaxn Clinton, Dnke of, 

b. 1834; succeeded, 1864. 

NEIVDEOATE, Cliarles Nerrdiirate, English politician, b. 1816; educated at 
Christ Church, Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Warwick ; 
M.P. for North Warwickshire since 1843. 

NE^tTMAN, Edtirard, English naturalist, b. 1815. Author of ' Letters on the Natural 
History of Godalming,' 1849 ; * A History of British Ferns ;' ' A List of British Ornitho- 
logy;' *A Natural History of British Butterflies;' and other works. Editor of the 
Zoologist. 



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NEWMAN, Francis William^ English author, b. in London, 1805 ; educated at 
• Worcester College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1826; elected fellow of Balliol College, 
Nov, 1826; resigned, 1830; appointed Latin professor in University College, London, 
1846; resigned, 1863, Author of 'The Soul, her Sorrows and Aspirations;' 'Regal 
Rome;' 'A History of the Hebrew Monarchy;' 'Theism, or Didactic Religious Utter- 
ances,' 1858 ; and other works. 

NZS^VM AN, ReT. John Henry, English theologian, b. in London, 1801, brother of 
the preceding; educated at Trinity College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1820; 
appointed incumbent of St. Mary's, Oxford, 1828 ; seceded from the Established Church, 
Oct. 1845 ; appointed rector of the Roman Catholic University in Dublin, 1854 ; resigned, 
1858. Author of * The Arians of the Fourth Century ' 1833 ; ' Essay on the Development 
of Christian Doctrine,* 1845 ; ' Apologia pro Vitft Sua,' 1864 ; and many other works. 

NEWMARCH, William, English statistician, b. in Yorkshire, 1820 ; one of the 
honorary secretaries of the Statistical Society, and editor of its 'journal.' Author of 
'New Supplies of Gold,' 1853; 'Loans raised by Mr. Pitt during the First French War, 
1793-1807,* 1865 ; and other works. 

NEWTON, Charles Thomas, English antiquarian, b. 1816; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1837 ; assistant in the department of Antiqui- 
ties in the British Museum, 1840-52 ; vice-consul at Mitylene ; made excavations at 
Cnidus and Branchidse, Oct. 1856 to April 1859, and discovered a collection of sculptures 
now in the British Museum ; appointed British consul at Rome, May 1860 ; appointed 
keeper of the Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum, 1861. 

NEY, Napole'on Edfirar, Prince de la MoskO'vra, French general, b. at Paris, 
May 20, 1812 ; educated at the Military School of St. Cyr ; chief of squadron, Dec. 1848 ; 
general of brigade, 1856 ; succeeded his brother, 1857 ; nominated a senator, Aug. 16, 
1859 ; general of division, 1863. 

NIBOYET, Ence'nie, French authoress, b. 1804. Author of ' Dieu manifesto par les 
OEuvres de la Creation,' 1842 ; 'Catherine IL' 1847; 'Levrai Livre des Femmes,' 1862; 
and other works. 

NICHOIiS, John Gongrh, English archseologist, b. in London, 1806; educated at 
Merchant Taylors* School. Editor of the CoUectanta Topographica et Oenealogica, 18.34-43, 
and of Topographer and Genealogist, 1850-57 ; commenced The Herald and Genealogist, 
Sept. 1862. Author of ' A Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of the Camden Society,' 
1862 ; and other works. 

NICHOLSON, Sir Charles, Bart., English physician, b. 1808 ; graduated M.D. at 
the University of Edinburgh ; member of the first Legislative Council of New South 
Wales, 1843-60 ; vice-chancellor of the Sydney University, 1863, and chancellor, 1854 ; 
knighted by patent, 1852 ; created a baronet, 1858. 

NICOL, James Dyce, English x>olitician, b. 1806; a J. P. and deputy-lieutenant of 
the counties of Aberdeen and Kincardine ; elected M.P. for Kincardineshire, 1865. 

NIEL, Adolphe, French military commander, b. at Muret, Haute Garonne, Oct. 4, 
1802; educated at the £coIe Polytechnique, and entei-ed the army as lieutenant of 
engineers, 1821 ; captain, 1831 ; chef de bataillon, 1837 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1842 ; colonel, 
1846 ; chef d'6tat-major of engineers in the expedition to Rome, 1849 ; general of brigade, 
1850; general of division, 1853; commander-in-chief of the corps of engineers at the 
siege of Bomarsund, 1854, and at the siege of SebastopoL 1865 ; nominated senator, 
June 7, 1857 ; commander of the fourth corps d'arm^e in the Italian war, 1859 ; nomi- 
nated marshal of France after the battle of Solferino, June 24, 1859 ; appointed minister- 
secretary of state for the War Depai-tment, Jan. 19, 1867. Author of ' Le Si^ge de Sebas- 
topol,' Paris, 1858. 

NIEPCE DE SAINT VICTOR, Claude Marie Frangois, French chemiot, 
b. at St. Cyr, July 26, 1805 ; entered the army, 1829 ; lieutenant of dragoons, 1842 ; chef 
d'escadron, 1864. Author of papers ' Sur I'Action de la Vapeur,' 1847 and 1853 ; ' La 
Photographic sur Verre,* 1847-48 ; ' Recherches photographiques,' 1865. 

NIEUWERK6RKE, Alfred E'milien, Comte de, French sculptor, director- 
general of the national museums, b. at Paris, April 16, 1811 ; appointed to preside over 
the reorganization of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Dec. 1863 ; nominated senator, Oct. 6, 
lh64. Executed 'Descartes,' a statue in bronze, for the town of Haye; 'Isabelle la 
Catholique entrant k Grenade,' 1846 ; statue of Napoleon I. at Lyons, 1862 ; ' La Princesse 
Murat,' 1869 ; and other statues in bronze and marble. 



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NIGHTINOAIiE* Florence, English authoress, b. at Florence, May 1820 ; entered 
the institution of tne Protestant Sisters of Mercy at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, 1851 ; 
undertook the organization of an establishment of lady nurses, to tend the sick and 
wounded soldiers in the Crimean campaign, 1854. Author of 'Hints on Hospitals/ 1859 ; 
and * Notes on Nursing,' 1861. 

NI8ARD. E'douard Charles, French author, b. Jan. 10, 1808, brother of the fol- 
lowing. Author of ' Le Triumvirat litt^raire au XVIe Sitele,' 1852 ; ' Les Gladiateurs de 
la R6publique des Lettres aux XVe, XVIe, et XVIIe Si6cles,' 1860; Curiosites de I'Ety- 
molc^e fhmgaise,' 1863 ; and other works. 

NISARD, Jean De'sire'. French author, b. at Chatillon-sur-Seine, Cdte d'Or, March 
20, 1806 ; studied at St. Baroe ; elected member of the French Academy, 1850. Author 
of 'Les Poetes latins de la Decadence,' 1834; 'Histoire de la Litterature frangaise/ 
1844-49 ; new edition, 1861-63 ; ' Nouvelles Etudes d'Histoire et de Litterature," 1864 ; 
and other works. 

NISBET-HAMIIiTON, Rirht Hon. Robert Adam. English politician, b. 1804 ; 
M.P. for Ipswich, 1826-30 ; for Edinburgh, 1831-.i2 ; and for North Lincolnshire, 1837-57 ; 
took the name of ' Nisbet-Hamilton ' by royal licence, 1855 ; chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, and sworn a privy councillor, 1852. 

NOAILLES. Panl^ Dnc de^ French historical writer, b. Jan. 4, 1802 ; elected member 
of the French Academy, 1849. Author of ' Histoire de la Maison royal de Saint Louis,* 
1843 ; 'L' Histoire de Madame de Maintenon,' 1848 ; ' La Pologne et ses Fronti^res,' 1863. 

NOBIiE, John^ English sculptor, b. 1820 ; studied under John Francis. Executed the 
' Wellington Monument' in bronze for the city of Manchester, inaugurated 1856 ; a statue 
of 'Wellington' in the court-room of the EJast India Company in Leadenhall Street, 1855; 
'Life, Death, and the Resurrection,' a monument in the church of Ashley, Staffordshire ; 
and other works. 

NOEIi, Hon. and ReT. Baptist Wriothesley, English theologian, b. 1799 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; was one of the chaplains to the Queen, and 
rector of St. John's Chapel, Bedfoixl Row ; resigned, 1848, on leaving the English Church ; 
minister of the Baptist Chapel, John Street, Gray's Inn. Author of 'Essay on the 
Union of Church and State,' 1848: 'Essay on the Extenial Act of Baptism,' 1850; 
' Protestant Thoughts in Rhyme ;' and other religious and controversial works. 

NOEL, Hon. Oerard James, English politician, b. 1823 ; a J.P. and deputy-lien- 
tenant of the county of Rutland; formerly captain 11th Hussars; M.P. for Rutlandshire 
since 1847. 

NOGENT SAINT-IiAURENS, Jnles Henri, French politician, b. at Orange, 
Vaucluse, Dec, 27, 1814 ; educated at the College of A>Tgnon, and studied law at Aix ; 
called to the bar at Paris, 1836 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for the first circonscrip- 
tion of the department of Loiret since 1853. Author of ' De la Legislation des Th64tres,' 
1842 ; and other works. 

NORMANBY; OeorfT^ Angrostus Constantine PhippSi Marquis of, 

English administrator, b. 1819 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the North Riding 
of Yorkshire ; formerly lieutenant in the Scots Fusilier Guards ; was comptroller of the 
Household, 1851-52 ; treasurer of the Household, 1853-57 ; lieutenant-governor of Nova 
Scotia, 1858-63 ; M.P. for Scarboi-ough, 1847-51, and 1852-58 ; succeeded his father, first 
marquis, 1863. 

NORMAND, Pierre Francois, French politician, b. at Montfort-rAmaury, Oct. 12, 
1782 ; entered the army, 1803 ; colonel, 1834 ; member of the Corps Legislatif for the 
circonscription of Chartres since 1852. 

NORTH, Jobn Sidney, English politician, b. 1804 ; educated at Sandhurst ; a magis- 
trate and deputy-lieutenant of Oxfordshii'e, and lieutenant-colonel of Oxfordshire Rifle 
Volunteers; formerly lieutenant-colpnel in the Irish Fusiliers; M.P. for Oxfordshire 
since 1852. 

NORTH COTE, Sir Stafford Henry, Bart^ English statesman, b. 1818, the son 
of H. 8. Northcote, Esq. ; educated at Eton, and Balliol College, Oxforid ; c^ed to the 
bar, 1847 ; created baronet, 1851 ; sat as M.P. for Dudley, 1855-57 ; financial secretary of 
the Treasury ft-om Jan. to June 1859 ; returned M, P. for Stamford at the elections from 
1858-65 ; president of the Board of Trade, July 6, 1866, to March 6, 1867 ; secretary 
of state for India from March 1867 to Dec. 1868. 

NORTHIVICK, Geori^e Rusbont, Baron, English administrator, b. 1811 ; gra- 
duated M.A. at Oxford ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Shropshire and Worcester- 
shire ; was M. P. for Evesham, 1837-41, and for East Worcestershire, 1847-59 ; succeeded 
his uncle, second baron, Feb. 1859. 



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NORTON; Caroline Elizabeth^ English authoress, b. 1808; married to the Hon. 
G. C. Norton, 1827. Author of 'The Sorrows of Rosalie,' 1829; 'The Undying One,' a 
poem, 1831; 'The Dream, and other Poems,' 1840; 'Stuart of Dunleath,' a novel; 
'The Lady of La Garaye,' 1862 ; and other novels and poetical works. 

NORIVICH; Riebt ReT. and Hon. John Pelbani, Bishop of, English 
divine, b. 1811 ; educated at Westminster, and Christ Church, Oxford ; rector of Maryle- 
bone, 1855-57 ; consecrated bishop of Norwich, 1857. 

NORIXTOOD, Charles Morg^any English politician, b. 1825; a merchant and ship- 
owner of London and Hull ; was twice president of the Hull Chamber of Commerce and 
Shipping, and the first chairman of the Association of Chambers of Commerce of the 
United Kingdom; elected M.P. for Hull, 1865. 

NOTHOMB, Jean Baptiste, Baron, Belgian statesman, b. at Messancy, Luxem- 
burg, July 3, 1805 ; studied at .the University of Liege, where he graduated LL.D. 1826 ; 
took part in the Revolution of 1830 ; elected to the National Assembly by three districts 
of the province of Luxemburg, 1831 ; envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary 
to the Germanic Confederation, 1840 ; niinister-plenipotentiary at Berlin, 1845 ; member 
of the Belgian Academy. 

NOUAZiHIER, Jean Baptiste, French politician, b. at Limoges, May 1, 1803; 
judge of the Tribunal of Commerce, 1840-44 ; administrator of his native town, and 
mayor, 1853-60 ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the first circouscription of the 
department of (I ante Vienne since 1852. 

NOUBEL, Raymond Henri, French politician, b. at Agen, June 2, 1822 ; was 
mayor of the town of Agen ; member of the Corps L^gislatif for the first circonscription 
of the department of Lot-et-Gaionne since 1852. 

NOVA SCOTIA, RiiTht RcT. Hibbert Binney, Bishop of. English divine, 
b. in Nova Scotia, 1819 ; educated at King's College, London, and at Worcester College, 
Oxford, and graduated 1842 ; consecrated fourth bishop of Nova Scotia, 1851. 

NOVELIaO, Clara Anastasia, English singer, b. in London, June 10, 1818 ; studied 
at the Conservatoire de Musique Sacr6e at Paris, and in Italy ; married to Count Gigliucci, 
Nov. 1848, and quitted the stage ; reappeared, 1850, and again retired, 1860. 

NUS| Euse'ne, French dramatic writer, b. at Ch41on-sur-Sa6ne, 1816 ; studied at the 
college of his native town. Author of 'L'Enseignement mutuel,' 1846; 'La Tour de 
Londres/ 1855 ; 'Les Mddecins/ 1863 ; and other dramas. 



0. 

O'BEIRNE, James Lyster, Irish politician, b. 1820; educated at Trinity College 

Dublin ; elected M.P. for Cashel, 1865. 
O'BRIEN, Sir Patrick, Bart., Irish politician, b. 1823 ; educated at Trinity College, 

Dublin, where he graduated M.A. 1843 ; called to the Irish bar, 1844 ; M.P. for King's 

County since 1852. 

OCHOA, Enirenio de, Spanish author, b. at Madrid, 1812. Author of ' Ecos del Ama,' 
Paris, 1841; ' Espafia litteraria, scientifica, politica y artistica,' 1847; 'Parliamentary 
History of Spain,' 1860 ; and other works. Translator of the works of Sir Walter Scott. 

OCHSENBEIN, Ulrich, Swiss politician, b. at Nidau, Berne, 1811 ; studied law ; 
entered the army as officer of artillery, 1834 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1844 ; member of the 
National Council, and charged with the direction of the military affairs of the Confeder- 
ation, 1848 ; entered the French army, and nominated general during the war in the 
Crimea, 1855. 

O'CONOR DON, Denis, Irish politician, b. 1838 ; educated at St. Gregory's College, 
Downside, near Bath ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Roscommon ; 
M.P. for the county of Roscommon since 1860. 

O'DONOGHUE, Daniel, Irish politician, b. 1838 ; educated at Stonyhurst ; formerly 
a magistrate of Cork and Kerry, and major of the Kerry Militia; M.P. for Tipperary, 
1857-65 ; returned for Tralee, 1865. 

OETTINGERt Ednard, German author, b. at Breslau, Nov. 19, 1808 ; studied at the 
University of Vienna. Author of * Der Ring des Nostradamus,' Leipsic, 1838 ; eighth 
edition, 1853 ; * J6r6me Napoleon und sein Capri,' Dresden, 1853 ; ' Das Buch der Liebe,' 
Berlin, 1832 ; fifth edition, Leipsic, 1850 ; and other poetic^ and dramatic works. 



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OFFENBACH. Jacqnes, Frpoch mmical composer, b. at Cologne, June 21, 1819; 
studied at the Puis (\»Dservatoipe, 1833-S4 ; chief of the orchestra of the Th6&tre Fran- 
?«i8, IM7. Compoiied 'Lea Deux Aveu^es/ 1855; *La Chanson de Fortunio/ 1861; 
*Le Roman comique,' 1861; *La belle H^toe,' 1864-65; and many other light comic 
operas. 

OOIZaVIB. Rer. Oharles Ataunre. En^iah divine, b. 179S; educated at Balliol 
Cnllej^, Oxford, and graduated B.A 1815; fellow of Balliol, 1816; appointed r^us 
professor of pastoral theology- at Oxford, 1842. Author of ' Divine Glory manifested in 
the Conduct and Discourses of oar Lend,' Bampton Lectures for 18S6; and several 
aermona. 

OOIIiVY. Sir Jobny Bart.fl English politician, b. 1^)3 ; educated at Harrow, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; vice-lieutenant of the county of Forfar ; late captain of the 
Forfar and Kincardine Artillery ; was formerly in the Sd Life Guards ; M.P. for Dundee 
since 1857. 

O'RAOAN, Riirbt Hon. Thomas^ IriHh judge, b. at Dublin, 1810; educated at the 
Institution, Belfast, and called to the Irish bar, 1836 ; appointed solicitor-general for 
Ireland, 1800 ; attorney-general for Ireland, and sworn in the Privy Council, 1861, to Jan. 
1866, when he was appointed a Judge ; was M.P. for Tralee, May 1863, till his elevation to 
the bench ; lord-chancellor of Ireland, Dec 1868. 

OltlPHANT. lAwrence* English author, b. in Ceylon, 1829 ; called to the bar of Lin- 
coln's Inn, 1855; was civil seeretary and superintendent-general of Indian affoirs in 
Canada ; accompanied Lord Elgin on a special mission to Chma, 1857 ; acted as secretary 
of embassy till April 1859; secretary of legation in Japan, 1861-62; elected M.P. for 
Stirling, 1&65. Author of 'The Russian Shores of the Black Sea,' 1853 ; * A Narrative of 
the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan in tbe Years 1857-58-59/ 1860 ; and other 
works. 

OIiIVIER. Jxmtm Daniely Swiss author, b. at Eysius, Canton dn Vaud, Oct. 18, 1807. 
Author of^* Poemes Suisses,' 1830 ; " Les Deux Voix,' 1835 ; * Etudes d'Histoire nationale,* 
Lausanne, 1842 ; and other works in prose and poetry. 

OIiLIVIERy OliTier B'mlle, French politician, b. July 2, 1825 ; called to the bar at 
Paris, 1847 ; commissioner-general of the Republic alf Marseilles, 1848 ; member of the 
Corps L^slatif for the third circonscription of the department of the Seine since 1857. 
Author of ' Sur les Coalitions ;' and other legal and political works. 

OIiMSTEDy Denison, American author, b. at East Hartford, Connecticut, 17P1 ; 
graduated at Yale College ; was professor of chemistry and philosophy in the University 
of North Carolina ; professor of mathematics, physics, and astronomy in Yale Collie 
since 1824. Author of 'Introduction to Natural Philosophy,' 1832; 'Journeys and 
Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom,' 1861 ; and other works. 

O'LOOHIiBN. Sir ColmAn Michael, Bart.* Irish administrator, b. 1819; edu- 
cated at Loncfon University, and graduated B.A 1840; called to tlie Irish bar, 1840; 
chairman of Quarter Sessions of the county of Mayo, and a magistrate of the county of 
Clare ; M.P. for the county of Clare since 1863 ; judge advocate, Dec. 1868. 

OIiOZAOAy SalustianOy Spanish politician, b. at Logron, 1800 ; elected to the Cortes. 
1833 ; ambassador to France, 1840-43, and again in 1854 and 1868 ; prime minister for a 
short period in 1844 ; member of the Provisional Government in 1868. 

OIiSHAUSEN. Justus^ German philolc^'st, b. at Hohenfeld, Holsteiu, May 9, 1800, 
brother of the following ; studied at the Universities of Kiel and Berlin ; appointed pro- 
fes.sor of Oriental languages at the University of Kiel, 1830 ; nominated counsellor and 
member of the Academy of Copenhagen, 1845 ; elected deputy for Kiel at the Diet of 
Holstein, 1848 ; vice-president of the Diet, 1849 ; appointed keeper of the library and 
professor of Oriental languages at Konigsberg. Author of ' Vendidad-zend-Avestaj Pars 
vicesima adhuc superstes,' Hambuiig, 1829 ; and other philological works. 

OIiSHAVSENy Theodor* German politician, b. at Gliiokstadt, Holstein^ June 19, 
1802 ; studied law at the Universities of Kiel and Jena ; member of the Constituent Diet 
of Holstein, 1848; emigrated to America, 1851. Author of 'The Valley of the Missis- 
sippi,' 1853. 

OMER PACHA, Irfittaa Michael, Turkish military commander, b. at Plaski, 
Ogulin, Servia, 1806 ; studied in the Military School of Thurm, in Transylvania ; assistant- 
surveyor of roads and bridges at Zara, 1826 ; left the Austrian service, adopted the 
Mahometan creed, and assumed the name of Omer, 1838 ; colonel in the Turkish amiy, 
1839 : general, June 1853 ; commander-in-chief of the Turkish army in the Crimean cam- 
paign, 1854-55 ; appointed minister without a portfolio, March 1861 ; commander of the 
Turkish forces in Crete, 1866-68. 



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[ 199 ] 



O'NEIIi, Henry, English historical painter, b. 1S07. Exhibited at the Royal Academy 
' Martha and Mary informing Christ of the Death of Lazarus ;' * By the Rivers of Baby- 
lon;' 'Esther in Royal Robes;' 'Catherine's Dream;* 'Eastwai-d Ho!' August 1857; 
'Home Again 1' 1858; 'The Landing of the Princens Alexandra at Oravesend;' and 
numerons other paintings. 

O'NBIIala, Ed^rard, English politician, b. 1839 ; educated at Eton, and Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; a J. P. for the county of Antrim ; M.P. for the county of Antrim since 18(53. 

ONSLOW, Onildford James Hillier, English politician, b. 1814; educated at 
Eton; a deputy-lieutenant of Lincoln and the East Riding of Yorkshire; formerly 
captain in the Scots Fusilier Guards and the 11th Foot ; M.P. for Guildford since 1858. 

ONTARIO, Rieht ReT. James Lewis, Bishop of, English divine, b. 1825 ; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; ordained, 1848 ; rector of Brookville, Canada, 1854 ; 
consecrated first bishop of Ontario, Upper Canada, 1861. 

OPPERT, JnleSf French philologist, b. at Hamburg, July 9, 1825 ; studied at Heidel- 
berg, Bonn, and Berlin. Author of ' Lautsystem des Altpersischen,' 1847 ; ' Les Inscrip- 
tions des Ach6ra6nides,' 1852; * Sanscrit Grammar,' Berlin, 1859 ; second edition, 1863 ; 

* Elements of Assyrian Grammar,' 1860; 'The Great Inscription of Khorsabad,' 1864; 
and numerous other philological works. 

O'QUIN, Patrick, French politician, b. at Pau, Feb. 21, 1821 ; member of the General 
Council of the canton Est de Pau, 1852; mayor of Pau, 1860; returned deputy to the 
Corps L^islatif for the department of Basses Pyr6n6es, 1852. Author of several works 
on political economy. 

ORBIGNY, Charles Dessalines d', French naturalist, b. at Coneron, Loire 
Inf^rieure, Sept. 1806 ; educated at La Rochelle ; appointed assistant in the Museum of 
Natural History, Paris, 1836. Author of 'Tableau s}-noptique du R^gne veg6tal,' 1834 ; 

* Manuel de Geologic,' 1852 ; * La Geologic appliqu^e aux Arts, aux Mines etil' Agriculture, 
Ac' 1855 ; and other works on natural history. 

ORD, Ed^rard Otto Cresap, American military commander, b. in the connty of 
Alleghany, Maryland, 1822 ; entered the Military School of West Point, 1835 ; second 
lieutenant of infantry, 1839 ; captain. Sept 7, 1850 ; took part with the North in the 
civil war, and commanded the Pennsylvanian Volunteers ; major-general at the siege of 
Corinth, 1862 ; replaced General Butler in the military command of Virginia, Jan. 8, 1865. 

O'REILLY, Myles Patrick, English politician, b. 1825 ; educated at London Uni- 
versity, where he graduated B.A. 1845; LL.D, of Roman University, 1847; a J. P. and 
deputy-lieutenant of the county of Louth, and captain of the Louth Militia ; commander 
of th6 Irish Brigade in the Papal service, 1860 ; M.P. for the county of TiOngford since 1862. 

ORTOLAN, Joseph Louis Else'ar, French legal writer, b. at Toulon, Var, Aug. 21, 
1802 ; studied law at Aix and Paris, and called to the bar, 1826. Author of 'Explication 
historique des Institutes de Justinien,' 1827; 'Elements du Droit p6nal,' 1856; and 
other legal works. 

ORTSy Charles, Belgian politician, b. at Brussels, 1815 ; studied law, and called to the 
bar, 1831 ; appointed professor of public law at the University of Brussels, 1839 ; deputy 
for Brussels since 1848 ; vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies, 1856. 

OSBORN^ Sherardi English naval officer and author, b. 1820; entered the Royal 
Navy ; midshipman of the Hyacinth at the reduction of Canton, 1841 ; lieutenant, 1846 ; 
commander, 1852 ; captain, 1855 ; appointed to the command of the Royal Sovereign, 
1864. Author of ' A Cruise in Japanese Waters ;' * The Career, Last Voyage, and Fate of 
Sir John Franklin,' 1860; 'The Past and Future of British Relations in China,' 1860; 
and other works. 

OSBORNE, Ralph Bemal, English politician, b. 1812 ; educated at tlie Charter- 
house School ; assumed the name of Osborne, 1844 ; formerly a captain in the army ; 
secretary to the Admiralty, Dec. 1852 to Feb. 1858 ; M.P. for Wycombe, 1841-47; for 
Middlesex, 1847-57; for Dover, 1867-59 ; for Liskeard, 1859-65; for Nottingham, 1865-68. 

OSBORNE, Rev. Lord Sydney Godolphin, English divine, b. 1808 ; educated 
at Brasenose College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1830 ; appointed rector of Durwestun, 
Dorsetshire, 1841. Author of 'Hints to the Charitable for the Amelioration of the Con- 
dition of the Poor ;' * Scutari and its Hospitals ;' ' Lady Eva ;' ' Immortal Sewerage ' 
and other works. 

OSGOOD, Samnel, American theologian, b. at Charlestown, Massachusetts, Aug. 80, 
1812 ; studied theology at Cambridge, where he graduated, 1835 ; appointed minister of 
the Unitarian Chapel in New York, 1849. Author of 'Studies in Christian Biography, or 
Four Hours with Theologians and Reformers,' New York, 1850 ; * Milestones in our Life 
Journey ;' and other theological works. 



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O'SRAUGHNBSSY, Sir WmUm Brooke, Irish physician, b. in Limerick, 
180P ; edncated at the University of Edinburgli, where he graduated M.D. ; entered the 
BenoU army as a siuveon ; appointed superintendent of telegraphs in India, 1S52 ; 
kni^t«d, 1856. Published a ' Memoir on the Electric Telegraph,' 1840. 

0880RY, FBRN8. AND IiEIGHUN, Ricbt ReT. James O'Brien, 
Bishop of, English divine, b. 1794 ; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and gra- 
duated 0. A. 1815 ; dean of Cork, 1842 ; consecrated bishop of Ossory, Ferns, and Leighlin, 
1842. Author of several volumes of sermons. 

OTWAY, Artlrar Jobn^ English politician, b. 1^22 ; educated at Sandhurst College ; 
called to the bar of the Middle Temple, 1850 ; a magistrate of Middlesex ; formerly in 
the army; M.P. for Stafford, 1852-57; returned for Chatham, 1865 ; under-secretary of 
state for foreign affairs, Dec. 1868. 

OUDINE', Eace'ne Andre'^ French sculptor, b. at Paris, Jan. 1, 1810 ; studied 
under Andr^ QaUe, Petitot, and M. Ingres. Executed ' Le Oladiateur bless^,' 1837 ; 
' La Vierge 4 I'Enfant ' and ' Les Quatre Evang^listes ' for St. Gervais, 1845 ; ' Le fiap- 
t^rae de Clovis,' 1853 ; and numerous busts, groups, and statues. 

OUSEIiEY, Sir FrederidL Artlrar Gorei Bart., English musical composer, 
b. in London, 1825; educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1846, M.A. 
1840, Mus. Bac. 1850, Mus. Doc. 1854 ; entered holy ordere, 1854 ; precentor of Hereford 
Cathedral, 1855; incumbent of St. Michael's, Tenbury, 1856; appointed professor of 
music at the Universitv of Oxford, 1855. Author of 'How goodly are thy Tents, 
O Israel !' and other anthems and compositions of sacred music. 

OUSEUSY, Sir IVilliam Gore, English diplomatist, b. 1799, cousin of the preced- 
ing ; entered the diplomatic service as attache at Stockholm, 1817 ; secretary of legation 
at Rio Janeiro, 1832 ; minister-plenipotentiary at Buenos Ayres, 1844 ; sent <»n a special 
mission to Monte Video, 1846. Author of several political pamphlets and works on 
foreign countries. 

OUVRIE', Pierre Justin, French painter and lithographer, b. at Paris, May 9, 1806; 
studied under Abel de Pi\jol and Ch^tiilon. Exhibited ' La C6remonie funebre du Poete 
Shelley,' 1831; 'Vue d' Amsterdam,' 1853 ; 'Sites du Rhin,'1857; 'Le K6reenGracht 4 
Amsterdam,' 1863 ; and numerous other works. 

OVBRBECK, Friedricb, German painter, b. at Ltibeck, July 3, 1789; studied in 
Vienna, 1806 ; went in 1810, with Schadow, Veit, and Cornelius, to Rome, where he has 
since resided. Exhibited 'Madonna,' 1811; 'The Entrance of Christ into Jerusalem,' 
1824; 'Christ blessing Little Children;' 'John the Preacher in the WUderness ;' and 
numerous other paintings, chiefly of religious subjects. 

OVERSKON, Thomas, Danish dramatic writer, b. at Copenhagen, Oct. 11, 1798. 
Author of 'CEstergade og Vestergade,' 1828; 'Diaraant Korset,' 1847; *Den danske 
Skueplads i dens Historie,' 1854-56 ; and other dramatic works. 

OVERSTONE. Samuel Jones Iioyd, Baron. English administrator, b. 1796 ; 
educated at Tnnity College, Cambridge ; was high sheriff of Warwickshire, 1838 ; M.P. 
for Hythe, 1819-26 ; formerly a partner in the firm of Jones Loyd & Co. bankers ; 
member of the Senate of the Univeraity of London, and a trustee of the National Gallery. 

OWEN, Sir Hn^b Or^en, Bart., English politician, b. 1803 ; a magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant of the county of Pembroke, and lieutenant-colonel of Pembrokeshire 
Militia ; was M.P. for Pembroke, 1826-38, and since 1861. 

OWEN, Richard, English naturalist, b. at Lancaster, 1804 ; graduated at the University 
of Edinburgh, 1824 ; member of the Royal College of Sui^ons of London, 1826 ; Hun- 
terian professor and conservator of the museum of the College, 18S5 ; superintendent of 
the natural history departments of the British Museum, 1856. Author of 'Principles of 
Comparative Osteology,' published in French, 1856; 'On Pals^ntology,' 1860; and 
numerous other works. 

OXENFORD, John, English dramatic writer, b. in Camberwell, Surrey, 1812 ; edu- 
cated for the law, and articled to a London solicitor. Translated fh>m the (German 
' Eckeimann's Conversations with Goethe ;' 'The Autobiography of Goethe.' Author of 
several songs and many dramatic pieces and criticisms. 

OXFORD, Riffbt ReT. Samuel Wilberforce, Bisbop of, English divine, 
b. 1805; educated at Oriel College, Oxford, and graduated B.A. 1826, M.A. 1829, D.D. 
1845 ; successively archdeacon of Surrey, canon of Winchester, and dean of Westminster; 
consecrated bishop of Oxford, 1846 ; chancellor of the Order of the Garter, and lord high 
almoner to the Queen. Author of ' The Life of Wilberforce ; ' * History of the American 
Church ;' and of several volumes of sermons and pastoral addresses. 



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P. 

PACCARD^ AleziSj French architect, b. in Paris, June 19, 1813 ; studied at the ]^cole 
des Beaux Arts, 1830; architect of the Palais de Rambouillet, 1852; designed the 
Ch&teau de Pau, 1853 ; architect to the Museum of Fontainebleau, 1853-63 ; appointed 
professor of architecture at the ^cole des Beaux Arts, 1863. 

PACKEy Georg^e Hussey, English politician, b. 1796 ; was formerly in the army ; 
a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the county of Lincoln ; was high sheriff, 1842, and 
vice-chairman of the Great Northern Railway Company ; M.P. for fcJouth Lincolnshire 
since 1859. 

PACKENHAM, Rirht Hon. Sir Richard, English diplomatist, b. 1797 ; attach^ 
to the embassy at the Hague, 1817 ; minister-plenipotentiary in Mexico, 1835 ; sworn 
a privy councillor, 1843 ; envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary at Washing- 
ton, 1843-49, and at Lisbon, April 1851 to 1855. 

PADMOREy Richard, English politician, b. 1789; a magistrate and alderman of 
Worcester, and chairman of the Worcester City and County Banking Company ; M.P. for 
Worcester since 1860. 

PADOUE, Ernest LoTds Arrighi de CasanoTa, Due de, French statesman, 
b. in Pans, Sept. 26, 1814 ; studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1833-35 ; created a 
senator, June 23, 1863; was minister of the interior from May 5 to Nov. 1, 1859. 

PAGE, The'oire'ne Francois, French naval commander, b. March 31, 1807 ; studied 
at the Ecole Polytechnique, 1825 to 1827 ; ensign in the navy, 1830 ; lieutenant, 1836 ; 
captain, 1846 ; rear-admiral, Aug. 12, 1S68 ; vice-admiral, Aug. 10, 1861 ; maritime prefet 
of Rochefort, 1862; member of the Council of Admiralty, Oct. 20, 1863. 

PAGE, Thomas. English civil engineer, b. 1810 ; engineer of the suspension bridge at 
Battersea, openea 1859, and of the new bridge across the Thames at Westminster, com- 
menced 1860, and finished 1866 ; appointed architect and engineer of the new Blackfriars 
Bridge, 1866. 

PAGET. Lord Alfred Henry, English politician, b. June 29, 1816: educated at 
Westminster ; deputy-lieutenant of Statlbrdshire and Suflfolk, and a colonel in the army ; 
appointed chief equerry to the Queen, 1859 ; M.P. for Lichfield, 1837-65. 

PAGET, Lord Clarence Ed^eard, English naval commander and politician, b. 1811 ; 
educated at Westminster ; is vice-admiral R.N. ; appointed secretary to the Admiralty, 
1859 ; M.P. for Sandwich, 1847-52, and since 1857. 

PAGET, ReT. Francis Ed'veard, English author, b. 1806 ; educated at Westminster, 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. 1832 ; rector of Elford, Staffordshire, 
since 1835. Author of ' St. Antholins," 1842 ; 'The Warden of Berkenholt,' 1843 ; • Luke 
Sharp, a Tale of Modem Education,' 1846 ; and other works. 

PAGET, Lord George Augnstns Frederick, English officer, b. in London, 181S ; 
enterea the army ; was lieutenant-colonel of dragoons, 1846 ; brigadier-general, 1855 ; 
major-general, 1861 ; appointed to the command of a division of the Bengal army, 1862 ; 
was M.P. for Beaumaris, 1847-67 ; created C.B. 1855, and received the cross of officer of 
the Legion of Honour, 1856. 

PAGET, James, English surgeon, b. 1816 ; member of the Royal College of Sui^eons, 
1836 ; surgeon-extraordinary to the Queen, and assistant surgeon at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Author of * Lectures on Surgical Pathology ;' and other medical works. 

PAGET, Richard Homer, English politician, b. 1832 ; educated at Sandhurst ; 
a magistrate of Somerset, and captain of the North Somersetshire Yeomanry Cavalry ; 
served in 66th Foot; elected M.P. for East Somersetshire, 1865. 

PAOE'ZY, DaTid Jnles, French politician, b. Sept. 20, 1803 ; mayor of Montpellier, 
and member of the General Council for the canton of Castries ; elected member of the 
Corps L^slatif fur the department of Herault, 1863. 

PAKINOTON, Riffht Hon. Sir John Somerset, English statesman, b. 1799, 
son of William Russell, Esq. of Powick Court, Worcestershire; educated at Eton, 
and Oriel College, Oxford ; assumed the name of Pakington, 1831 ; created baronet, 
1837 ; secretary of state for the colonies from March to Dec. 1852 ; first lord of the 
Admiralty from March 1858 to June 1869 ; returned M.P. for Droitwich in the elections 
from 1837 to 1865 ; flirst lord of the Admiralty, July 6, 1866, to March 6, 1867 ; appointed 
secretary of state for war, March 6, 1867, to Dec. 1868. 



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PAIiACKY, Fraas, Bohemian writer, b. at Hodslawitz, in Moravia, June 1798; 
studied at Presburg and Vienna ; appointed historiographer to the kingdom by the 
States of Boliemia, 1831. Author of ' History of Bohemia/ in German, 1836-64 ; * The 
Invasion of the Mongols in the Thirteenth Century/ 1842 ; and other historical works. 

PALEY, Frederick ApttkOirp%, English writer, b. at Easingwold, near York, 1816 ; 
educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1836. Autiior of 
'Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts;' 'Manual of Gothic Mouldings;' * Guide to the 
Churches round Cambridge ;' and other works. An eminent classical scholar ; has edited 
Theocritus, Propertius, and other ancient writers. , 

PAIiFREYy John Oorhan&y American theologian, b. at Boston, May 2, 1798 ; studied 
theology and graduated at Harvard College, 1815 ; minister of a Unitarian Church at 
Boston, 1818-31. Editor of the North American Review, 1836-1848. Author of * Evidences 
of Christianity,' Boston, 1848 ; and other works. 

PAZiORAVS; Francis Turner. English author, b. 1824 ; educated at the Charter- 
house, and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A ; was private secretary to 
Mr. W. E. Gladstone ; employ^ in the Educational Department of the Privy Council. 
Edited 'The Golden Treasury of English Poetry.* Author of 'Idylls and Songs;' and 
other works. 

PALORAVS, WUliauk Gilford. English traveller, consul at Trebizond, b. 1826, 
brother of the preceding. Author of ' Travels in Arabia,' 1863. 

PAIiIN, Rer. William, English author, b. 1802 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. 1833, and M.A. 1851; appointed rector of Rtifford, 
Essex, 1834. Author of ' History of the Church of England, 1688 to 1717 / * The 
Christian Month ;' ' Bellingham,' a tale ; and other works. 

PALK, Sir lAnnrence, Bart., English politician, b. 1818; educated at Eton; a 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Devon ; M.P. for South Devon since 1854. 

PAIaliAVICINI, della Priola, MarqTda Emilio, Italian military commander, 
b. at Ceva, province of Mondovi, 1823 ; studied at the Military Academy at Turin ; fought 
as a volunteer in the campaign of Lombardy, 1848-49 ; served in the Crimea, 1855, and 
during the war in Italy, 1869 ; took Garibaldi prisoner at Aspromonte, for which he 
received the title of major-generaL 

PALLAVICINO-TRIVULZIO, GiorffO. Marquis, Italian politician, b. 1796 ; 
prefect of Palermo, April to July 1862 ; created a senator by Victor Emmanuel, 1859. 

PAIalvISERf John, English traveller and author, b. 1817 ; a magistrate of the county 
of Waterford ; engaged for the English Government to conduct the British North America 
Exploring Expedition, 1857-60, and published the account of it, 1861. Author of ' The 
Solitary Hunter, or Sporting Adventures in the Prairies.' 

PAZaZaU. Le'opold Charles de la Barrie're, French naval commander and author, 
b. at Saintes, Aug. 19, 1829 ; lieutenant in the navy, 1858 ; appointed to command 
Le Tancrede in the Chinese Seas, 1864. Autiior of 'History of the Expedition in Cochin 
China in 1861,' 1864 ; and other works. 

PAIiLUXSIi, Joseph Ferdinand, French politician, b. at Chamb^ry, April 10, 1796 ; 
called to the bar of his native town, 1822 ; deputy to the Parliament of Turin, 1848, and 
vice-president of the Sardinian Chamber, 1849 ; after the annexation of Savoy by France, 
became member of General Council for the canton of Bourg St. Maurice ; elected member 
of the Coips L^gislatif for the second circonsi-ription of the department of Savoy, 
1862. 

PALMBR, Sir Ronndell, English politician, b. 1812 ; educated at Rugby, Winchester, 
and Trinity College, Oxford ; afterwards fellow of Magdalen College ; graduated B.A. 1834, 
M.A. 1836; caUed to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1837; solicitor-general, 1861 ; attorney- 
general, 1863-66; was M.P. for Plymouth, 1847-52, and 1853-67, and returned for 
Richmond, 1861. 

PAIiMER, Rev. 'William, English theologian, b. 1803; educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, wnere he graduated B.A. ; appointed vicar of Whitchurch Canonicorum, Dorset, 
1846 ; rural dean and prebendary of Salisbury. Author of ' Origines Liturgicse, or 
Antiquity of the English Ritual,' 1832; 'A Compendious Ecclesiastical History,* 1842; 
and other theological works. 

PAIaUDAN-MUIaZiER. Frederik, Danish poet, b. at Kjerterminde, Pionia, Feb. 7, 
1809. Author of ' Fire Romanser,' Copenhagen, 1832 ; ' Danserinden,' 1888 ; ♦ Dryadens 
Bryllup,' 1844; ' Luftskipperen og Atheisten,' 1853; 'Tree Digte,' 1864; and numerous 
other poems. 



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PAIiVDAliF MUIiLER. Caspar Peder. Danish historian, b. Jan. 25, 1805, brother 
of the preceding ; appointed professor in 1829, and head-master in 1843, of the Cathedral 
School of Odense ; elected member of the Academy of Sciences of Copenhagen, 1843. 
Author of • Om St. Hans Kloster i Odense,' Odense, 1831 ; ' Grevens Peide,' 1853-54 ; 
* Heiredagene i Odense,' 1857 ; and other works. 

PAM A.RD^ Paul Antoine Marie, Prench politician, b. at Avignon, Aug. 24, 1802 
mayor of Avignon ; member of the General Council for the canton of the same town ; 
elected meuiber of the Corps L^gislatif for the department of Vaucluse, 1861. 

PANIZZI. AntoniOy English bibliographer, b. at Brescello, Modena, Italy, Sept. 16, 
1797 ; stuaied at the University of Parma, where he graduated LL.D. 1818 ; professor oi" 
Italian at University College, London, 1828-30 ; assistant librarian of the British Museum, 
1831-37 ; principal librarian, 1837-66. Editor of the * Orlando Innamorato * of Bojardo, 
1830; the 'Orlando Furioso' of Ariosto, 1832. Author of 'Chi era Praucesco da 
Bologna?' 1858. 

PAPE CARPANTIER, MarlCi French authoress, b. at Fl^che, Sarthe, Sept. 10. 
1815 ; appointed directress of the Normal School of Paris, 1848. Author of * Preludes,' 
1841 ; * Ce que dit un Grain de Sable,' 1862 ; * G6om6trie de Li Natiu-e,' 1863 ; and other 
works. 

PAQUIS. Ame'de'e, French writer, b. 1800. Author of 'Nouvelle Grammaire latine,' 
1828; 'Oui et Non,' 1830; 'Histoire d'Espagne et de Portugal,' 1846-48; and other 
works. 

PARCH APPE, Charles J^an, French military commander, b. at ^pei*gnay, Mame, 
April 4, 1787 ; studied at the Ecole de Pontainebleau ; second lieutenant, 1806 ; colonel, 
1837 ; general of division, 1848 ; elected member of the Corps Legislatif for the second 
circonscription of the department of Mame, 1852. , 

PARIEU, Felix Esqniron de, French statesman, b. at Aurillac, March 13, 1815 ; 
studied law at Paris and Strasburg. and graduated LL.D. ; represented the department 
of Cautal in the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies, 184&-49 ; was minister of public 
instruction, Oct. 31, 1849, to Feb. 13, 1851 ; vice-president of the Corps Legislatif, 1855 ; 
elected member of the French Academy, 1856. Author of 'Trait6 des Inipdts consid^res 
sous le Rapport historique, ^conomique et politique, en France et 4 r^tnmger,' 1862-64 ; 
and other works. 

PARIS, Alexis Paulin, French author, b. at Avenay, Mame, March 25, 1800; 
apptjiuted professor of language and literature at the College of France, 1853. Author of 
' Apologie de I'Ecole romantique,' 1824 ; ' Grandes Chroniques de Saint Denis,' 1836-38 ; 
' Les A ventures de Maitre Renart et d'Ysengrin, mises en nouveau Langage,' 1861 ; and 
other works. 

PARISH, Sir IVoodbine, English diplomatist, b. 1792; educated at Eton; entered 
the diplomatic service, 1815; concluded the llrst treaty with La Plata, 1825; charge 
d'affaires at Buenos Ayres, 1840 ; brought to the British Museum the remains of the 
Mfgatherium, Glyptodon, and other antediluvian monsters of the Pami)as. Author of 
' Provinces of La Plata.' 

PARKER, Sir Henry Watson, English colonial administrator, b. 1808; was 
successively colonial secretwy, first minister, and principal secretary of New South 
Wales ; knighted, 1858. 

PARKER, John Henrjj English author and publisher, b. 1806; educated at Dr. 
Haines* School, the Manor House, Cbiswick ; >ice-president of the Oxford Architectural 
Society. Author of * Glossary of Architecture,' 1836 ; fifth edition, 1850 ; * Introduction 
to the Study of Gothic Architecture,' 1849 ; and other works. 

PARKER, Sir IVilliam, English naval commander, b. 1781 ; entered the navy, 1793 ; 
rear-admiral, 1830 ; admiral of the blue, April 1851 ; commander-in-chief at Plymouth, 
1854 ; admiral of the fieet, 1863 ; created a baronet, 1844 ; first naval aide-de-camp to the 
Queen, 1846 ; a lord of the Admiralty, July to December 1834, and from April 1835 to 
May 1845. 

PARKER, IVindsor, English politician, b. 1802 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant 
of Suffolk, and major of the West Suffolk Militia ; late captain in the Ben^^ Cavalry ; 
• M.P. for West Suffolk since 1859. 

PARKES, Sir Harry Smith, English diplomatist, b. 1828 ; successively consul at 
Amoy, Shanghai, and Canton ; British minister in Japan, 1865. 

PARKMAN, Francis, American author, b. at Boston, Sept 16, 1823 ; educated at 
Harxard College. Author of * Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life,' New York, 1852 ; * The 
History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac,' Boston, 1851 ; ' Vassall Morton,* ib. 1856. 



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PARIiATORE, Flllopo, Italian naturaUst, b. at Palermo, Aug. 8, 1816 ; studied at 
tlie University of PaTenno, and graduated M.D. 1834. Author of 'Monogratia delle 
Funiariee/ Florence, 1844 ; * i-lora Italiana,' ib. 1850-58 ; * Travels to the North of Europe,' 
ib. 1854 ; and other botanical works. 

PARRY. Thomas. English politician, b. 1818; educated at Lincoln; M.P. for Boston, 
1865-67. 

PARTRIDGE^ Richard, English surgeon, b. 1805 ; admitted a member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, 1827 ; professor of anatomy at King's College, London, and to the 
Royal Academy of Arts. 

PASSAGZalAy CarlOy Italian theologian, b. 1804; educated at Rome, and became 
professor of theology in the Roman University ; appointed professor of moral philosophy 
at the University of Turin, 1861 ; elected deputy to the Italian Parliament, 1863. Author 
of ' Pro Causa Italica ad Episcopos Cathoiicos,' 1861 ; and numerous theological works. 

PASSY, Antoine Fre'de'|riC. French politician, b. 1702, brother of the follo\^ing; 
prefet of the Eure, 1880 ; councillor of state, 1839 ; undersecretary to the minister of the 
Interior, 1840 ; appointed professor of political economy at Montpellier, 1860. Author of 

* Description of the Geology of the Department of the Seine luf^rieure,* 1832 ; and 
other works. 

PASSY, mppolyte Philibert, French statesman, b. at Garches Villeneuve, near 
St. Cloud, Oct. 16, 1793 ; admitted to the School of Cavalry of Saumur, 1809 ; lieutenant, 
1812; elected deputy for Louviers, 1830; minister of finance from 11 to 14 Nov. 1834; 
minister of commerce, Feb. 22 to Aug. 25, 1836 ; entered the Chamber of Peers, Dec. 16, 
1843 ; took part in the first ministry of President Louis Napol6on, Dec 20, 1848, ti> Oct. 31, 
1849 ; retired fh)m public life after the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851. Author of ' Des 
Causes d'lnegalit^ des Richesses,' 1849 ; and other works. 

PASTEUR, Iionis, French chemist, b. at Ddle, Jura, Dec. 27, 1822 ; studied at the 
College of Besanqon, and received the degree of M.D. 1847 ; professor of chemistry to 
the Faculty of Sciences. Strasburg, 1852-63 ; appointed professor of geology, physics, and 
chemistry at the Paris fecole des Beaux Arts, Dec. 1863. Author of several works on 
chemistry. 

PATMORE, COTentrj, English author, b. at Woodford, Essex, July 2, 1823 ; appointed 
one of the assistant librarians to the British Museum, 1846 ; retired, 1865. Author of 
'Taraerton Church Tower, and other Poems,' 1853; 'The Angel in the House,' 1855; 

* Faithful for Ever ;' * Victories of Love,* 1862 ; and other poems. 

PATON, Andremr Archibald, Servian author, b. 1807. Author of 'The Modem 
Syrians by an Oriental Student,' 1843 ; ' Servia, the Youngest Member of the European 
Family,' 1844 ; ' The Goth and the Hun,' 1851 ; ' The Mamelukes, or Life in Gi-and Cairo,' 
1851 ; and other works. 

PATON, Sir Joseph Noel, English painter, b. at Dunfermline, Fifeshire.1823 ; admitted 
as a student at the Royal Academy, 1843, Painted 'Christ bearing the Cross,' 1847; 
♦The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania,' 1849; 'The Dead Lady,' 1854; 'The Pursuit of 
Pleasure,' 1855 ; * In Memoriam,' 1858 ; 'Dawn : Luther at Erfurt,* 1861 ; and other works 
of art. 

PATTEN, Right Hon. John Wilson, English statesman, b. 1802, the eldest son 
of T. W. Patten, M.P. for Lancashire ; educated at Eton, and Magdalen College, Oxford: 
M.P. for Lancashire since 1830; chairman of committees of the House of Commons, 
1852-53 ; chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1867-68. 

PATTERSON, Robert Hograrth, Euglish author, b. in Edinburgh, 1821; was 
editor of the Press newspaper, 1859-62. Author of ' The New Revolution, or the Napo- 
leonic Policy in Europe,* 1860 ; ' Essays in History and Art,* 1861. 

PATTI, Adelina Jnana Maria, Italian operatic singer, b. at Madrid, March 19, 1843; 
studied under her brother-in-law, Maurice Strakosch, and made her d^but at New York, 
Nov. 24, 1859 ; made her first ax)pearance in London at the Italian Opera House, May 14, 
1861. 

PATTI, Carlotta, Italian operatic singer, b. at Florence, 1840, sister of the preceding; 
made her d6but at the Academy of Music, New York, 1861. 

PAUZiL, Henry, English politician, b. 1822 ; studied law, and called to the bar of the 

Middle Temple, 1845; a deputy-lieutenant of Middlesex ; M.P. for St. Ives since 1857. 
PAVIE, 




and other philological works. 



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PA YEN. Anselme^ French chemist, b. at Paris, Jan. 6, 1795 ; studied chemistry under 
Vauquelin, Chevreul, and Th^nard ; directed a beetroot sugar manufactory, 1814-20 ; 
admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, 1842. Author of * Cours de Chimie 
appliquee,' 1847 ; and numerous other works on chemistry. 

PEABODY. Oeorgre^ American philanthropist, b. at Danvers, Massachusetts, U.S. 
Feb. 18, 1795 ; came to England, 1837, and established himself in London as a merchant 
and money-broker; gave £25,000 to found an Institute at Danvers, U.S., and £100,000 to 
found another at Maryland ; presented the City of London with £150,000 to erect com- 
fortable and convenient lodging-houses for the working classes in 1859. 

PEACOCK. Sir Barnes, English judge, b. 1810 ; legal member of the Council of India, 
1852 ; chief justice of Calcutta, 1859. 

PE ARD. Colonel John Whitehead. English administrator, b. at Fowey, in Corn- 
wall, 1811 ; educated at Ottery St. Mary, Devon, and at Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. 1833, and M.A. 1836 ; called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn, 1837 ; offered his 
services as a volunteer to Garibaldi, 1859 ; fought with him during the Italian campaign, 
and at Palermo, 1860 ; a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Cornwall 

PEASE. Joseph Whituvrell, English politician, b. 1828 ; a magistrate of the county 
of Durham and the North Riding of Yorkshire ; elected M.P. for South Durhun, 1865. 

PEDRO II. Emperor of Brazil, b. Dec. 2, 1825, the son of Emperor Pedro I. 
and of Archduchess Leopoldina of Austria ; succeeded to the throne at the abdication of 
his father, April 7, 1831 ; declared of age, July 23, 1840 ; crowned, July 18, 1841 ; married, 
Sept. 4, 1843, to Theresa, b. March 14, 1822, the daughter of the late King Francis I. of 
the Two Sicilies. 

PEEIi, Arthnr IVellesley, English politician, b. 1829 ; educated at Eton, and Balliol 
College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1852, M.A. 1865 ; a magistrate of Bedfordshire ; 
elected M.P. for Warwick, 1865. 

PEEL. Right Hon. Frederick, English statesman, b. 1823; educated at Harrow, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge ; called to the bar of the Inner Temple, 1849 ; under- 
secretary of state for the colonies; under-secretary for war, 1855-57; M.P. for Leo- 
minster, Feb. 1849 to July 1852 ; and for Bury, Lancashire, April 1857 ; re-elected. May 
1859 to 1865. 

PEEL, John, English politician, b. 1804 ; educated at Manchester Grammar School ; a 
magistrate of the counties of Stafford and Warwick ; M.P. for Tamworth, 1863-68. 



, Rilpht Hon. Jonathan, English statesman, b. 1799 ; educated at Rugby ; a 
major-general in the army ; was surveyor-general of the ordnance, 1841-46 ; secretary of 
state for the War Department, 1858-59 ; M.P. for Norwich, 1826-30 ; and for Huntingdon, 
1831-68. 

PEEL, Riffht Hon. Sir Lawrence, English colonial judge, b. 1799 ; educated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1821 ; called to the bar of tbe 
Middle Temple, 1824 ; chief justice of the Supreme Court of Calcutta, 1842-55 ; vice- 
president of the Legislative Council of Madras. 

PEEL, Right Hon. Sir Robert. Bart., English statesman, b. 1822 ; educated at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he graouated B.A. 1843 ; was attache at Madrid, June 1844 
to May 1846 ; a lord of the Admiralty, 1855-57 ; chief secretary for Ireland, 1861-65 ; 
M.P. for Tamworth since 1850. 

PEILE, ReT. Thomas IViUiamson, English author, b. 1806 ; studied at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; head-master of Repton School, 1841-58 ; vicar of Luton, Bedford- 
shire, 1858-61 ; incumbent of St. Paul's, Hampstead. Editor of * Agamemnon/ 1839 ; 
'ChoephorsB* of .ZBschylus, 1840 ; and other classical publications. 

^ELHAM, "Walter John, Lord. English administrator, b. 1838 ; educated at 
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1860; a deputy- 
lieutenant of Sussex. 

PELIGOT, Entre'ne Melchior, French chemist, b. in Paris, 1812; professor of 
chemistry to the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers ; and assayer to rH6tel des Monnaies. 
Author of 'Recherches sur I'Analyse et la Composition chimique de la Betterave i 
Sucre,' 1839 ; ' Traits pratique d' Analyse chimique,' 1843 ; and other works on chemistry. 

PELLAT^ Charles Augruste, French author, b. at Grenoble, Oct. 6, 1793 ; studied 
law in his native town, and received the degree of LL.D. 1819 ; dean of the Faculty of 
Law in Paris since 1847. Author of ' Textcs choisis des Pandectes,' 1860-63 ; and nume- 
rous other works. 



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PEUiSTANy Baare'ney French writer and i>olitician, b. at Royan, Charente Inf^rieore, 
Oct 26, 1813 ; studied law at Paris ; elected member of the Corps L^slatif for the ninth 
eirconscription of the department of Seine, 1864. Author of ' Le Lampe 6teinte,* 1840 ; 
'Les Droits de I'Homme,' *Le8 Rois philosophes,' 1858 ; ' Decadence de la Monarchie 
franQaise,' 1860 ; 'Adresse au Roi Coton,' 1863 ; * Le Termite,' 1864 ; and other works. 

PEIiOUZE* The'ophUe Jules, French chemist, b. at Valognes, Manche, Feb. 26, 
1807 ; studied under Gay Lussac, in Paris, 1827 ; appointed professor of chemistry at 
Lisle, 1830 ; assayer to the Mint of P